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පාර්තියන් අධිරාජ්‍යය

විකිපීඩියා වෙතින්
පාර්තියන් අධිරාජ්‍යය
247 BC–224 AD
The Parthian Empire in 94 BC at its greatest extent, during the reign of Mithridates II (රා. 124 – 91)
The Parthian Empire in 94 BC at its greatest extent, during the reign of Mithridates II (රා. 124 – 91)
අගනුවරCtesiphon,[1] Ecbatana, Hecatompylos, Susa, Mithradatkirt, Asaak, Rhages
පොදු භාෂා(ව)
ආගම
රජයFeudal monarchy[9]
Monarch 
• 247–211 BC
Arsaces I (first)
• 208–224 AD
Artabanus IV (last)
ව්‍යවස්ථාදායකයMegisthanes
Historical eraClassical antiquity
• Established
247 BC
• අහෝසි කළේ
224 AD
වර්ග ප්‍රමාණය
1 AD[10][11]2,800,000 km2 (1,100,000 sq mi)
ව්‍යවහාර මුදලDrachma
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Seleucid Empire
Sasanian Empire

පාර්තියන් අධිරාජ්‍යය යනු පෙර පැවති අධිරාජ්‍යය කි.

නම[සංස්කරණය]

අමතර අවධානයට[සංස්කරණය]

සටහන්[සංස්කරණය]

  1. Fattah, Hala Mundhir (2009). A Brief History of Iraq. Infobase Publishing. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-8160-5767-2. One characteristic of the Parthians that the kings themselves maintained was their nomadic urge. The kings built or occupied numerous cities as their capitals, the most important being Ctesiphon on the Tigris River, which they built from the ancient town of Opis.
  2. Skjærvø 2004, පිටු අංක: 348–366.
  3. Canepa 2018, පිටු අංකය: 6.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Green 1992, p. 45
  5. Chyet, Michael L. (1997). Afsaruddin, Asma; Krotkoff, Georg; Zahniser, A. H. Mathias (eds.). Humanism, Culture, and Language in the Near East: Studies in Honor of Georg Krotkoff. Eisenbrauns. p. 284. ISBN 978-1-57506-020-0. In the Middle Persian period (Parthian and Sasanian Empires), Aramaic was the medium of everyday writing, and it provided scripts for writing Middle Persian, Parthian, Sogdian, and Khwarezmian.
  6. De Jong 2008, p. 24, "It is impossible to doubt that the Parthians were Zoroastrians. The evidence from the Nisa ostraca and the Parthian parchment from Avroman suffice to prove this, by the use of the Zoroastrian calendar, which was restricted in use, as it had been previously, to communication with Iranians only, yielding to the Seleucid calendar whenever the Parthians dealt with non-Zoroastrians. There are indications, however, that the practice of Zoroastrianism had reserved a large place for the cult of divine images, either those of ancestors in the Fravashi cult, or of deities, and for the existence of sanctuaries dedicated to named deities other than Ahura Mazda, and including deities that are of a non-Avestan background. The Parthian god Sasan is a case in point, but better evidence comes from Armenia, where alongside Aramazd and Anahit, Mher and Vahagn, the West Semitic god Barshamin, and Babylonian Nane were worshipped, as well as the Anatolian Tork and the goddess Astghik of disputed origins."
  7. Brosius 2006, p. 125, "The Parthians and the peoples of the Parthian empire were polytheistic. Each ethnic group, each city, and each land or kingdom was able to adhere to its own gods, their respective cults and religious rituals. In Babylon the city-god Marduk continued to be the main deity alongside the goddesses Ishtar and Nanai, while Hatra's main god, the sun-god Shamash, was revered alongside a multiplicity of other gods."
  8. Koshelenko & Pilipko 1996, p. 149-150, "Buddhism was practiced in the easternmost reaches of the Parthian Empire."
  9. Sheldon 2010, p. 231
  10. Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (දෙසැම්බර් 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of World-Systems Research. 12 (2): 223. ISSN 1076-156X. 17 සැප්තැම්බර් 2016 දින පැවති මුල් පිටපත වෙතින් සංරක්ෂිත පිටපත. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 16 සැප්තැම්බර් 2016.
  11. Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.". Social Science History. 3 (3/4): 121. doi:10.2307/1170959. JSTOR 1170959.
  12. From Greek Ἀρσάκης Arsakēs, from Parthian 𐭀𐭓𐭔𐭊 Aršak.

භාහිර සබැඳි[සංස්කරණය]

ඛණ්ඩාංක: 33°05′37″N 44°34′51″E / 33.09361°N 44.58083°E / 33.09361; 44.58083

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