ශ්‍රී ජයවර්ධනපුර කෝට්ටේ

විකිපීඩියා, නිදහස් විශ්වකෝෂය වෙතින්
(කෝට්ටේ වෙතින් යළි-යොමු කරන ලදි)
වෙත පනින්න: සංචලනය, සොයන්න
ශ්‍රී ජයවර්ධනපුර කෝට්ටේ
Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte
ஶ்ரீ ஜெயவர்த்தனபுரம் கோட்டை
ශ්‍රී ජයවර්ධනපුර කෝට්ටේ is located in Sri Lanka
ශ්‍රී ජයවර්ධනපුර කෝට්ටේ
ශ්‍රී ජයවර්ධනපුර කෝට්ටේ
ශ්‍රී ලංකාව තුල පිහිටීම
ඛණ්ඩාංක: 6°54′39″N 79°53′16″E / 6.91083°N 79.88778°E / 6.91083; 79.88778
District කොළඹ දිස්ත්‍රික්කය
පාලනය / පරිපාලනය
 • නගරාධිපති Swarnalatha Silva (ශ්‍රී ලංකා නිදහස් පක්ෂය)
වර්ගප්‍රමාණය
 • City 17 කිමී2 (7 වර්ග සැත)
ජනගහණය (2001)[1]
 • City 115,826
 • ඝණත්වය 3,305/කිමී2 (8,560/වර්ග සැත)
 • පුරවරය 2,234,289
වේලා කලාපය Sri Lanka Standard Time Zone (UTC+5:30)

ශ්‍රී ජයවර්ධනපුර කෝට්ටේ (ඉංග්‍රීසියෙන් Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte සහ දෙමළෙන් ஸ்ரீ ஜயவர்த்தனபுரம் கோட்டே), මෙන්ම කෝට්ටේ ලෙසින්ද හැඳින්වෙන නගරය යනු, ශ්‍රී ලංකාවෙහි අග නගරයයි. වාණිජමය අග නගරය වන්නාවූ කොළඹ නගරයෙහි නැගෙනහිර නාගරිකයන්ට ඔබ්බෙහි පිහිටි මෙය නව අග නගර ප්‍රදේශය ලෙසින්ද සමහරවිට හැඳින්වේ. එහි නව ගොඩනැගිල්ල 1982 අප්‍රේල් 29 දින දී උත්සවාකාරයෙන් විවෘත කිරීම හා සමගම ශ්‍රී ලංකා පාර්ලිමේන්තුව මෙම ප්‍රදේශයෙහි ස්ථාපනය විය.

ඉතිහාසය[සංස්කරණය]

දියවන්නා ඔය සහ කොලොන්නාව ඔය යන ජල ප්‍රවාහ ද්වයයෙහි දෙමෝදර හි දරුගම නම් ගම්මානය පිහිටියේය. දරුගම ස්වභාවයෙන්ම ආරක්ෂාදායී ස්ථානයක් බැවින් සතුරන්ට එහි ලඟා වීම අතිශයින් දුෂ්කර විය. නිශ්ශංක අලගක්කෝනාර නම් සෙන්පතියා, 13 වන සියවසෙහිදී, මෙහි කෝට්ටේ නමින් (අර්ථය 'කොටුව') බලකොටුවක් තැනුවේ යාපන රාජධානියෙහි ආර්ය චක්‍රවර්ති ගේ ආක්‍රමණයන්ට මුහුණ දෙනු වස්ය.[1]

අලගක්කෝනාර යන් කුරුණෑගල පාලනය කරමින් සිටි වගක් ඉබන් බතූතා විසින් විස්තර කෙරුනද, අනෙකුත් මූලාශ්‍රයන් දක්වන්නේ, ඔහු වර්තමාන කළුතර දිස්ත්‍රික්කයෙහි රයිගම් කෝරළයෙහි බණ්ඩාර (ආරක්ෂක) ලෙසින් කටයුතු කල බවක්ය. කෝට්ටේ අබිමුව චක්‍රවර්තිගේ හමුදාව රඳවා තබා ගත් අලගක්කෝනාර විසින්, නිරිත දිගින් පිහිටි පානදුරයෙහිදී සතුරාගේ ආක්‍රමණික නාවික බළ ඇණිය පරාජයට පත් කෙරිණි.[2]

කෝට්ටේ හි ත‍්‍රිකෝණයක හැඩැති ජල දුර්ගයේ (දිය බලකොටුවේ) දිගු පැති දෙකක් සැදුවේ දියවන්නා ඔයේ වගුරු බිම්ය; කෙටි (බිම්) පැත්ත ඔස්සේ විසල් දිය අගල ( 'ඇතුළු දිය අගල') ක් කණින ලදි.

නගරයෙහි ආරක්ෂාව තර කරන ලද්දේ කබුක් පාෂාණයෙන් තැනුනු ප්‍රාකාර භාවිතයෙනි. ප්‍රාකාර සිට රජ මාලිගා දැරූ අලංකෘත තෙමහල් ගොඩනැගිලි දක්වා සියල්ල තැනීම සඳහා ප්‍රධාන අමු ද්‍රව්‍යයන් වශයෙන් භාවිත වී ඇත්තේ කබුක් සහ මැටි ය. කබුක් ගල් සඳහා ගල්වලක් ලෙසින් භාවිත කල ස්ථානයක් අද දිනත් ආනන්ද ශාස්ත්‍රාලයය (ප්‍රදේශයෙහි පාසලක්) පරිශ්‍රයෙහි දක්නට ඇත.

පෘතුගීසින් 1505 දී දිවයිනට සම්ප්‍රාප්ත වූ අතර රජු විසින් මුලදී හරසරින් පිළිගන්නා ලදි. එහෙත් හමුදාවාදී හා ඒකාධිකාරීවාදී අභිමතයන් සහිත වූ ඔවුන් 1565 වන විට නගරය තුල තම අණසක පැතිරවූහ. අසබඩ සීතාවක රාජධානියෙහි හමුදා ඛණ්ඩ වෙතින් එල්ල වූ නිරන්තර පහර දීම් දරා ගත නොහැකි වූ පෘතුගීසිහූ නගරය අතහැර ගොස් ඔවුන්ගේ නව අග නගරය ලෙසින් කොළඹ ස්ථාපනය කර ගත්හ.[3]

Like similar cities of that era, Sri Jayawardhanapura was built with security in mind. A rampart and moat protected the entire city. Traces of this moat and rampart are still visible today at certain places. Along parts of the rampart, encroachers have now built houses, garages and even toilets.

The urbanisation of Kotte restarted in the 19th century. The archaeological remains were torn up and used as building materials (a process that continues) — some of it even ending up in the Victoria Bridge, across the Kelani River.

නාමය[සංස්කරණය]

ජයවර්ධනපුර නම් පුරාණ නාමය හා නගරයෙහි වර්තමාන නාමය අතර එතරම් වෙනසක් නැත. Though during those times, it referred to the area outside the inner moat called Pitakotte (outer fort) and the area inside, Ethul Kotte (inner fort).

"Sri" (श्री) means "venerable" in සංස්කෘත. The word Kotte is derived from the Tamil word கொட்டெஇ Kottei (fortress). Jayawardhanapura (ජයවර්ධනපුර) meaning "victory enhancing city" in Sinhala, was the name assigned to the place by its founder Alagakkonara.[4]

In 1979, with the decision to redevelop Kotte and its suburbs as the administrative capital[5] of the island within a municipal structure, Kotte got back its former name of Sri-Jaya-Vardhana-Pura-Kotte, translated as "the blessed fortress city of growing victory".

ව්‍යවස්ථාදායකය[සංස්කරණය]

The New Parliament was inaugurated on 29 April 1982. It was built once a massive lake was formed by dredging the marshlands around the Diyawanna Oya. The new parliamentary buildings were built on Duwa, a 50,000 square metre (12 acre) island in the centre of the lake. The island (off Baddegana Road, Pita Kotte) had been used as a recreation and brawling spot for Portuguese soldiers in the last days of the Kotte era, alcohol being banned from the Royal City. It had belonged to E.W. Perera and had housed a chicken farm prior to being vested in the state. On 29 April 1982, the new parliamentary complex was declared open by President J.R. Jayawardene.

The process of relocating government institutions from the former capital of Colombo is still in progress.

Municipal structure[සංස්කරණය]

The Kotte Urban Development Council was created in the 1930s, with a modern building at Rajagiriya. It was succeeded by the Kotte Urban Council, which had a large section of its area removed and tagged onto the Colombo Municipal Council ward of Borella while the Battaramulla urban council was dissolved and a small section of Battaramulla tagged onto the Kotte Urban Council. The Kotte Urban Council became the Sri Jayawardanapura Kotte Municipal Council in 1997, with Chandra Silva as the first Mayor.

There are 20 Members of the Municipal Council (MMCs), elected on proportional representation. There are 10 wards, but these are now merely polling divisions, without individual representation.

Suburbs in the දේශීය government area[සංස්කරණය]

Demographics[සංස්කරණය]

Kotte is a multi-ethnic, multi-religion city. The population of Kotte is mainly Sinhalese, with a mix of Muslims, Burghers and Tamils. There are small communities of people with Chinese, Portuguese, Dutch, Malay and Indian origins living here as well as a sizable expatriate community. According to the census of 2001 the demographics by ethnicity and religion is as follows.

Upmarket Residences under construction

Source

Ethnic & Religious Identification in Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte
2001
Sinhalese 101,331 87.49% Helayo
Sri Lankan Tamil 6,583 5.68%
Indian Tamil 786 0.68%
Sri Lankan Moor 4,031 3.48%
Burgher 1,367 1.18%
Malay 919 0.79%
Sri Lankan Chetty 65 0.06%
Baratha 57 0.05%
Other 687 0.59%
Total 115,826 100.00%
Buddhist 93,364
හින්දු 4,550
Islam 5,465
Roman Catholic 8,659
Other Christian 3,618
Other 170


යටිතල ව්‍යුහය[සංස්කරණය]

The HSBC center

ප්‍රවාහනය[සංස්කරණය]

The only major railway station is at Nugegoda, on the Kelani Valley Line. Also at Nugegoda is the city's main bus terminus. There are subsidiary bus stands at Pita Kotte and Welikada. The city is well served by buses and there is a major CTB bus depot at Udahamulla.

A Passenger boat service is being finalised and would commence adjacent to Parliament Junction at Bataramulla and end at the Wellawatte canal near Marine drive. Each journey would take around 30 minutes. It would have stations at the Kotte Marsh, Nawala, Open University, Apollo Hospital, Wellawatte, Duplication road and at St Peter's College, Colombo.[6]

Health[සංස්කරණය]

Kotte has a large public hospital, The Sri Jayawardenepura Hospital - also known as Nava rohala - located in Sri Jayawardenepura. There is also a dedicated Eye & ENT hospital at Rajagiriya, and another Maternity hospital under construction in Nawala.

Education[සංස්කරණය]

There are a number of State and Private Schools in Kotte. They are either "National schools" (run by the state), Semi-government/Private schools or International schools (run by trusts and individuals). The Education Ministry as well as the Department of Examinations is based here.

A considerable amount of the students living in the city limits study at government owned colleges and International schools in Colombo.

Ananda Sastralaya located in the Kotte, That is the one of the oldest school located in Kotte.The oldest school which was known as Christian College is located in Kotte. And relocated at Bataramulla from its previous site in Colombo 02 is the Oldest International school catering exclusively to the expatriate community and a few select nationals; The Overseas School of Colombo.

Speakers Residence

Located at Nawala is the Open University, Sri Lanka and at Nugegoda is the University of Sri Jayewardenepura. Public Libraries are conveniently located, and can be found at Nugegoda and Rajagiriya.

Utilities[සංස්කරණය]

The Kotte Municipal Council is responsible for road maintenance and door-to-door garbage collection in the city. They also are responsible for keeping Storm drains clean to cope with the heavy Tropical rains.

The largest telephone service provider is Sri Lanka Telecom, which previously held a monopoly over fixed line services, and provides fixed line as well as mobile services through its subsidiary Mobitel. Cell phone coverage is extensive, and the main service providers are Dialog Telekom, Mobitel, Tigo and Hutch. Both GSM and CDMA services are available in the city and Broadband internet penetration is increasing. Mobitel supplies the city with 3.5G mobile solutions while Dialog Telekom provides 3G.

Electricity is provided by the Lanka Electricity Co. Ltd.

Climate[සංස්කරණය]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Avg Temp °C
(°F)
26
(78)
26
(78)
27
(80)
28
(82)
28
(82)
27
(80)
27
(80)
27
(80)
27
(80)
26
(78)
26
(78)
26
(78)
26
(78)
Precipitation centimeters
(inches)
8.5
(3.3)
6.3
(2.5)
11.2
(4.4)
25.2
(9.9)
33.5
(13.2)
19.5
(7.7)
13
(5.1)
9.5
(3.7)
16.5
(6.5)
35.8
(14.1)
30.9
(12.2)
15.3
(6)
225.1
(88.6)

source: Weatherbase

Sports and recreation[සංස්කරණය]

Cricket is the most popular sport in the city as well as the country, and is usually played in the grounds around the city. Incidentally, Kotte's government representative in Parliament is the ICC Cricket World Cup winning captain Arjuna Ranatunga.

පාපන්දු has grown in popularity, and the sport now has a considerable following. The Football association's new training facility at Kotte is aimed at harnessing and developing the available talent and organizing the individual players into a cohesive team. It includes a football playground with a sprinkler system, gym and a host of other facilities.[7]

Golf is another pastime that has increased in popularity. The Waters Edge country club is an 11-hole golf course located at Battaramulla. Its infrastructure includes: Restaurant/dining room/ballroom/conference hall, Driving range with 20 bays - 300 metres in length and floodlit for practice at night. Chip and putt area with bunkers, Swimming pool, Spa, Gym, Games arcade, Beauty salon and a Karaoke lounge.

Other sports are mostly played in the numerous clubs and gyms, and include tennis, squash, billiards, horse riding, Indoor cricket, badminton and table tennis.

Horse riding can be pursued at the Premadasa Riding School in Nugegoda.

External links[සංස්කරණය]

Find more information on Sri Jayawardenapura-Kotte by searching Wikipedia's sister projects:

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Government[සංස්කරණය]

Education[සංස්කරණය]

History[සංස්කරණය]

Sports[සංස්කරණය]

Maps[සංස්කරණය]

Citations and notes[සංස්කරණය]

  1. http://www.ds.gov.lk/ds/kotte/english/index.php?p=cultural_background
  2. "ශ්‍රී ලංකා: අ කන්ට්‍රි ස්ටඩි." (html). රසල් ආර්. රොස් සහ ඇන්ඩ්‍රියා මාට්ලෙස් සවාඩා. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 2007-02-26. 
  3. "යුරපියන් එන්ක්‍රෝච්මන්ට් ඇන්ඩ් ඩොමිනන්ස්" (html). එ.ජ. ලයිබ්රරි ඔෆ් කොන්ග්‍රස්. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 2007-02-26. 
  4. "Kotte, the capital of Sri Lanka 1400-1565 A. D" (html). G. P. V. Somaratne. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 2006-12-02. 
  5. "The UNP Returns to Power." (html). Russell R. Ross and Andrea Matles Savada. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 2007-02-26. 
  6. "Canal transport to ease traffic pile up ." (html). Chanuka Mannapperuma. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 2005-07-10. 
  7. "National training centre for Football at Beddegana" (html). Sri Lanka Football. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 2007-02-26.