Democratic Republic of the Congo
République démocratique du Congo (ප්රංශ)
උද්යෝග පාඨය: "Justice – Paix – Travail" (ප්රංශ)
"Justice – Peace – Work"
ජාතික ගීය: Debout Congolais (ප්රංශ)
සහ විශාලතම නගරය
|පිළිගත් ජාතික භාෂාවන්|
|රජය||Unitary semi-presidential republic|
|17 November 1879|
|1 July 1885|
|15 November 1908|
|30 June 1960|
|20 September 1960|
• Named Democratic Republic of the Congo
|1 August 1964|
|27 October 1971|
|17 May 1997|
|18 February 2006|
|2,345,409 km2 (905,567 sq mi) (11th)|
• ජලය (%)
• 2023 ඇස්තමේන්තුව
|46.3/km2 (119.9/sq mi)|
|දදේනි (ක්රශසා)||2022 ඇස්තමේන්තුව|
|▲ $128 billion (90th)|
• ඒක පුද්ගල
|▲ $1,327 (188th)|
|දදේනි (නාමික)||2022 ඇස්තමේන්තුව|
|▲ $64 billion (86th)|
• ඒක පුද්ගල
|▲ $660 (190th)|
|ගිනි (2012)|| 42.1|
පහළ · 179th
|ව්යවහාර මුදල||Congolese franc (CDF)|
|වේලා කලාපය||UTC+1 to +2 (WAT and CAT)|
|රිය ධාවන මං තීරුව||right|
|ISO 3166 code||CD|
කොංගෝ ප්රජාතන්ත්රවාදී ජනරජය (DRC), කොංගෝ-කින්ෂාසා ලෙසද හැඳින්වේ, මධ්යම අප්රිකාවේ පිහිටි රටකි. භූමි ප්රමාණය අනුව, DRC අප්රිකාවේ දෙවන විශාලතම රට වන අතර ලෝකයේ 11 වන විශාලතම රට වේ. මිලියන 112 ක පමණ ජනගහනයක් සිටින කොංගෝ ප්රජාතන්ත්රවාදී ජනරජය ලෝකයේ නිල වශයෙන් ෆ්රැන්කෝෆෝන් (ප්රංශ භාෂාව) භාවිතා කරන වැඩිම ජනගහනයක් සහිත රට වේ. ජාතික අගනුවර සහ විශාලතම නගරය කිංෂාසා වන අතර එය ආර්ථික මධ්යස්ථානය ද වේ. රට කොංගෝ ජනරජය, මධ්යම අප්රිකානු ජනරජය, දකුණු සුඩානය, උගන්ඩාව, රුවන්ඩාව, බුරුන්ඩි, ටැන්සානියාව (ටැංගනිකා විල හරහා), සැම්බියාව, ඇන්ගෝලාව, කැබින්ඩා (ඇන්ගෝලාවේ ප්රධාන භූමියෙන් පිටත පිහිටා ඇති) සහ දකුණු අත්ලාන්තික් සාගරයෙන් මායිම් වේ.
කොංගෝ ද්රෝණිය කේන්ද්ර කර ගනිමින්, DRC හි භූමි ප්රදේශය ප්රථමයෙන් මධ්යම අප්රිකානු ආහාර සොයන්නන් විසින් වසර 90,000 කට පමණ පෙර වාසය කරන ලද අතර වසර 3,000 කට පමණ පෙර බන්ටු ප්රසාරණයෙන් ළඟා විය. බටහිරින්, කොංගෝ රාජධානිය 14 සිට 19 වන සියවස දක්වා කොංගෝ නදියේ මුඛය වටා පාලනය කළේය. ඊසාන දෙසින්, මධ්යයේ සහ නැඟෙනහිර දෙසින්, අසන්ඩේ, ලුබා සහ ලුන්ඩා රාජධානි 16 වන සහ 17 වන සියවසේ සිට 19 වන සියවස දක්වා පාලනය විය. බෙල්ජියමේ දෙවන ලියෝපෝල්ඩ් රජු 1885 දී යුරෝපයේ යටත් විජිත ජාතීන්ගෙන් කොංගෝ භූමියේ අයිතිය විධිමත් ලෙස ලබා ගත් අතර එම ඉඩම ඔහුගේ පෞද්ගලික දේපළක් ලෙස ප්රකාශයට පත් කර එය කොංගෝ නිදහස් රාජ්යය ලෙස නම් කළේය. 1885 සිට 1908 දක්වා, ඔහුගේ යටත් විජිත හමුදාව රබර් නිෂ්පාදනය කිරීමට ප්රාදේශීය ජනතාවට බල කළ අතර පුලුල්ව පැතිරුණු කුරිරුකම් සිදු කළේය. 1908 දී ලියෝපෝල්ඩ් විසින් බෙල්ජියම් යටත් විජිතයක් බවට පත් වූ භූමිය පවරා දුන්නේය.
කොංගෝව 1960 ජූනි 30 වන දින බෙල්ජියමෙන් නිදහස ලබා ගත් අතර, බෙදුම්වාදී ව්යාපාර මාලාවකට, අගමැති පැට්රිස් ලුමුම්බා ඝාතනයට සහ 1965 කුමන්ත්රණයකින් මොබුටු සෙසේ සෙකෝ විසින් බලය අල්ලා ගැනීමට වහාම මුහුණ දෙන ලදී. මොබුටු 1971 දී රට සයිරේ නම් කළ අතර 1997 දී පළමු කොංගෝ යුද්ධයෙන් ඔහු පෙරලා දමන තෙක් දරුණු පුද්ගලවාදී ආඥාදායකත්වයක් පැනවීය. පසුව රට එහි නම වෙනස් කර ඇති අතර 1998 සිට 2003 දක්වා දෙවන කොංගෝ යුද්ධයට මුහුණ දුන් අතර, එහි ප්රතිඵලයක් ලෙස මිලියන 5.4 ක ජනතාවක් මිය ගියහ. 2001 සිට 2019 දක්වා රට පාලනය කළ ජනාධිපති ජෝසප් කබිලා යටතේ යුද්ධය අවසන් වූ අතර, ඔහු යටතේ රට තුළ මානව හිමිකම් දුර්වලව පැවති අතර බලහත්කාරයෙන් අතුරුදහන් කිරීම්, වධහිංසා පැමිණවීම්, අත්තනෝමතික ලෙස සිරගත කිරීම සහ සිවිල් නිදහස සීමා කිරීම වැනි නිරන්තර අපයෝජනයන් ඇතුළත් විය. 2018 මහ මැතිවරණයෙන් පසුව, නිදහසෙන් පසු රටේ ප්රථම සාමකාමී බල සංක්රාන්තියේදී, කබිලාගෙන් පසු ජනාධිපති ලෙස පත් වූයේ එතැන් සිට ජනාධිපති ලෙස සේවය කළ ෆීලික්ස් ෂිසෙකේඩි විසිනි. 2015 සිට, නැගෙනහිර කොංගෝ ප්රජාතන්ත්රවාදී ජනරජය කිවු හි අඛණ්ඩ හමුදා ගැටුමක ස්ථානය විය.
කොංගෝ ප්රජාතන්ත්රවාදී ජනරජය ස්වභාවික සම්පත්වලින් අතිශයින් පොහොසත් නමුත් දේශපාලන අස්ථාවරත්වය, යටිතල පහසුකම් හිඟකම, දූෂණය සහ සියවස් ගණනාවක් වාණිජ සහ යටත් විජිත නිස්සාරණය සහ සූරාකෑම යන දෙඅංශයෙන්ම පීඩා විඳිමින්, වසර 60කට වැඩි නිදහසකින් පසුව, සුළු වශයෙන් පුළුල් සංවර්ධනයක් සහිතව පවතී. කිංෂාසා අගනුවරට අමතරව, ඊළඟ විශාලතම නගර දෙක වන ලුබුම්බෂි සහ ම්බුජි-මයි යන දෙකම පතල් නගර වේ. DRC හි විශාලතම අපනයනය පිරිපහදු නොකල ඛනිජ වන අතර, චීනය 2019 දී එහි අපනයනවලින් 50% කට වඩා ලබා ගනී. 2021 දී, DRC හි මානව සංවර්ධන මට්ටම මානව සංවර්ධන දර්ශකයට අනුව රටවල් 191 න් 179 වන ස්ථානයට පත් වූ අතර එය අවම සංවර්ධිත රටක් ලෙස වර්ගීකරණය කර ඇත. 2018 වන විට, දශක දෙකක විවිධ සිවිල් යුද්ධ සහ අඛණ්ඩ අභ්යන්තර ගැටුම් වලින් පසුව, 600,000 පමණ කොංගෝ සරණාගතයින් තවමත් අසල්වැසි රටවල ජීවත් වේ. ළමුන් මිලියන දෙකක් සාගින්නෙන් පෙළීමේ අවදානමක් ඇති අතර, සටන් නිසා මිලියන 4.5 ක ජනතාවක් අවතැන් වී ඇත. රට එක්සත් ජාතීන්ගේ සංවිධානය, නොබැඳි ව්යාපාරය, අප්රිකානු සංගමය, COMESA, දකුණු අප්රිකානු සංවර්ධන ප්රජාව, ජාත්යන්තර සංවිධානයේ ඩි ලා ෆ්රැන්කොෆෝනි සහ මධ්යම අප්රිකානු රාජ්යවල ආර්ථික ප්රජාවේ සාමාජිකයෙකි.
කොංගෝ ප්රජාතන්ත්රවාදී ජනරජය නම් කර ඇත්තේ රට හරහා ගලා යන කොංගෝ නදිය අනුව ය. කොංගෝ ගඟ ලෝකයේ ගැඹුරුම ගංගාව වන අතර පිටකිරීමේදී ලෝකයේ තුන්වන විශාලතම ගංගාව වේ. 1876 දී බෙල්ජියමේ II ලියෝපෝල්ඩ් රජු විසින් පිහිටුවන ලද ඉහළ කොංගෝව පිළිබඳ අධ්යයනය සඳහා වූ කමිටුව (Comité d'études du haut Congo) සහ 1879 දී ඔහු විසින් පිහිටුවන ලද කොංගෝ ජාත්යන්තර සංගමය ද නම් කරන ලද්දේ ගගේ නමිනි.
කොංගෝ ගඟ මුල් යුරෝපීය නාවිකයින් විසින් නම් කරන ලද්දේ 16 වන සියවසේදී කොන්ගෝ රාජධානිය සහ එහි බන්ටු වැසියන් වන කොංගෝ ජනයා ඔවුන් හමු වූ විට ය. කොංගෝ යන වචනය පැමිණෙන්නේ කොංගෝ භාෂාවෙන් (කිකොංගෝ ලෙසද හැඳින්වේ). ඇමරිකානු ලේඛක සැමුවෙල් හෙන්රි නෙල්සන්ට අනුව: "'කොන්ගෝ' යන වචනයම මහජන රැස්වීමක් අඟවන අතර එය කොංගා මූලය වන 'රැස් කිරීම' මත පදනම් වූවක් විය හැකිය." කොංගෝ ජනයාගේ නූතන නාමය බකොංගෝ 20 වැනි සියවසේ මුල් භාගයේදී හඳුන්වා දෙන ලදී.
කොංගෝ ප්රජාතන්ත්රවාදී ජනරජය අතීතයේ දී, කාලානුක්රමික අනුපිළිවෙල අනුව, කොංගෝ නිදහස් රාජ්යය, බෙල්ජියම් කොංගෝව, කොංගෝ ජනරජය-ලියෝපෝල්ඩ්විල් ජනරජය, කොංගෝ ප්රජාතන්ත්රවාදී ජනරජය සහ සයිරේ ජනරජය ලෙස හැඳින්වේ. වර්තමාන නම කොංගෝ ප්රජාතන්ත්රවාදී ජනරජය.
නිදහස ලබන විට, රට කොංගෝ-ලියෝපෝල්ඩ්විල් ජනරජය ලෙස නම් කරන ලද්දේ එහි අසල්වැසි කොංගෝ-බ්රසාවිල් ජනරජයෙන් වෙන්කර හඳුනා ගැනීම සඳහා ය. 1964 අගෝස්තු 1 වන දින ලුලුබුර්ග් ආණ්ඩුක්රම ව්යවස්ථාව ප්රකාශයට පත් කිරීමත් සමඟ රට DRC බවට පත් වූ නමුත් 1971 ඔක්තෝම්බර් 27 වන දින ජනාධිපති මොබුටු සේසේ සෙකෝ විසින් සයරේ (කොංගෝ ගඟේ අතීත නාමය) ලෙස නම් කරන ලදී.
සයරේ යන වචනය කිකොංගෝ වචනයක් වන nzadi ("ගංගාව"), nzadi o nzere ("ගංගා ගිලින ගංගා") හි බිදී ආ පෘතුගීසි අනුවර්තනයකි. 16 වන සහ 17 වන සියවස් වලදී මෙම ගංගාව සයරේ ලෙස හඳුන්වන ලදී. 18 වන ශතවර්ෂයේ ඉංග්රීසි භාවිතයේදී කොංගෝව යන නම ක්රමයෙන් ප්රතිස්ථාපනය වී ඇති බව පෙනේ, 19 වන සියවසේ සාහිත්යයේ කොංගෝ යනු වඩාත් කැමති ඉංග්රීසි නාමයයි, නමුත් ස්වදේශිකයන් (එනම් පෘතුගීසි ව්යුත්පන්නයෙන් ව්යුත්පන්න වූ) නම ලෙස සයිරේ වෙත යොමු කිරීම් බහුලව පැවතුනි.
1992 දී ස්වෛරී ජාතික සම්මේලනය රටේ නම "කොංගෝ ප්රජාතන්ත්රවාදී ජනරජය" ලෙස වෙනස් කිරීමට ඡන්දය ප්රකාශ කළ නමුත් වෙනසක් සිදු නොවීය. 1997 දී මොබුටු පෙරලා දැමූ විට ජනාධිපති ලෝරන්ට්-ඩේසිරේ කබිලා විසින් රටේ නම පසුව ප්රතිෂ්ඨාපනය කරන ලදී. එය අසල්වැසි කොංගෝ ජනරජයෙන් වෙන්කර හඳුනා ගැනීම සඳහා, එය සමහර විට කොංගෝ (කින්ෂාසා), කොංගෝ-කින්ෂාසා හෝ බිග් කොන්ගෝ ලෙස හැඳින්වේ. එහි නම සමහර විට DR කොන්ගෝ, DRC, ලෙසද කෙටි වේ. the DROC and RDC (ප්රංශ භාෂාවෙන්).
බන්ටු ව්යාප්තියට පෙර, කොංගෝ ප්රජාතන්ත්රවාදී ජනරජයෙන් සමන්විත භූමි ප්රදේශය මධ්යම අප්රිකාවේ පැරණිතම ජනාවාස වූ කණ්ඩායම් වන ම්බුටි ජනයාගේ නිවහන විය. නිවර්තන වනාන්තරවල භූ දර්ශනය සහ තෙත් සමක දේශගුණය කලාපීය ජනගහනය අඩු මට්ටමක තබා දියුණු සමාජ පිහිටුවීම වැළැක්විය. ඔවුන්ගේ දඩයම් එකතු කිරීමේ සංස්කෘතියේ නටබුන් බොහොමයක් වර්තමානය තුළ පවතී.
බන්ටු ජනයා ක්රි.පූ පළමු සහස්රයේ යම් අවස්ථාවක දී මධ්යම අප්රිකාවට ළඟා වූ අතර පසුව ක්රමයෙන් දකුණට ව්යාප්ත වීමට පටන් ගත්හ. එඬේර පාලනය සහ යකඩ යුගයේ ශිල්පීය ක්රම අනුගමනය කිරීමෙන් ඔවුන්ගේ ප්රචාරණය වේගවත් විය. දකුණේ සහ නිරිතදිග ප්රදේශවල ජීවත් වූ මිනිසුන් ආහාර සොයන කණ්ඩායම් වූ අතර, ඔවුන්ගේ තාක්ෂණයට ලෝහ තාක්ෂණයන් අවම වශයෙන් භාවිතා කිරීම පමණක් ඇතුළත් විය. මෙම කාලය තුළ ලෝහ මෙවලම් සංවර්ධනය කෘෂිකර්මාන්තයේ විප්ලවීය වෙනසක් ඇති කළේය. මෙය නැඟෙනහිර සහ ගිනිකොන දෙසින් දඩයම්කරුවන්ගේ කණ්ඩායම් අවතැන් වීමට හේතු විය. බන්ටු ව්යාප්තියේ අවසාන රැල්ල 10 වන සියවස වන විට සම්පූර්ණ වූ අතර, ඉන් අනතුරුව බන්ටු රාජධානි පිහිටුවීමෙන් පසු, වැඩිවන ජනගහණයෙන්, වහලුන්, ලුණු, යකඩ සහ තඹ වලින් වැඩි වශයෙන් වෙළඳාම් කළ සංකීර්ණ දේශීය, ප්රාදේශීය සහ විදේශීය වාණිජ ජාලයන් ඉක්මනින්ම හැකි විය.
කොංගෝ නිදහස් රාජ්යය (1877–1908)[සංස්කරණය]
බෙල්ජියම් ගවේෂණය සහ පරිපාලනය 1870 සිට 1920 දක්වා සිදු විය. එය මුලින්ම මෙහෙයවනු ලැබුවේ බෙල්ජියමේ දෙවන ලියෝපෝල්ඩ් රජුගේ අනුග්රහය යටතේ ඔහුගේ ගවේෂණ කටයුතු සිදු කළ හෙන්රි මෝර්ටන් ස්ටැන්ලි විසිනි. ප්රධාන වශයෙන් ස්ටැන්ලි හොඳින් හඳුනන කුප්රකට ටිප්පු ටිප් වැනි අරාබි-ස්වාහීලී වහල් වෙළෙන්දන්ගේ නිරන්තර වහල් වැටලීම් හේතුවෙන් පූර්ව යටත් විජිත කොංගෝවේ නැගෙනහිර ප්රදේශ දැඩි ලෙස කඩාකප්පල් විය.
කොංගෝව යටත් විජිතයක් බවට පත් විය යුතු දේ ගැන ලියෝපෝල්ඩ්ට නිර්මාණ තිබුණා. සාකච්ඡා අනුප්රාප්තියක දී, ලියෝපෝල්ඩ්, ජාත්යන්තර අප්රිකානු සංගමයේ පෙරටුගාමී සංවිධානයේ සභාපති ලෙස මානුෂීය අරමුණු ප්රකාශ කරමින්, ඇත්ත වශයෙන්ම එක් යුරෝපීය ප්රතිවාදියෙකුට එරෙහිව තවත් තරඟකරුවෙකු ලෙස ක්රීඩා කළේය.[තහවුරු කර නොමැත]
ලියෝපෝල්ඩ් රජු 1885 දී බර්ලින් සමුළුවේදී කොංගෝ භූමියට නිල වශයෙන් අයිතිය ලබා ගත් අතර ඉඩම ඔහුගේ පෞද්ගලික දේපළ බවට පත් කළේය. ඔහු එය කොංගෝ නිදහස් රාජ්යය ලෙස නම් කළේය. ලියෝපෝල්ඩ්ගේ පාලන තන්ත්රය වෙරළ තීරයේ සිට ලියෝපෝල්ඩ්විල් (දැන් කිංෂාසා) අගනුවර දක්වා දිවෙන දුම්රිය මාර්ගය ඉදිකිරීම වැනි විවිධ යටිතල පහසුකම් ව්යාපෘති ආරම්භ කරන ලද අතර එය නිම කිරීමට වසර අටක් ගත විය.
නිදහස් රාජ්යයේ යටත් විජිතවාදීන් රබර් නිෂ්පාදනය සඳහා දේශීය ජනගහනයට බල කළ අතර ඒ සඳහා මෝටර් රථ ව්යාප්තිය සහ රබර් ටයර් සංවර්ධනය වර්ධනය වන ජාත්යන්තර වෙළඳපොළක් නිර්මාණය කළේය. තමාට සහ තම රටට ගෞරව කිරීම සඳහා බ්රසල්ස් සහ ඔස්ටෙන්ඩ් හි ගොඩනැගිලි කිහිපයක් ඉදි කළ ලියෝපෝල්ඩ්ට රබර් අලෙවිය ධනයක් විය. රබර් කෝටා බලාත්මක කිරීම සඳහා ස්වදේශිකයන්ගේ අතපය කපා දැමීම ප්රතිපත්තියක් බවට පත් කළේය.
1885-1908 කාලය තුළ, සූරාකෑමේ හා රෝගාබාධවල ප්රතිවිපාකයක් ලෙස කොංගෝ ජාතිකයන් මිලියන ගණනක් මිය ගියහ. සමහර ප්රදේශවල ජනගහනය නාටකාකාර ලෙස පහත වැටුණි - නිදි අසනීප සහ වසූරිය නිසා පහළ කොංගෝ ගඟ අවට ප්රදේශවල ජනගහනයෙන් අඩකට ආසන්න ප්රමාණයක් මිය ගිය බව ගණන් බලා ඇත.
අපයෝජනයන් පිළිබඳ පුවත් පැතිරෙන්නට විය. 1904 දී, කොංගෝවේ බෝමා හි බ්රිතාන්ය කොන්සල්වරයා වන රොජර් කේස්මන්ට්, බ්රිතාන්ය රජය විසින් විමර්ශනය කිරීමට උපදෙස් දෙන ලදී. ඔහුගේ වාර්තාව, කේස්මන්ට් වාර්තාව නමින් මානුෂීය අපයෝජන චෝදනා සනාථ කළේය. බෙල්ජියම් පාර්ලිමේන්තුව ස්වාධීන විමර්ශන කොමිසමක් පිහිටුවීමට ලියෝපෝල්ඩ් II ට බල කළේය. එහි සොයාගැනීම් මගින් කේස්මන්ට්ගේ අපයෝජන වාර්තාව තහවුරු කරන ලද අතර, මෙම කාලසීමාව තුළ කොංගෝවේ ජනගහනය අඩකින් අඩු වී ඇති බව නිගමනය කළේය. නිවැරදි වාර්තා නොමැති නිසා මිනිසුන් කී දෙනෙක් මිය ගියාද යන්න නිශ්චිතවම තීරණය කළ නොහැක.
බෙල්ජියම් කොංගෝ (1908-1960)[සංස්කරණය]
1908 දී, බෙල්ජියම් පාර්ලිමේන්තුව, මුලික අකමැත්තක් තිබියදීත්, ජාත්යන්තර පීඩනයට (විශේෂයෙන් එක්සත් රාජධානියෙන්) හිස නැමී II ලියෝපෝල්ඩ් රජුගෙන් නිදහස් රාජ්යය අත්පත් කර ගත්තේය. 1908 ඔක්තෝබර් 18 වන දින බෙල්ජියම් පාර්ලිමේන්තුව කොංගෝව බෙල්ජියම් යටත් විජිතයක් ලෙස ඈඳා ගැනීමට පක්ෂව ඡන්දය ප්රකාශ කළේය. විධායක බලය යටත් විජිත කටයුතු පිළිබඳ බෙල්ජියම් ඇමතිවරයාට, යටත් විජිත කවුන්සිලයත් (දෙකම බ්රසල්ස්හි පිහිටා ඇත) සහාය විය. බෙල්ජියම් පාර්ලිමේන්තුව බෙල්ජියම් කොංගෝව සම්බන්ධයෙන් ව්යවස්ථාදායක අධිකාරිය ක්රියාත්මක කළේය. 1923 දී යටත් විජිත අගනුවර බෝමා සිට ලියෝපෝල්ඩ්විල් දක්වා, අභ්යන්තරයට තව දුරටත් ඉහලට කිලෝ මීටර 300 (සැතපුම් 190) පමණ දුරට ගෙන ගියේය.
කොංගෝ නිදහස් රාජ්යයේ සිට බෙල්ජියම් කොංගෝවට සංක්රමණය වීම විවේකයක් වූ නමුත් එය විශාල අඛණ්ඩ පැවැත්මක් ද පෙන්නුම් කළේය. කොංගෝ නිදහස් රාජ්යයේ අවසන් ආණ්ඩුකාරවරයා වූ බැරන් තියෝෆිල් වාහිස් බෙල්ජියම් කොංගෝවේ නිලයේ රැඳී සිටි අතර II ලියෝපෝල්ඩ්ගේ පරිපාලනයේ බහුතරය ඔහු සමඟ සිටියේය. කොංගෝව සහ එහි ස්වභාවික හා ඛනිජ සම්පත් බෙල්ජියම් ආර්ථිකයට විවෘත කිරීම යටත් විජිත ව්යාප්තිය සඳහා ප්රධාන චේතනාව ලෙස පැවතුනි - කෙසේ වෙතත්, සෞඛ්ය සේවා සහ මූලික අධ්යාපනය වැනි අනෙකුත් ප්රමුඛතා සෙමෙන් වැදගත් විය.
Colonial administrators ruled the territory and a dual legal system existed (a system of European courts and another one of indigenous courts, tribunaux indigènes). Indigenous courts had only limited powers and remained under the firm control of the colonial administration. The Belgian authorities permitted no political activity in the Congo whatsoever, and the Force Publique put down any attempts at rebellion.
The Belgian Congo was directly involved in the two world wars. During World War I (1914–1918), an initial stand-off between the Force Publique and the German colonial army in German East Africa turned into open warfare with a joint Anglo-Belgian-Portuguese invasion of German colonial territory in 1916 and 1917 during the East African campaign. The Force Publique gained a notable victory when it marched into Tabora in September 1916 under the command of General Charles Tombeur after heavy fighting.
After 1918, Belgium was rewarded for the participation of the Force Publique in the East African campaign with a League of Nations mandate over the previously German colony of Ruanda-Urundi. During World War II, the Belgian Congo provided a crucial source of income for the Belgian government in exile in London, and the Force Publique again participated in Allied campaigns in Africa. Belgian Congolese forces under the command of Belgian officers notably fought against the Italian colonial army in Ethiopia in Asosa, Bortaï and Saïo under Major-General Auguste-Eduard Gilliaert.
නිදහස සහ දේශපාලන අර්බුදය (1960-1965)[සංස්කරණය]
In May 1960, a growing nationalist movement, the Mouvement National Congolais led by Patrice Lumumba, won the parliamentary elections. Lumumba became the first Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo, on 24 June 1960. The parliament elected Joseph Kasa-Vubu as president, of the Alliance des Bakongo (ABAKO) party. Other parties that emerged included the Parti Solidaire Africain led by Antoine Gizenga, and the Parti National du Peuple led by Albert Delvaux and Laurent Mbariko.
The Belgian Congo achieved independence on 30 June 1960 under the name "République du Congo" ("Republic of Congo" or "Republic of the Congo" in English). As the neighboring French colony of Middle Congo (Moyen Congo) also chose the name "Republic of Congo" upon achieving its independence, the two countries were more commonly known as "Congo-Léopoldville" and "Congo-Brazzaville", after their capital cities.
Shortly after independence the Force Publique mutinied, and on 11 July the province of Katanga (led by Moïse Tshombe) and South Kasai engaged in secessionist struggles against the new leadership. Most of the 100,000 Europeans who had remained behind after independence fled the country, opening the way for Congolese to replace the European military and administrative elite. After the United Nations rejected Lumumba's call for help to put down the secessionist movements, Lumumba asked for assistance from the Soviet Union, who accepted and sent military supplies and advisers. On 23 August, the Congolese armed forces invaded South Kasai. Lumumba was dismissed from office on 5 September 1960 by Kasa-Vubu who publicly blamed him for massacres by the armed forces in South Kasai and for involving Soviets in the country. Lumumba declared Kasa-Vubu's action unconstitutional, and a crisis between the two leaders developed.
On 14 September, Colonel Joseph Mobutu, with the backing of the US and Belgium, removed Lumumba from office. On 17 January 1961, Lumumba was handed over to Katangan authorities and executed by Belgian-led Katangan troops. A 2001 investigation by Belgium's Parliament found Belgium "morally responsible" for the murder of Lumumba, and the country has since officially apologised for its role in his death.
On 18 September 1961, in ongoing negotiations of a ceasefire, a plane crash near Ndola resulted in the death of Dag Hammarskjöld, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, along with all 15 passengers, setting off a succession crisis. Amidst widespread confusion and chaos, a temporary government was led by technicians (the Collège des commissaires généraux). Katangan secession ended in January 1963 with the assistance of UN forces. Several short-lived governments of Joseph Ileo, Cyrille Adoula, and Moise Kapenda Tshombe took over in quick succession.
Meanwhile, in the east of the country, Soviet and Cuban-backed rebels called the Simbas rose up, taking a significant amount of territory and proclaiming a communist "People's Republic of the Congo" in Stanleyville. The Simbas were pushed out of Stanleyville in November 1964 during Operation Dragon Rouge, a military operation conducted by Belgian and American forces to rescue hundreds of hostages. Congolese government forces fully defeated the Simba rebels by November 1965.
Lumumba had previously appointed Mobutu chief of staff of the new Congo army, Armée Nationale Congolaise. Taking advantage of the leadership crisis between Kasavubu and Tshombe, Mobutu garnered enough support within the army to launch a coup. A constitutional referendum the year before Mobutu's coup of 1965 resulted in the country's official name being changed to the "Democratic Republic of the Congo." In 1971 Mobutu changed the name again, this time to "Republic of Zaire".
මොබුටු ආඥාදායකත්වය සහ සයිරේ (1965-1997)[සංස්කරණය]
කොමියුනිස්ට්වාදයට විරුද්ධ වීම නිසා මොබුටුට එක්සත් ජනපදයේ දැඩි සහයෝගයක් ලැබුණි; ඔහුගේ පරිපාලනය අප්රිකාවේ කොමියුනිස්ට් ව්යාපාරවලට ඵලදායි ප්රතිවිරෝධයක් ලෙස සේවය කරනු ඇතැයි එක්සත් ජනපදය විශ්වාස කළේය. තනි පක්ෂ ක්රමයක් ස්ථාපිත කරන ලද අතර, මොබුටු තමා රාජ්ය නායකයා ලෙස ප්රකාශ කළේය. ඔහු එකම අපේක්ෂකයා වූ මැතිවරණ වරින් වර පැවැත්වීය. සාපේක්ෂ සාමය සහ ස්ථාවරත්වය අත්පත් කරගනු ලැබුවද, මොබුටුගේ රජය දරුණු මානව හිමිකම් උල්ලංඝනය කිරීම්, දේශපාලන මර්දනය, පෞරුෂ වන්දනාව සහ දූෂණය සම්බන්ධයෙන් වැරදිකරු විය.
1967 අග භාගය වන විට මොබුටු තම දේශපාලන විරුද්ධවාදීන් සහ ප්රතිවාදීන් තම පාලන තන්ත්රයට සම්බන්ධ කර ගැනීම, ඔවුන් අත්අඩංගුවට ගැනීම හෝ වෙනත් ආකාරයකින් දේශපාලනික වශයෙන් බෙලහීන කිරීම මගින් ඔවුන්ව සාර්ථක ලෙස උදාසීන කළේය. 1960 ගණන්වල අග භාගය පුරාම, මොබුටු පාලනය පවත්වා ගැනීම සඳහා කාර්යාලය තුළ සහ ඉන් පිටත ඔහුගේ රජයේ නිලධාරීන් අඛණ්ඩව මාරු කළේය. 1969 අප්රේල් මාසයේදී ජෝසෆ් කසා-වුබුගේ මරණයෙන් පළමු ජනරජයේ අක්තපත්ර ඇති කිසිවකුට ඔහුගේ පාලනයට අභියෝග කළ නොහැකි බව සහතික විය. 1970 ගණන්වල මුල් භාගය වන විට, මොබුටු ප්රමුඛ අප්රිකානු ජාතියක් ලෙස සයිරේ ප්රකාශ කිරීමට උත්සාහ කළේය. ඔහු මහාද්වීපය හරහා නිතර සංචාරය කළ අතර රජය අප්රිකානු ප්රශ්න, විශේෂයෙන් දකුණු ප්රදේශයට අදාළ ප්රශ්න ගැන වඩාත් හඬ නඟා සිටියේය. සයිරේ කුඩා අප්රිකානු රාජ්යයන් කිහිපයක්, විශේෂයෙන් බුරුන්ඩි, චැඩ් සහ ටෝගෝ සමඟ අර්ධ-සේවාදායක සබඳතා ඇති කර ගත්තේය.
ජාත්යන්තර ආධාර, බොහෝ විට ණය ආකාරයෙන්, මොබුටු පොහොසත් කළ අතර, ඔහු මාර්ග වැනි ජාතික යටිතල පහසුකම් 1960 දී පැවති දෙයින් හතරෙන් එකක් වැනි සුළු ප්රමාණයකට පිරිහීමට ඉඩ දුන්නේය.
අප්රිකානු ජාතිකවාදය සමඟ තමාව හඳුනා ගැනීමේ ව්යාපාරයක දී, 1966 ජුනි 1 සිට, මොබුටු ජාතියේ නගර නැවත නම් කළේය: ලියෝපෝල්ඩ්විල් කිංෂාසා බවට ද (රට කොංගෝ-කින්ෂාසා ලෙස හැඳින්විණි), ස්ටැන්ලිවිල් කිසන්ගානි බවට ද, එලිසබෙත්විල් ලුබුම්බාෂි බවට ද, කොක්විල්හැට්විල් ම්බණ්ඩකා බවට ද පත් විය. 1971 දී මොබුටු විසින් රට සයිරේ ජනරජය ලෙස නම් කරන ලදී, වසර එකොළහකින් එහි සිව්වන නම වෙනස් වූ අතර සමස්තයක් වශයෙන් එහි හයවන නම වෙනස් විය. කොංගෝ ගඟ සයිරේ ගඟ ලෙස නම් කරන ලදී.
1970 සහ 1980 ගණන් වලදී, මොබුටුට අවස්ථා කිහිපයකදී එක්සත් ජනපදයට පැමිණෙන ලෙස ආරාධනා කරන ලදී, එක්සත් ජනපද ජනාධිපතිවරුන් වන රිචඩ් නික්සන්, රොනල්ඩ් රේගන් සහ ජෝර්ජ් එච්.ඩබ්ලිව්. බුෂ් හමුවිය. සෝවියට් සංගමය විසුරුවා හැරීමෙන් පසු මොබුටු සමඟ එක්සත් ජනපද සබඳතා සිසිල් විය, ඔහු තවදුරටත් සීතල යුද්ධයේ මිතුරෙකු ලෙස අවශ්ය නොවන බව සලකනු ලැබීය. සයිරේ තුළ විරුද්ධවාදීන් ප්රතිසංස්කරණ සඳහා ඉල්ලීම් වේගවත් කළහ. 1990 දී මොබුටු විසින් තුන්වන ජනරජය ප්රකාශයට පත් කිරීමට මෙම වාතාවරණය දායක වූ අතර, එහි ව්යවස්ථාව ප්රජාතන්ත්රවාදී ප්රතිසංස්කරණ සඳහා මග පෑදීය. ප්රතිසංස්කරණ බොහෝ දුරට අනවශ්ය දේවල් බවට පත් විය. 1997 දී සන්නද්ධ හමුදා ඔහුට පලා යාමට බල කරන තෙක් මොබුටු බලයේ දිගටම සිටියේය.
1997 සැප්තැම්බර් මාසයේදී මොබුටු මොරොක්කෝවේ පිටුවහල්ව සිටියදී මිය ගියේය.
මහාද්වීපික සහ සිවිල් යුද්ධ (1996-2007)[සංස්කරණය]
1996 වන විට, රුවන්ඩා සිවිල් යුද්ධයෙන් සහ ජන සංහාරයෙන් සහ රුවන්ඩාවේ ටුට්සි නායකත්වයෙන් යුත් රජයක් බලයට පත්වීමෙන් පසුව, රුවන්ඩා හුටු මිලීෂියා හමුදා (ඉන්ටෙරහම්වේ) නැගෙනහිර සයිරේ වෙත පලා ගිය අතර රුවන්ඩාවට එරෙහි ආක්රමණ සඳහා කඳවුරු ලෙස සරණාගත කඳවුරු භාවිතා කළහ. ඔවුන් නැගෙනහිර සයිරේහි කොංගෝ වාර්ගික ටුට්සිවරුන්ට එරෙහිව උද්ඝෝෂනයක් දියත් කිරීම සඳහා සයිරියානු සන්නද්ධ හමුදාවන් සමඟ සන්ධානගත විය.
පළමු කොංගෝ යුද්ධය දියත් කරමින් මොබුටු රජය පෙරලා දැමීම සඳහා රුවන්ඩා සහ උගන්ඩා හමුදාවන්ගේ සන්ධානයක් සයිරේ ආක්රමණය කළේය. ලෝරන්ට්-ඩෙසිරේ කබිලාගේ නායකත්වයෙන් යුත් සමහර විපක්ෂ නායකයින් සමඟ කොන්ගෝ විමුක්තිය සඳහා වූ ප්රජාතන්ත්රවාදී බලවේගයන්ගේ සන්ධානය බවට පත් විය. 1997 දී මොබුටු පලා ගිය අතර කබිලා කිංෂාසා වෙත ගමන් කරමින් තමා ජනාධිපති ලෙස නම් කර රටේ නම කොංගෝ ප්රජාතන්ත්රවාදී ජනරජය බවට පත් කළේය.
කබිලා පසුව ඉල්ලා සිටියේ විදේශීය හමුදා හමුදා ඔවුන්ගේම රටවලට ආපසු යන ලෙසයි. රුවන්ඩා හමුදා ගෝමා වෙත පසු බැස කබිලාට එරෙහිව සටන් කිරීම සඳහා Rassemblement Congolais pour la Democratie නමින් නව ටුට්සි ප්රමුඛ කැරලිකාර හමුදා ව්යාපාරයක් දියත් කළ අතර උගන්ඩාව කොංගෝ යුද නායක ජීන් විසින් මෙහෙයවන ලද කොංගෝ විමුක්ති ව්යාපාරය නමින් කැරලිකාර ව්යාපාරයක් නිර්මාණය කිරීමට ජීන්-පියරේ බෙම්බා. උසිගන්වන ලදී.[තහවුරු කර නොමැත] රුවන්ඩා සහ උගන්ඩා හමුදා සමඟ කැරලිකාර ව්යාපාර දෙක 1998 දී DRC හමුදාවට ප්රහාර එල්ල කරමින් දෙවන කොංගෝ යුද්ධය ආරම්භ කළහ. ඇන්ගෝලා, සිම්බාබ්වේ සහ නැමීබියානු හමුදා රජයේ පාර්ශ්වයෙන් සතුරුකම්වලට ඇතුල් වූහ.
කබිලා 2001 දී ඝාතනය විය. ඔහුගේ පුත් ජෝසප් කබිලා ඔහුගෙන් පසුව බහුපාර්ශ්වික සාම සාකච්ඡා සඳහා කැඳවුම් කළේය. UN peacekeepers, MONUC, now known as MONUSCO, arrived in April 2001. In 2002–03 Bemba intervened in the Central African Republic on behalf of its former president, Ange-Félix Patassé. Talks led to a peace accord under which Kabila would share power with former rebels. By June 2003 all foreign armies except those of Rwanda had pulled out of Congo. A transitional government was set up until after the election. A constitution was approved by voters, and on 30 July 2006 DRC held its first multi-party elections. These were the first free national elections since 1960, which many believed would mark the end to violence in the region. However, an election-result dispute between Kabila and Bemba turned into a skirmish between their supporters in Kinshasa. MONUC took control of the city. A new election took place in October 2006, which Kabila won, and in December 2006 he was sworn in as president.
අඛණ්ඩ ගැටුම් (2008-2018)[සංස්කරණය]
Laurent Nkunda, a member of Rally for Congolese Democracy–Goma, a Rally for Congolese Democracy branch integrated to the army, defected along with troops loyal to him and formed the National Congress for the Defence of the People (CNDP), which began an armed rebellion against the government. They were believedසැකිල්ල:By whom to be again backed by Rwanda as a way to tackle the Hutu group, Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR). In March 2009, after a deal between the DRC and Rwanda, Rwandan troops entered the DRC and arrested Nkunda and were allowed to pursue FDLR militants. The CNDP signed a peace treaty with the government in which it agreed to become a political party and to have its soldiers integrated into the national army in exchange for the release of its imprisoned members. In 2012 Bosco Ntaganda, the leader of the CNDP, and troops loyal to him, mutinied and formed the rebel military March 23 Movement (M23), claiming the government had violated the treaty.
In the resulting M23 rebellion, M23 briefly captured the provincial capital of Goma in November 2012. Neighboring countries, particularly Rwanda, have been accused of arming rebels groups and using them as proxies to gain control of the resource-rich country, an accusation they deny. In March 2013, the United Nations Security Council authorized the United Nations Force Intervention Brigade to neutralize armed groups. On 5 November 2013, M23 declared an end to its insurgency.
Additionally, in northern Katanga, the Mai-Mai created by Laurent Kabila slipped out of the control of Kinshasa with Gédéon Kyungu Mutanga's Mai Mai Kata Katanga briefly invading the provincial capital of Lubumbashi in 2013 and 400,000 persons displaced in the province 2013 වන විට[update]. On and off fighting in the Ituri conflict occurred between the Nationalist and Integrationist Front and the Union of Congolese Patriots who claimed to represent the Lendu and Hema ethnic groups, respectively. In the northeast, Joseph Kony's Lord's Resistance Army moved from their original bases in Uganda and South Sudan to DR Congo in 2005 and set up camps in the Garamba National Park.
The war in the Congo has been described as the bloodiest war since World War II. On 8 December 2017, fourteen UN soldiers and five Congolese regular soldiers were killed in a rebel attack at Semuliki in Beni territory. The rebels were thought to be Allied Democratic Forces. UN investigations confirmed that aggressor in the December attack.
In 2009, The New York Times reported that people in the Congo continued to die at a rate of an estimated 45,000 per month – estimates of the number who have died from the long conflict range from 900,000 to 5,400,000. The death toll is caused by widespread disease and famine; reports indicate that almost half of the individuals who have died are children under five years of age. There have been frequent reports of weapon bearers killing civilians, of the destruction of property, of widespread sexual violence, causing hundreds of thousands of people to flee their homes, and of other breaches of humanitarian and human rights law. One study found that more than 400,000 women are raped in the Democratic Republic of Congo every year. In 2018 and 2019, Congo reported the highest levels of sexual violence in the world. According to the Human Rights Watch and the New York University-based Congo Research Group, armed troops in DRC's eastern Kivu region have killed over 1,900 civilians and kidnapped at least 3,300 people since June 2017 to June 2019.
කබිලාගේ නිල කාලය සහ බහුවිධ රාජ්ය විරෝධී විරෝධතා[සංස්කරණය]
In 2015, major protests broke out across the country and protesters demanded that Kabila step down as president. The protests began after the passage of a law by the Congolese lower house that, if also passed by the Congolese upper house, would keep Kabila in power at least until a national census was conducted (a process which would likely take several years and therefore keep him in power past the planned 2016 elections, which he is constitutionally barred from participating in). This bill passed; however, it was gutted of the provision that would keep Kabila in power until a census took place. A census is supposed to take place, but it is no longer tied to when the elections take place. In 2015, elections were scheduled for late 2016 and a tenuous peace held in the Congo.
On 27 November 2016 Congolese foreign minister Raymond Tshibanda told the press no elections would be held in 2016, after 20 December, the end of president Kabila's term. In a conference in Madagascar, Tshibanda said that Kabila's government had "consulted election experts" from Congo, the United Nations and elsewhere, and that "it has been decided that the voter registration operation will end on July 31, 2017, and that election will take place in April 2018." Protests broke out in the country on 20 December when Kabila's term in office ended. Across the country, dozens of protesters were killed and hundreds were arrested.
ප්රාදේශීය ප්රචණ්ඩත්වය අලුත් විය[සංස්කරණය]
According to Jan Egeland, presently Secretary-General of the Norwegian Refugee Council, the situation in the DRC became much worse in 2016 and 2017 and is a major moral and humanitarian challenge comparable to the wars in Syria and Yemen, which receive much more attention. Women and children are abused sexually and "abused in all possible manners". Besides the conflict in North Kivu, violence increased in the Kasai region. The armed groups were after gold, diamonds, oil, and cobalt to line the pockets of rich men both in the region and internationally. There were also ethnic and cultural rivalries at play, as well as religious motives and the political crisis with postponed elections. Egeland says people believe the situation in the DRC is "stably bad" but in fact, it has become much, much worse. "The big wars of the Congo that were really on top of the agenda 15 years ago are back and worsening". Disruption in planting and harvesting caused by the conflict was estimated to escalate starvation in about two million children.
Human Rights Watch said in 2017 that Kabila recruited former March 23 Movement fighters to put down country-wide protests over his refusal to step down from office at the end of his term. "M23 fighters patrolled the streets of Congo's main cities, firing on or arresting protesters or anyone else deemed to be a threat to the president," they said.
Fierce fighting has erupted in Masisi between government forces and a powerful local warlord, General Delta. The United Nations mission in the DRC is its largest and most expensive peacekeeping effort, but it shut down five UN bases near Masisi in 2017, after the U.S. led a push to cut costs.
On 10 May 2018, Congolese gynecologist Denis Mukwege was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his effort to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict.
2018 වාර්ගික ගැටුම[සංස්කරණය]
A tribal conflict erupted on 16–17 December 2018 at Yumbi in Mai-Ndombe Province. Nearly 900 Banunu people from four villages were slaughtered by members of the Batende community in a deep-rooted rivalry over monthly tribal duties, land, fields and water resources. Some 100 Banunus fled to Moniende island in the Congo River, and another 16,000 to Makotimpoko District in Republic of Congo. Military-style tactics were employed in the bloodbath, and some assailants were clothed in army uniforms. Local authorities and elements within the security forces were suspected of lending them support.
2018 මැතිවරණය සහ නව ජනාධිපති (2018–වර්තමානය)[සංස්කරණය]
On 30 December 2018 a general election was held. On 10 January 2019, the electoral commission announced opposition candidate Félix Tshisekedi as the winner of the presidential vote, and he was officially sworn in as president on 24 January. However, there were widespread suspicions that the results were rigged and that a deal had been made between Tshisekedi and Kabila. The Catholic Church said that the official results did not correspond to the information its election monitors had collected. The government had also "delayed" the vote until March in some areas, citing the Ebola outbreak in Kivu as well as the ongoing military conflict. This was criticized as these regions are known as opposition strongholds. In August 2019, six months after the inauguration of Félix Tshisekedi, a coalition government was announced.
The political allies of Kabila maintained control of key ministries, the legislature, judiciary and security services. However, Tshisekedi succeeded in strengthening his hold on power. In a series of moves, he won over more legislators, gaining the support of almost 400 out of 500 members of the National Assembly. The pro-Kabila speakers of both houses of parliament were forced out. In April 2021, the new government was formed without the supporters of Kabila.
A major measles outbreak in the country left nearly 5,000 dead in 2019. The Ebola outbreak ended in June 2020, which had caused 2,280 deaths over 2 years. Another, smaller Ebola outbreak in the Équateur Province began in June 2020, ultimately causing 55 deaths. The global COVID-19 pandemic also reached the DRC in March 2020, with a vaccination campaign beginning on 19 April 2021.
The Italian ambassador to the DRC, Luca Attanasio, and his bodyguard were killed in North Kivu on 22 February 2021. On 22 April 2021, meetings between Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta and the Tshisekedi resulted in new agreements increasing international trade and security (counterterrorism, immigration, cyber security, and customs) between the two countries. In February 2022, allegations of a coup d'état in the country led to uncertainty, but the coup attempt failed.
The DRC is located in central sub-Saharan Africa, bordered to the northwest by the Republic of the Congo, to the north by the Central African Republic, to the northeast by South Sudan, to the east by Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi, and by Tanzania (across Lake Tanganyika), to the south and southeast by Zambia, to the southwest by Angola, and to the west by the South Atlantic Ocean and the Cabinda Province exclave of Angola. The country lies between latitudes 6°N and 14°S, and longitudes 12°E and 32°E. It straddles the Equator, with one-third to the north and two-thirds to the south. With an area of 2,345,408 square කිලෝmetres (905,567 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in Africa by area, after Algeria.
As a result of its equatorial location, the DRC experiences high precipitation and has the highest frequency of thunderstorms in the world. The annual rainfall can total upwards of 2,000 මිලිමීටර (80 in) in some places, and the area sustains the Congo rainforest, the second-largest rain forest in the world after the Amazon rainforest. This massive expanse of lush jungle covers most of the vast, low-lying central basin of the river, which slopes toward the Atlantic Ocean in the west. This area is surrounded by plateaus merging into savannas in the south and southwest, by mountainous terraces in the west, and dense grasslands extending beyond the Congo River in the north. The glaciated Rwenzori Mountains are found in the extreme eastern region.
The tropical climate produced the Congo River system which dominates the region topographically along with the rainforest it flows through. The Congo Basin occupies nearly the entire country and an area of nearly 1,000,000 km2 (390,000 sq mi). The river and its tributaries form the backbone of Congolese economics and transportation. Major tributaries include the Kasai, Sangha, Ubangi, Ruzizi, Aruwimi, and Lulonga.සැකිල්ල:MapLibraryThe Congo River has the second-largest flow and the second-largest watershed of any river in the world (trailing the Amazon in both respects). The sources of the Congo River are in the Albertine Rift Mountains that flank the western branch of the East African Rift, as well as Lake Tanganyika and Lake Mweru. The river flows generally west from Kisangani just below Boyoma Falls, then gradually bends southwest, passing by Mbandaka, joining with the Ubangi River, and running into the Pool Malebo (Stanley Pool). Kinshasa and Brazzaville are on opposite sides of the river at the Pool. Then the river narrows and falls through a number of cataracts in deep canyons, collectively known as the Livingstone Falls, and runs past Boma into the Atlantic Ocean. The river and a 37-කිලෝමීටර-wide (23 mi) strip of coastline on its north bank provide the country's only outlet to the Atlantic.
The Albertine Rift plays a key role in shaping the Congo's geography. Not only is the northeastern section of the country much more mountainous, but tectonic movement results in volcanic activity, occasionally with loss of life. The geologic activity in this area also created the African Great Lakes, four of which lie on the Congo's eastern frontier: Lake Albert, Lake Kivu, Lake Edward, and Lake Tanganyika.
The rift valley has exposed an enormous amount of mineral wealth throughout the south and east of the Congo, making it accessible to mining. Cobalt, copper, cadmium, industrial and gem-quality diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium, uranium, radium, bauxite, iron ore, and coal are all found in plentiful supply, especially in the Congo's southeastern Katanga region.
On 17 January 2002, Mount Nyiragongo erupted, with three streams of extremely fluid lava running out at 64 km/h (40 mph) and 46 m (50 yd) wide. One of the three streams flowed directly through Goma, killing 45 people and leaving 120,000 homeless. Over 400,000 people were evacuated from the city during the eruption. The lava flowed into and poisoned the water of Lake Kivu killing its plants, animals and fish. Only two planes left the local airport because of the possibility of the explosion of stored petrol. The lava flowed through and past the airport, destroying a runway and trapping several parked airplanes. Six months after the event, nearby Mount Nyamuragira also erupted. The mountain subsequently erupted again in 2006, and once again in January of 2010.
ජෛව විවිධත්වය සහ සංරක්ෂණය[සංස්කරණය]
The rainforests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo contain great biodiversity, including many rare and endemic species, such as the common chimpanzee and the bonobo (or pygmy chimpanzee), the African forest elephant, mountain gorilla, okapi, forest buffalo, leopard and, further south in the country, the southern white rhinoceros. Five of the country's national parks are listed as World Heritage Sites: the Garumba, Kahuzi-Biega, Salonga and Virunga National Parks, and the Okapi Wildlife Reserve. The Democratic Republic of the Congo is one of 17 Megadiverse countries and is the most biodiverse African country.
Conservationists have particularly worried about primates. The Congo is inhabited by several great ape species: the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), the bonobo (Pan paniscus), the eastern gorilla (Gorilla beringei), and possibly a population of the western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla). It is the only country in the world in which bonobos are found in the wild. Much concern has been raised about great ape extinction. Because of hunting and habitat destruction, the numbers of chimpanzee, bonobo and gorilla (each of whose populations once numbered in the millions) have now dwindled down to only about 200,000 gorillas, 100,000 chimpanzees and possibly only about 10,000 bonobos. The gorillas, chimpanzee, bonobo, and okapi are all classified as endangered by the World Conservation Union.
Major environmental issues in DRC include deforestation, poaching, which threatens wildlife populations, water pollution and mining. From 2015 to 2019, the rate of deforestation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo doubled. In 2021, deforestation of the Congolian rainforests increased by 5%.
The country is currently divided into the city-province of Kinshasa and 25 other provinces. The provinces are subdivided into 145 territories and 32 cities. Before 2015, the country had 11 provinces.
|1. Kinshasa||14. Ituri Province|
|2. Kongo Central||15. Haut-Uele|
|3. Kwango||16. Tshopo|
|4. Kwilu Province||17. Bas-Uele|
|5. Mai-Ndombe Province||18. Nord-Ubangi|
|6. Kasaï Province||19. Mongala|
|7. Kasaï-Central||20. Sud-Ubangi|
|8. Kasaï-Oriental||21. Équateur|
|9. Lomami Province||22. Tshuapa|
|10. Sankuru||23. Tanganyika Province|
|11. Maniema||24. Haut-Lomami|
|12. South Kivu||25. Lualaba Province|
|13. North Kivu||26. Haut-Katanga Province|
රජය සහ දේශපාලනය[සංස්කරණය]
After a four-year interlude between two constitutions, with new political institutions established at the various levels of government, as well as new administrative divisions for the provinces throughout the country, a new constitution came into effect in 2006 and politics in the Democratic Republic of the Congo finally settled into a stable presidential democratic republic. The 2003 transitional constitution had established a parliament with a bicameral legislature, consisting of a Senate and a National Assembly.
The Senate had, among other things, the charge of drafting the new constitution of the country. The executive branch was vested in a 60-member cabinet, headed by a President and four vice presidents. The President was also the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. The transitional constitution also established a relatively independent judiciary, headed by a Supreme Court with constitutional interpretation powers.
The 2006 constitution, also known as the Constitution of the Third Republic, came into effect in February 2006. It had concurrent authority, however, with the transitional constitution until the inauguration of the elected officials who emerged from the July 2006 elections. Under the new constitution, the legislature remained bicameral; the executive was concomitantly undertaken by a President and the government, led by a Prime Minister, appointed from the party able to secure a majority in the National Assembly.
The government – not the President – is responsible to the Parliament. The new constitution also granted new powers to the provincial governments, creating provincial parliaments which have oversight of the Governor and the head of the provincial government, whom they elect. The new constitution also saw the disappearance of the Supreme Court, which was divided into three new institutions. The constitutional interpretation prerogative of the Supreme Court is now held by the Constitutional Court.
Although located in the Central African UN subregion, the nation is also economically and regionally affiliated with Southern Africa as a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC).
The global growth in demand for scarce raw materials and the industrial surges in China, India, Russia, Brazil and other developing countries require that developed countries employ new, integrated and responsive strategies for identifying and ensuring, on a continual basis, an adequate supply of strategic and critical materials required for their security needs. Highlighting the DR Congo's importance to United States national security, the effort to establish an elite Congolese unit is the latest push by the U.S. to professionalize armed forces in this strategically important region.
There are economic and strategic incentives to bring more security to the Congo, which is rich in natural resources such as cobalt, a strategic and critical metal used in many industrial and military applications. The largest use of cobalt is in superalloys, used to make jet engine parts. Cobalt is also used in magnetic alloys and in cutting and wear-resistant materials such as cemented carbides. The chemical industry consumes significant quantities of cobalt in a variety of applications including catalysts for petroleum and chemical processing; drying agents for paints and inks; ground coats for porcelain enamels; decolorant for ceramics and glass; and pigments for ceramics, paints, and plastics. The country possesses 80% of the world's cobalt reserves.
It is thought that due to the importance of cobalt for batteries for electric vehicles and stabilization of electric grids with large proportions of intermittent renewables in the electricity mix, the DRC could become an object of increased geopolitical competition.
In the 21st century, Chinese investment in the DRC and Congolese exports to China have grown rapidly. In July 2019, UN ambassadors of 37 countries, including DRC, have signed a joint letter to the UNHRC defending China's treatment of Uyghurs and other Muslim ethnic minorities. In 2021, President Félix Tshisekedi called for a review of mining contracts signed with China by his predecessor Joseph Kabila, in particular the Sicomines multibillion 'minerals-for-infrastructure' deal.
The Forces Armées de la République Démocratique du Congo (FARDC) consist of about 144,000 personnel, the majority of whom are part of the land forces, also with a small air force and an even smaller navy. The FARDC was established in 2003 after the end of the Second Congo War and integrated many former rebel groups into its ranks. Due to the presence of undisciplined and poorly trained ex-rebels, as well as a lack of funding and having spent years fighting against different militias, the FARDC suffers from rampant corruption and inefficiency. The agreements signed at the end of the Second Congo War called for a new "national, restructured and integrated" army that would be made up of Kabila's government forces (the FAC), the RCD, and the MLC. Also stipulated was that rebels like the RCD-N, RCD-ML, and the Mai-Mai would become part of the new armed forces. It also provided for the creation of a Conseil Supérieur de la Défense (Superior Defence Council) which would declare states of siege or war and give advice on security sector reform, disarmament/demobilisation, and national defence policy. The FARDC is organised on the basis of brigades, which are dispersed throughout the provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Congolese troops have been fighting the Kivu conflict in the eastern North Kivu region, the Ituri conflict in the Ituri region, and other rebellions since the Second Congo War. Besides the FARDC, the largest peacekeeping mission of the United Nations, known as MONUSCO, is also present in the country with about 18,000 peacekeepers.
A relative of Mobutu explained how the government illicitly collected revenue during his rule: "Mobutu would ask one of us to go to the bank and take out a million. We'd go to an intermediary and tell him to get five million. He would go to the bank with Mobutu's authority and take out ten. Mobutu got one, and we took the other nine." Mobutu institutionalized corruption to prevent political rivals from challenging his control, leading to an economic collapse in 1996.
Mobutu allegedly stole as much as US$4–5 billion while in office. He was not the first corrupt Congolese leader by any means: "Government as a system of organized theft goes back to King Leopold II," noted Adam Hochschild in 2009. In July 2009, a Swiss court determined that the statute of limitations had run out on an international asset recovery case of about $6.7 million of deposits of Mobutu's in a Swiss bank, and therefore the assets should be returned to Mobutu's family.
President Kabila established the Commission of Repression of Economic Crimes upon his ascension to power in 2001. However, in 2016 the Enough Project issued a report claiming that the Congo is run as a violent kleptocracy.
In June 2020, a court in the Democratic Republic of Congo found President Tshisekedi's chief of staff Vital Kamerhe guilty of corruption. He was sentenced to 20 years' hard labour, after facing charges of embezzling almost $50m (£39m) of public funds. He was the most high-profile figure to be convicted of corruption in the DRC. However, Kamerhe was released already in December 2021.
In November 2021, a judicial investigation targeting Kabila and his associates was opened in Kinshasa after revelations of alleged embezzlement of $138 million.
The International Criminal Court investigation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo was initiated by Kabila in April 2004. The International Criminal Court prosecutor opened the case in June 2004. Child soldiers have been used on a large scale in DRC, and in 2011 it was estimated that 30,000 children were still operating with armed groups. Instances of child labor and forced labor have been observed and reported in the U.S. Department of Labor's Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor in the DRC in 2013 and six goods produced by the country's mining industry appear on the department's December 2014 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor.
අපරාධ සහ නීතිය ක්රීයාත්මක කිරීම[සංස්කරණය]
කාන්තාවන්ට එරෙහි හිංසනය[සංස්කරණය]
Violence against women seems to be perceived by large sectors of society to be normal. The 2013–2014 DHS survey (pp. 299) found that 74.8% of women agreed that a husband is justified in beating his wife in certain circumstances.
The United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women in 2006 expressed concern that in the post-war transition period, the promotion of women's human rights and gender equality is not seen as a priority. Mass rapes, sexual violence and sexual slavery are used as a weapon of war by the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and armed groups in the eastern part of the country. The eastern part of the country in particular has been described as the "rape capital of the world" and the prevalence of sexual violence there described as the worst in the world.
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is also practiced in DRC, although not on a large scale. The prevalence of FGM is estimated at 5% of women. FGM is illegal: the law imposes a penalty of two to five years of prison and a fine of 200,000 Congolese francs on any person who violates the "physical or functional integrity" of the genital organs.
In July 2007, the International Committee of the Red Cross expressed concern about the situation in eastern DRC. A phenomenon of "pendulum displacement" has developed, where people hasten at night to safety. According to Yakin Ertürk, the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women who toured eastern Congo in July 2007, violence against women in North and South Kivu included "unimaginable brutality". Ertürk added that "Armed groups attack local communities, loot, rape, kidnap women and children, and make them work as sexual slaves". In December 2008, GuardianFilms of The Guardian released a film documenting the testimony of over 400 women and girls who had been abused by marauding militia.
In June 2010, Oxfam reported a dramatic increase in the number of rapes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and researchers from Harvard discovered that rapes committed by civilians had increased seventeenfold. In June 2014, Freedom from Torture published reported rape and sexual violence being used routinely by state officials in Congolese prisons as punishment for politically active women. The women included in the report were abused in several locations across the country including the capital Kinshasa and other areas away from the conflict zones.
The Central Bank of the Congo is responsible for developing and maintaining the Congolese franc, which serves as the primary form of currency in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In 2007, The World Bank decided to grant the Democratic Republic of Congo up to $1.3 billion in assistance funds over the following three years. The Congolese government started negotiating membership in the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA), in 2009.
The DRC is widely considered one of the world's richest countries in natural resources; its untapped deposits of raw minerals are estimated to be worth in excess of US$24 trillion. The DRC has 70% of the world's coltan, a third of its cobalt, more than 30% of its diamond reserves, and a tenth of its copper.
Despite such vast mineral wealth, the economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo has declined drastically since the mid-1980s. The DRC generated up to 70% of its export revenue from minerals in the 1970s and 1980s and was particularly hit when resource prices deteriorated at that time. By 2005, 90% of the DRC's revenues derived from its minerals. Congolese citizens are among the poorest people on Earth. DR Congo consistently has the lowest, or nearly the lowest, nominal GDP per capita in the world. The DRC is also one of the twenty lowest-ranked countries on the Corruption Perceptions Index.
The DRC is the world's largest producer of cobalt ore, and a major producer of copper and diamonds. The latter come from Kasaï Province in the west. By far the largest mines in the DRC are located in southern Katanga Province and are highly mechanized, with a capacity of several million tons per year of copper and cobalt ore, and refining capability for metal ore. The DRC is the second-largest diamond-producing nation in the world,[lower-alpha 2] and artisanal and small-scale miners account for most of its production.
At independence in 1960, DRC was the second-most-industrialized country in Africa after South Africa; it boasted a thriving mining sector and a relatively productive agriculture sector. Foreign businesses have curtailed operations because of uncertainty about the outcome of long-term conflicts, lack of infrastructure, and the difficult operating environment. The wars intensified the impact of such basic problems as an uncertain legal framework, corruption, inflation, and lack of openness in government economic policy and financial operations.
Conditions improved in late 2002, when a large portion of the invading foreign troops withdrew. A number of International Monetary Fund and World Bank missions met with the government to help it develop a coherent economic plan, and President Kabila began implementing reforms. Much economic activity still lies outside the GDP data. Through 2011 the DRC had the lowest Human Development Index of the 187 ranked countries.
The economy of DRC relies heavily on mining. However, the smaller-scale economic activity from artisanal mining occurs in the informal sector and is not reflected in GDP data. A third of the DRC's diamonds are believed to be smuggled out of the country, making it difficult to quantify diamond production levels. In 2002, tin was discovered in the east of the country but to date has only been mined on a small scale. Smuggling of conflict minerals such as coltan and cassiterite, ores of tantalum and tin, respectively, helped to fuel the war in the eastern Congo.
Katanga Mining Limited, a Swiss-owned company, owns the Luilu Metallurgical Plant, which has a capacity of 175,000 tonnes of copper and 8,000 tonnes of cobalt per year, making it the largest cobalt refinery in the world. After a major rehabilitation program, the company resumed copper production operations in December 2007 and cobalt production in May 2008.
In April 2013, anti-corruption NGOs revealed that Congolese tax authorities had failed to account for $88 million from the mining sector, despite booming production and positive industrial performance. The missing funds date from 2010 and tax bodies should have paid them into the central bank. Later in 2013, the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative suspended the country's candidacy for membership due to insufficient reporting, monitoring and independent audits, but in July 2013 the country improved its accounting and transparency practices to the point where the EITI gave the country full membership.
In February 2018, global asset management firm AllianceBernstein defined the DRC as economically "the Saudi Arabia of the electric vehicle age," because of its cobalt resources, as essential to the lithium-ion batteries that drive electric vehicles.
Ground transport in the Democratic Republic of Congo has always been difficult. The terrain and climate of the Congo Basin present serious barriers to road and rail construction, and the distances are enormous across this vast country. The DRC has more navigable rivers and moves more passengers and goods by boat and ferry than any other country in Africa, but air transport remains the only effective means of moving goods and people between many places within the country, especially in rural areas. Chronic economic mismanagement, political corruption and internal conflicts have led to long-term under-investment of infrastructure.
Rail transportation is provided by the Congo Railroad Company (Société nationale des chemins de fer du Congo), the Office National des Transports Congo and the Office of the Uele Railways (Office des Chemins de fer des Ueles, CFU). Like much of the infrastructure in the Congo, the railways are poorly maintained, dirty, crowded and dangerous.
The DRC has fewer all-weather paved highways than any country of its population and size in Africa — a total of 2,250 km (1,400 mi), of which only 1,226 km (762 mi) is in good condition. To put this in perspective, the road distance across the country in any direction is more than 2,500 km (1,600 mi) (e.g. Matadi to Lubumbashi, 2,700 km (1,700 mi) by road). The figure of 2,250 km (1,400 mi) converts to 35 km (22 mi) of paved road per 1 million of population. Comparative figures for Zambia and Botswana are 721 km (448 mi) and 3,427 km (2,129 mi), respectively.[lower-alpha 3]
Three routes in the Trans-African Highway network pass through DR Congo:
- Tripoli–Cape Town Highway: this route crosses the western extremity of the country on National Road No. 1 between Kinshasa and Matadi, a distance of 285 km (177 mi) on one of the only paved sections in fair condition.
- Lagos–Mombasa Highway: the DR Congo is the main missing link in this east–west highway and requires a new road to be constructed before it can function.
- Beira–Lobito Highway: this east–west highway crosses Katanga and requires re-construction over most of its length, being an earth track between the Angolan border and Kolwezi, a paved road in very poor condition between Kolwezi and Lubumbashi, and a paved road in fair condition over the short distance to the Zambian border.
2016 වන විට[update], DR Congo had one major national airline (Congo Airways) that offered flights inside DR Congo. Congo Airways was based at Kinshasa's international airport. All air carriers certified by the DRC have been banned from European Union airports by the European Commission, because of inadequate safety standards.
Several international airlines service Kinshasa's international airport and a few also offer international flights to Lubumbashi International Airport.
Both coal and crude oil resources were mainly used domestically up to 2008. The DRC has the infrastructure for hydro-electricity from the Congo River at the Inga dams. The country also possesses 50% of Africa's forests and a river system that could provide hydro-electric power to the entire continent, according to a UN report on the country's strategic significance and its potential role as an economic power in central Africa.
The generation and distribution of electricity are controlled by Société nationale d'électricité, but only 15% of the country has access to electricity. The DRC is a member of three electrical power pools. These are Southern African Power Pool, East African Power Pool, and Central African Power Pool.
Because of abundant sunlight, the potential for solar development is very high in the DRC. There are already about 836 solar power systems in the DRC, with a total power of 83 MW, located in Équateur (167), Katanga (159), Nord-Kivu (170), the two Kasaï provinces (170), and Bas-Congo (170). Also, the 148 Caritas network system has a total power of 6.31 MW.
French is the official language of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is culturally accepted as the lingua franca, facilitating communication among the many different ethnic groups of the Congo. According to a 2018 OIF report, 49 million Congolese people (51% of the population) could read and write in French. A 2021 survey found that 74% of the population could speak French, making it the most widely spoken language in the country.
In Kinshasa, 67% of the population in 2014 could read and write French, and 68.5% could speak and understand it.
Approximately 242 languages are spoken in the country, of which four have the status of national languages: Kituba (Kikongo), Lingala, Tshiluba, and Swahili. Although some limited number of people speak these as first languages, most of the population speak them as a second language, after the native language of their own ethnic group. Lingala was the official language of the Force Publique under Belgian colonial rule and remains to this day the predominant language of the armed forces. Since the recent rebellions, a good part of the army in the east also uses Swahili, where it competes to be the regional lingua franca.
Under Belgian rule, the Belgians instituted teaching and use of the four national languages in primary schools, making it one of the few African nations to have had literacy in local languages during the European colonial period. This trend was reversed after independence, when French became the sole language of education at all levels. Since 1975, the four national languages have been reintroduced in the first two years of primary education, with French becoming the sole language of education from the third year onward, but in practice many primary schools in urban areas solely use French from the first year of school onward. Portuguese is taught in the Congolese schools as a foreign language. The lexical similarity and phonology with French makes Portuguese a relatively easy language for the people to learn. Most of the roughly 175,000 Portuguese speakers in the DRC are Angolan and Mozambican expatriates.
Over 250 ethnic groups and 450 tribes (ethnic subgroups) populate the DRC. They are in the Bantu, Sudanic, Nilotic, Ubangian and Pygmy linguistic groups. Because of this diversity, there is no dominant ethnic group in Congo, however the following ethnic groups account for 51.5% of the population:
In 2021, the UN estimated the country's population to be 96 million, a rapid increase from 39.1 million in 1992 despite the ongoing war. As many as 250 ethnic groups have been identified and named. About 600,000 Pygmies live in the DRC.
Christianity is the predominant religion of the DRC. A 2013–14 survey, conducted by the Demographic and Health Surveys Program in 2013–2014 indicated that Christians constituted 93.7% of the population (with Catholics making up 29.7%, Protestants 26.8%, and other Christians 37.2%). A new Christian religious movement, Kimbanguism, had the adherence of 2.8%, while Muslims made up 1%. Other recent estimates have found Christianity the majority religion, followed by 95.8% of the population according to a 2010 Pew Research Center estimate, while the CIA World Factbook reports this figure to be 95.9%. The proportion of followers of Islam is variously estimated from 1% to 12% 
There are about 35 million Catholics in the country with six archdioceses and 41 dioceses. The impact of the Catholic Church is difficult to overestimate. Schatzberg has called it the country's "only truly national institution apart from the state." Its schools have educated over 60% of the nation's primary school students and more than 40% of its secondary students. The church owns and manages an extensive network of hospitals, schools, and clinics, as well as many diocesan economic enterprises, including farms, ranches, stores, and artisans' shops.[තහවුරු කර නොමැත]
Sixty-two Protestant denominations are federated under the umbrella of the Church of Christ in the Congo. It is often referred to as the Protestant Church, since it covers most of the DRC Protestants. With more than 25 million members, it constitutes one of the largest Protestant bodies in the world.
Kimbanguism was seen as a threat to the colonial regime and was banned by the Belgians. Kimbanguism, officially "the church of Christ on Earth by the prophet Simon Kimbangu", has about three million members, primarily among the Bakongo of Kongo Central and Kinshasa.
Islam has been present in the Democratic Republic of the Congo since the 18th century, when Arab traders from East Africa pushed into the interior for ivory- and slave-trading purposes. Today, Muslims constitute approximately 1% of the Congolese population according to the Pew Research Center. The majority are Sunni Muslims.[තහවුරු කර නොමැත]
The first members of the Baháʼí Faith to live in the country came from Uganda in 1953. Four years later the first local administrative council was elected. In 1970 the National Spiritual Assembly (national administrative council) was first elected. Though the religion was banned in the 1970s and 1980s, due to misrepresentations of foreign governments, the ban was lifted by the end of the 1980s. In 2012 plans were announced to build a national Baháʼí House of Worship in the country.[තහවුරු කර නොමැත]
Traditional religions embody such concepts as monotheism, animism, vitalism, spirit and ancestor worship, witchcraft, and sorcery and vary widely among ethnic groups. The syncretic sects often merge elements of Christianity with traditional beliefs and rituals and are not recognized by mainstream churches as part of Christianity. New variants of ancient beliefs have become widespread, led by US-inspired Pentecostal churches which have been in the forefront of witchcraft accusations, particularly against children and the elderly.[පැහැදීම ඇවැසිය] Children accused of witchcraft are sent away from homes and family, often to live on the street, which can lead to physical violence against these children.[පැහැදීම ඇවැසිය] There are charities supporting street children such as the Congo Children Trust. The Congo Children Trust's flagship project is Kimbilio, which works to reunite street children in Lubumbashi. The usual term for these children is enfants sorciers (child witches) or enfants dits sorciers (children accused of witchcraft). Non-denominational church organizations have been formed to capitalize on this belief by charging exorbitant fees for exorcisms. Though recently outlawed, children have been subjected in these exorcisms to often-violent abuse at the hands of self-proclaimed prophets and priests.
In 2014, the literacy rate for the population between the ages of 15 and 49 was estimated to be 75.9% (88.1% male and 63.8% female) according to a DHS nationwide survey. The education system is governed by three government ministries: the Ministère de l'Enseignement Primaire, Secondaire et Professionnel (MEPSP), the Ministère de l'Enseignement Supérieur et Universitaire (MESU) and the Ministère des Affaires Sociales (MAS). Primary education is not free nor compulsory,[තහවුරු කර නොමැත] even though the Congolese constitution says it should be (Article 43 of the 2005 Congolese Constitution).
As a result of the First and Second Congo Wars in the late 1990s—early 2000s, over 5.2 million children in the country did not receive any education. Since the end of the civil war, the situation has improved tremendously, with the number of children enrolled in primary schools rising from 5.5 million in 2002 to 16.8 million in 2018, and the number of children enrolled in secondary schools rising from 2.8 million in 2007 to 4.6 million in 2015 according to UNESCO.
Actual school attendance has also improved greatly in recent years, with primary school net attendance estimated to be 82.4% in 2014 (82.4% of children ages 6–11 attended school; 83.4% for boys, 80.6% for girls).
The hospitals in the DRC include the General Hospital of Kinshasa. The DRC has the world's second-highest rate of infant mortality (after Chad). In April 2011, through aid from Global Alliance for Vaccines, a new vaccine to prevent pneumococcal disease was introduced around Kinshasa. In 2012, it was estimated that about 1.1% of adults aged 15–49 were living with HIV/AIDS. Malaria and yellow fever are problems. In May 2019, the death toll from the Ebola outbreak in DRC surpassed 1,000.
The incidence of yellow fever-related fatalities in DRC is relatively low. According to the World Health Organization's (WHO) report in 2021, only two individuals lost their lives due to yellow fever in DRC.
United Nations emergency food relief agency warned that amid the escalating conflict and worsening situation following COVID-19 in the DRC, millions of lives were at risk as they could die of hunger. According to the data of the World Food Programme, in 2020 four in ten people in Congo lacked food security and about 15.6 million were facing a potential hunger crisis.
Air pollution levels in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) are very unhealthy. In 2020, annual average air pollution in the Democratic Republic of the Congo stood at 34.2 µg/m³, which is almost 6.8 times the World Health Organization PM2.5 guideline (5 µg/m³: set in September 2021). These pollution levels are estimated to reduce the life expectancy of an average citizen of the DRC by almost 2.9 years. Currently, the DRC does not have a national ambient air quality standard.
Given the often unstable situation in the country and the condition of state structures, it is extremely difficult to obtain reliable migration data. However, evidence suggests that DRC continues to be a destination country for immigrants, in spite of recent declines in their numbers. Immigration is very diverse in nature; refugees and asylum-seekers – products of the numerous and violent conflicts in the Great Lakes Region – constitute an important subset of the population. Additionally, the country's large mine operations attract migrant workers from Africa and beyond. There is also considerable migration for commercial activities from other African countries and the rest of the world, but these movements are not well studied. Transit migration towards South Africa and Europe also plays a role.
Immigration to the DRC has decreased steadily over the past two decades, most likely as a result of the armed violence that the country has experienced. According to the International Organization for Migration, the number of immigrants in the DRC has fallen from just over one million in 1960, to 754,000 in 1990, to 480,000 in 2005, to an estimated 445,000 in 2010. Official figures are unavailable, partly due to the predominance of the informal economy in the DRC. Data are also lacking on irregular immigrants, however given neighbouring countries' ethnic links to DRC nationals, irregular migration is assumed to be a significant phenomenon.
Figures for Congolese nationals abroad vary greatly depending on the source, from three to six million. This discrepancy is due to a lack of official, reliable data. Emigrants from the DRC are above all long-term emigrants, the majority of whom live in Africa and to a lesser extent in Europe; 79.7% and 15.3% respectively, according to estimated 2000 data. New destination countries include South Africa and various points en route to Europe. The DRC has produced a considerable number of refugees and asylum-seekers located in the region and beyond. These numbers peaked in 2004 when, according to UNHCR, there were more than 460,000 refugees from the DRC; in 2008, Congolese refugees numbered 367,995 in total, 68% of whom were living in other African countries.
The culture reflects the diversity of its numerous ethnic groups and their differing ways of life throughout the country—from the mouth of the River Congo on the coast, upriver through the rainforest and savanna in its centre, to the more densely populated mountains in the far east. Since the late 19th century, traditional ways of life have undergone changes brought about by colonialism, the struggle for independence, the stagnation of the Mobutu era, and most recently, the First and Second Congo Wars. Despite these pressures, the customs and cultures of the Congo have retained much of their individuality. The country's 81 million inhabitants (2016) are mainly rural. The 30% who live in urban areas have been the most open to Western influences.
The DRC has its influences on Cuban rumba, originally kumba from Congo and merengue. And those two later give birth to soukous. Other African nations produce music genres derived from Congolese soukous. Some of the African bands sing in Lingala, one of the main languages in the DRC. The same Congolese soukous, under the guidance of "le sapeur", Papa Wemba, have set the tone for a generation of young men always dressed up in expensive designer clothes. They came to be known as the fourth generation of Congolese music and mostly come from the former well-known band Wenge Musica. The musical artist Elizo Kisonga, who now lives in England, is originally from Congo.
Many sports are played in the DRC, including football, basketball, and rugby. The sports are played in numerous stadiums throughout the country, including the Stade Frederic Kibassa Maliba. As Zaire they participated in the 1974 FIFA World Cup.
Internationally, the country is especially famous for its professional basketball NBA and football players. Dikembe Mutombo is one of the best African basketball players to ever play the game. Mutombo is well known for humanitarian projects in his home country. Bismack Biyombo, Christian Eyenga, Jonathan Kuminga, and Emmanuel Mudiay are others who gained significant international attention in basketball. Several Congolese players and players of Congolese descent—including strikers Romelu Lukaku, Yannick Bolasie, and Dieumerci Mbokani—have gained prominence in world football. DR Congo has twice won the African Cup of Nations football tournament.
DR Congo's women's national volleyball team lastly qualified for the 2021 Women's African Nations Volleyball Championship. The country featured a national team in beach volleyball that competed at the 2018–2020 CAVB Beach Volleyball Continental Cup in both the women's and the men's section.
Newspapers of the DRC include L'Avenir, Radion Télévision Mwangaza, සැකිල්ල:ILL, සැකිල්ල:ILL, Le Phare, Le Potentiel, Le Soft and LeCongolais.CD, a web-based daily. Radio Télévision Nationale Congolaise (RTNC) is the national broadcaster of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. RTNC currently broadcasts in Lingala, French, and English.
Congolese authors use literature as a way to develop a sense of national consciousness amongst the people of the DRC. Frederick Kambemba Yamusangie writes literature for the between generations of those who grew up in the Congo, during the time when they were colonised, fighting for independence and after. Yamusangie in an interview said he felt the distance in literature and wanted to remedy that he wrote the novel, Full Circle, which is a story of a boy named Emanuel who in the beginning of the book feels a difference in culture among the different groups in the Congo and elsewhere. Rais Neza Boneza, an author from the Katanga province, wrote novels and poems to promote artistic expressions as a way to address and deal with conflicts.
- The term "Kikongo" in the Constitution is actually referring to the Kituba language – which is known as Kikongo ya leta by its speakers – not the Kongo language proper. The confusion arises from the fact that the government of the DRC officially recognizes and refers to the language as "Kikongo".
- In terms of annual carats produced
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