|හින්දුස්තානි සම්භාව්ය සංගීතය|
හින්දුස්ථානි සංගීතයට අනුව, ඝරණයක් යනු is a system of social organization linking musicians or dancers by lineage and/or apprenticeship, and by adherence to a particular musical style. A gharana also indicates a comprehensive musicological ideology. This ideology sometimes changes substantially from one gharana to another. It directly affects the thinking, teaching, performance and appreciation of music.
The word gharana comes from the Hindi word 'ghar', which means 'family' or 'house'. It typically refers to the place where the musical ideology originated; for example, some of the gharanas well known for singing khyals are: Agra, Gwalior, Indore, Jaipur, Kirana, and Patiala.
The gharanas have distinct styles of presenting the khyal — how much to emphasize and how to enunciate the words of the composition, when to sing the sthayi and antara, whether to sing an unmetered alap in the beginning, what kinds of improvisations to use, how much importance to give to the rhythmic aspect, and so on. However, an individual performer from a gharana may choose to borrow appealing stylistic aspects of another gharana in his or her gayaki. The prominent khyal gharanas are:
|Gharana||Founding Artists||Approximate founding date||Revived by||Approximate revival date||Features|
|Gwalior Gharana||Nathan Pir Baksh, Nathu Khan||Mid-16th Century||Bol-baant, bol-taan, no sargam, wide range in taans, alankarik taans, descending sapaat taans, roughly similar emphasis on melody and rhythm, repertoire of bandishes, variety of taans|
|Agra Gharana||Ghagghe Khudabaksh||Mid-19th century||Faiyaz Khan||Early 20th century||Closer to dhrupad with nom-tom type alap and other elements, rhythmic play, frequent use of tisra jati in teentaal, emphasis on voice culture to achieve wide range and powerful throw of voice, bol-baant, bol-taan, rare use of sargam, slower taans, repertoire of traditional and self-composed bandishes|
|Kirana Gharana||Nayak Gopal||Late 17th century||Abdul Karim Khan, Abdul Wahid Khan||Early 20th century||Slow-tempo raga development, emphasis on melody, long and sustained pitches, usually traditional ragas, use of sargam, very little bol-baant, clarity of text pronunciation|
|Bhendi Bazaar Gharana||Chhajju Khan, Nazeer Khan, Khadim Hussain Khan||Late 19th century||Emphasis on breath control to be able to sing long passages in a single breath, use of merukhand for extended alaps, use of gamak taan and sargam, use of some Carnatic ragas|
|Jaipur-Atrauli Gharana||Alladiya Khan||Late 19th century||Repertoire of rare and complex ragas, based on Agra gharana, heavy use of teentaal and rupak, rhythmic play, use of bol-baant and bol-taan, use of sargam, rippling taans, heavy emphasis on taans|
|Patiala Gharana||Bade Fateh Ali Khan, Ali Baksh Khan||Late 19th century||Emphasis on voice development, roughly similar emphasis on melody and rhythm, bol-baant-like sargam, occasional use of bol-taan, variety of taans, fast sargam and taan patterns, may or may not include antara|
|Rampur-Sahaswan Gharana||Inayat Hussain Khan||Mid-19th century||Emphasis on melody, little bol-baant or bol-taan, use of sargam, sapaat taans|
|Indore Gharana||Amir Khan||Mid-20th century||Slow-tempo raga development, improvisation mostly in lower and middle octaves, tendency towards serious and expansive ragas, emphasis on melody, judicious use of pause between improvisations, bol alap and sargam using merukhand patterns, sparing application of murki, use of kan swaras in all parts of performance, controlled use of embellishments to preserve introspective quality, rare use of tihai, careful enunciation of text, may or may not include antara, use of multiple laya jatis in a single taan, mixture of taan types in a single taan, known for rubaidar tarana (considered similar to chhota khyal)|
|Benaras Gharana||Kirtankars||13th century||Girija Devi||Mid-20th century|
|Delhi Gharana||Qawwaliyas||Late 18th century||Sangi Khan, Mamman Khan||Extensive use of sargam and taan patterns in both vilambit and drut|
|Mewati Gharana||Ghagghe Nazir Khan||Mid-19th century||Jasraj||Late 20th century||Emphasis on melody, known for bhajans, sapaat taans and gamak taans, use of sargam|
|Qawwal Bacche Gharana||Saamat bin Ibrahim||Repertoire of traditional bandishes, systematic alap, gamak taan and bol taan, known for other classical and semi-classical forms|
|Sham Chaurasia Gharana||Miyan Chand Khan, Miyan Suraj Khan||16th century||Salamat Ali and Nazakat Ali Khan||Mid-20th century||Emphasis on layakari using bol-baant and tihai, fast sargam and taan patterns|
|මෙම ඡේදය සඳහා පුළුල් කිරීම අවශ්යයි පහත දෑ සමගින්:
more details similar to section on khyal gharanas above.
- Dagarvani Gharana, founded by the Dagar family
- Bishnupur Gharana, founded by Kirtankars in West Bengal (13th Century)
- Darbhanga Mallik Gharana, Darbhanga, Bihar - known for style known as Gaurhar Vani and also has good command on Khandar Vani
- Bettiah gharana, founded in Bettiah, Bihar
In the Benares Thumri Gharana, the words in the text of a song are musically embellished to bring out their meaning, while the Lucknow gharana presents intricately embellished and delicate thumris that are explicit in their eroticism. The principal feature of the thumri of the Patiala gharana is its incorporation of the tappa from the Punjab region. It is with this tappa element that the Patiala gharana makes its impact, departing from the khyal-dominated Benaras thumris and the dance-oriented Lucknow thumris.
- Benares Thumri Gharana, revived by Siddheshwari Devi, Rasulan Bai, Badi Moti Bai, Mahadev Mishra, Smt. Girija Devi(mid-20th Century), founded by Kirtankars (13th-Century).
- Patiala Thumri Gharana, founded by Ustad Fateh Ali Khan and Ustad Ali Baksh Khan in Patiala, Punjab (18th Century).
The following are the six widely accepted Tabla Gharanas. The prominent Tabla Gharanas are in bold (ordered based on chronology of founding):
- Delhi gharana is the oldest of the Tabla Gharanas.
- Ajrada gharana is an offshoot of and closely associated with the Delhi Gharana.
- Lucknow gharana, revived by Late Pandit Anil Bhattacharjee,(Middle 20th century), Swapan Chaudhuri (late 20th Century), has rhythmic development through Kathak.Also Prof.Biswajit Bhattacharjee.(R.B.U.) (Specialist in KATHAKI Baaz) is direct diciple of Late Ustad Wazid Hussain Khalifa and complited his training under the able guidance of his father Pandit.Anil Bhattacharjee,The diciple of Wazid Hussain.
- Benares gharana
- Punjab gharana, popularized by Alla Rakha and Zakir Hussain, developed through its original Pakhawaj repertoire
- Farukhabad gharana is the youngest accepted Tabla Gharana, and an offshoot of the Lucknow Gharana
|Gharana||Founding artists||Approximate founding date||Founding location||Famous exponents|
|Delhi Gharana||Siddhar Khan||Early 18th century||Delhi||Ustad Game Khan, Ustad Imam Ali Khan, Ustad Latif Ahmed Khan, Ustad Shafaat Hussain Khan|
|Ajrada Gharana||Kallu Khan, Miru Khan||Early 19th century||Meerut||Ustad Habibuddin Khan,Ustad Mehboob Hussain Khan, Prof. Sudhirkumar Saxena, Ustad Manju Khan s/o late Ustad Habibuddin Khan, (Ustad Yusuf Khan, Pandit Babu Ram Parvesh Singh, Ustad Ramjan Khan Sahib, Pandit Bal Krishan Sharma - disciples of Ustad Habibuddin Khan), Aman Ali, Athar Hussain, Anil Kumar ,all are disciples of ustad manju khan s/o late ustad habibudin khan|
|Lucknow Gharana||Miyan Bakshu||19th century||Lucknow||Pt. Achchan Maharaj (Jagannath Maharaj),Late Pandit Anil Bhattacharjee, Prof.Biswajit Bhattacharjee.(R.B.U.),Pt. Santosh Biswas, Pt. Swapan Chaudhuri|
|Benares gharana||Ram Sahai||Late 18th century||Benaras||Pt. Ram Sahai, Pt. Shamta Prasad, Pt. Kishen Maharaj, Kumar Bose, Pt. Samar Saha|
|Farukhabad gharana||Haji Vilayat Ali Khan||19th century||Farukhabad||Ustad Masit Khan, Ustad Ahmedjan Thirakwa, Pandit Jnan Prakash Ghosh, Ustad Keramatullah Khan, Pandit Kanai Dutta, Pandit Shyamal Bose, Pandit Shankar Ghosh, Pt. Anindo Chatterjee, Ustad Sabir Khan|
|Punjab gharana||Miyan Qader Baksh||19th century||Punjab||Ustad Qadeer Buksh, Ustad Shaukat Hussein Khan, Ustad "Tari" Khan, Ustad Alla Rakha Khan, Ustad Zakir Hussain|
|Sikar Gharana||Ustad Liaquat Ali Khan, Ustad Sharafat Ali Khan|
|Nana Panse gharana||Mathura||Pt. Makhanji, Pt. Balkrishna Vaidya (Pakhawaj),[Pandit Ramakant Pathak(Pakhawaj),Late Pandit Anil bhattacharjee]Diciples of Pandit Sakharamji.|
Wind and String Instruments[සංස්කරණය]
- Imdadkhani (Etawah) Gharana, founded by Imdad Khan (Sitar, Surbahar)
- Maihar gharana, Maihar
- Bishnupur gharana
- Sufiana Gharana of Kashmir (Santoor)
In Kathak performers today generally draw their lineage from three major schools of Kathak: the Jaipur gharana, the Lucknow gharana and the Banaras gharana (born in the courts of the Kachwaha Rajput kings, the Nawab of Oudh, and Varanasi respectively); there is also a less prominent (and later) Raigarh gharana which amalgamated technique from all three preceding gharanas but became famous for its own distinctive compositions.