(the W, C, and E zones all include languages traditionally counted as dialects of Hindi)
|ISO 639-2 සහ 639-5:||inc|
ඉන්දු-ආර්ය හෙවත් ඉන්දු භාෂා යනුඉන්දීය අර්ධද්වීපයේ ප්රමුඛ ම භාෂා පවුල යි. මේවා ඉන්දු-යුරෝපීය භාෂා පවුලේ ඉන්දු-ඉරානීය භාෂාවල ශාඛාවකි. බිලියන 3ක් පමණ වූ ඉන්දු-යුරෝපීය බස් වහරන්නන්ගෙන් බිලියන 1.5ක් ම පමණ ඉන්දු-ආර්ය කථිකයෝ ය. මෙබස් ප්රධාන වශයෙන් දකුණු ආසියාවේ බැවහැරුණ ද යුරෝපයේ සහ මැද පෙරදිග ද සුළු වශයෙන් සොයාගත හැක.
කථික සංඛ්යාවෙන් විශාලතම බස් පිළිවෙලින් හින්දුස්ථානී (හින්දි-උර්දු, මිලියන 329ක් පමණ), බෙංගාලි (මිලියන 242), පංජාබි (මිලියන 100ක් පමණ), ඉන්පසු අනෙක් බස්, 2005 ඇස්තමේන්තුවට අනුව මුලු දේශීය කථික ප්රජාව මිලියන 900ට ආසන්න වෙයි.
ප්රාග්-ඉන්දු-ආර්ය, හෝ යම්විටෙක ප්රාග්-ඉන්දීය ලෙස හඳුන්වන්නේ ඉන්දු ආර්ය භාෂාවල නැවත ගොඩනැඟූ ප්රාග්-භාෂාව යි. ඒ ප්රාග්-ඉන්දු ආර්යයන්ගේ බස යළි ගොඩනැඟුම සඳහා ය. ප්රාග්-ඉන්දු-ආර්ය බස පුරාතන ඉන්දු-ආර්ය (ක්රි.පූ.1500–300) වෛදික සහ මිතන්නි-ආර්ය භාෂාවල මුතුන්මිත්තා ලෙස ගතහැක. වෛදික බසෙහි පොරණ සැලකිය යුතුමුත්, වෛදික බසින් තුරන්වී ගිය යම් පෞරාණික ලක්ෂණ අන් ඉන්දු-ආර්ය භාෂාවල ඇත.
- ප්රාග්-ඉන්දු-ආර්ය (යළිගොඩනැඟූ)
- පුරාතන ඉන්දු-ආර්ය (ca.ක්රි.පූ. 1500–300)
- early Old Indo-Aryan: Vedic Sanskrit (ක්රි.පූ. 1500 සිට 500)
- late Old Indo-Aryan: Epic Sanskrit, Classical Sanskrit (ක්රි.පූ. 500 සිට 300)
- මධ්යතන ඉන්දු-ආර්ය or Prakrits, Old Odia (ca. 300 BCE to 1500 CE) [see]
- පූර්ව නූතන ඉන්දු-ආර්ය (Late Medieval India)
- early Dakkhini and emergence of Khariboli
The earliest evidence of the group is from Vedic and Mitanni-Aryan. Vedic has been used in the ancient preserved religious hymns, the foundational canon of Hinduism known as the Vedas. Mitanni-Aryan is of similar age to the language of the Rigveda, but the only evidence of it is a few proper names and specialized loanwords. The language of the Vedas - commonly referred to as "Vedic Sanskrit" by modern scholars - is only marginally different from reconstructed Proto-Indo-Aryan.
From the Vedic, "Sanskrit" (literally "put together", meaning perfected or elaborated) developed as the prestige language of culture, science and religion, as well as the court, theatre, etc. Sanskrit is, by convention, referred to by modern scholars as 'Classical Sanskrit' in contradistinction to the so-called 'Vedic Sanskrit', which is largely intelligible to Sanskrit speakers.
මධ්යතන ඉන්දු ආර්ය (ප්රාකෘත)[සංස්කරණය]
Outside the learned sphere of Sanskrit, vernacular dialects (Prakrits) continued to evolve. The oldest attested Prakrits are the Buddhist and Jain canonical languages Pali and Ardha Magadhi, respectively. By medieval times, the Prakrits had diversified into various Middle Indo-Aryan dialects. "Apabhramsa" is the conventional cover term for transitional dialects connecting late Middle Indo-Aryan with early Modern Indo-Aryan, spanning roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. Some of these dialects showed considerable literary production; the Sravakachar of Devasena (dated to the 930s) is now considered to be the first Hindi book.
The next major milestone occurred with the Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent in the 13th–16th centuries. Under the flourishing Turco-Mongol Mughal empire, Persian became very influential as the language of prestige of the Islamic courts due to adoptation of the foreign language by the Mughal emperors. However, Persian was soon displaced by Hindustani. This Indo-Aryan language is a combination with Persian, Arabic, and Turkic elements in its vocabulary, with the grammar of the local dialects.
The two largest languages that formed from Apabhramsa were Bengali and Hindustani; others include Sindhi, Gujarati, Odia, Marathi, and Punjabi.
නූතන ඉන්දු ආර්ය[සංස්කරණය]
The Indo-Aryan languages of Northern India and Pakistan form a dialect continuum. What is called "Hindi" in India is frequently Standard Hindi, the Sanskrit-ized version of the colloquial Hindustani spoken in the Delhi area since the Mughals. However, the term Hindi is also used for most of the central Indic dialects from Bihar to Rajasthan. The Indo-Aryan prakrits also gave rise to languages like Sindhi, Gujarati, Assamese, Bengali, Odia, Nepali, Marathi, and Punjabi, which are not considered to be part of this dialect continuum.
In the Western Hindi-speaking areas, for a long time the prestige dialect was Braj Bhasha, but this was replaced in the 19th century by the Khariboli-based Hindustani. Hindustani was strongly influenced by Sanskrit and Persian, with these influences leading to the emergence of Modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu as registers of the Hindustani language. This state of affairs continued until the division of the British Indian Empire in 1947, when Hindi became the official language in India and Urdu became official in Pakistan. Despite the different script the fundamental grammar remains identical, the difference is more sociolinguistic than purely linguistic. Today it is widely understood/spoken as a second or third language throughout South Asia and one of the most widely known languages in the world in terms of number of speakers.
Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggest that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion. In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni, the deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and Nasatya (Ashvins) are invoked. Kikkuli's horse training text includes technical terms such as aika (eka, one), tera (tri, three), panza (pancha, five), satta (sapta, seven), na (nava, nine), vartana (vartana, turn, round in the horse race). The numeral aika "one" is of particular importance because it places the superstrate in the vicinity of Indo-Aryan proper as opposed to Indo-Iranian or early Iranian (which has "aiva") in general
Another text has babru (babhru, brown), parita (palita, grey), and pinkara (pingala, red). Their chief festival was the celebration of the solstice (vishuva) which was common in most cultures in the ancient world. The Mitanni warriors were called marya, the term for warrior in Sanskrit as well; note mišta-nnu (= miẓḍha, ≈ Sanskrit mīḍha) "payment (for catching a fugitive)" (M. Mayrhofer, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen, Heidelberg, 1986–2000; Vol. II:358).
Sanskritic interpretations of Mitanni royal names render Artashumara (artaššumara) as Arta-smara "who thinks of Arta/Ṛta" (Mayrhofer II 780), Biridashva (biridašṷa, biriiašṷa) as Prītāśva "whose horse is dear" (Mayrhofer II 182), Priyamazda (priiamazda) as Priyamedha "whose wisdom is dear" (Mayrhofer II 189, II378), Citrarata as citraratha "whose chariot is shining" (Mayrhofer I 553), Indaruda/Endaruta as Indrota "helped by Indra" (Mayrhofer I 134), Shativaza (šattiṷaza) as Sātivāja "winning the race price" (Mayrhofer II 540, 696), Šubandhu as Subandhu 'having good relatives" (a name in Palestine, Mayrhofer II 209, 735), Tushratta (tṷišeratta, tušratta, etc.) as *tṷaiašaratha, Vedic Tvastr "whose chariot is vehement" (Mayrhofer, Etym. Wb., I 686, I 736).
රෝමානි, ලොමාව්රෙන් හා දොමාරි භාෂා[සංස්කරණය]
Domari is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by older Dom people scattered across the Middle East and North Africa. The language is reported to be spoken as far north as Azerbaijan and as far south as central Sudan, in Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Iraq, Palestine, Israel, Jordan, Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Syria and Lebanon. Based on the systematicity of sound changes, we know with a fair degree of certainty that the names Domari and Romani derive from the Indo-Aryan word ḍom.
Lomavren is a nearly extinct mixed language, spoken by the Lom people, that arose from language contact between a language related to Romani and Domari and the Armenian language.
The Romani language is usually included in the Western Indo-Aryan languages. Romani — spoken mainly in various parts of Europe — is conservative in maintaining almost intact the Middle Indo-Aryan present-tense person concord markers, and in maintaining consonantal endings for nominal case – both features that have been eroded in most other modern languages of Central India. It shares an innovative pattern of past-tense person concord with the languages of the Northwest, such as Kashmiri and Shina. This is believed to be further proof that Romani originated in the Central region, then migrated to the Northwest.
There are no known historical documents about the early phases of the Romani language.
මෙම වර්ගීකරණය Masica (1991) හා Kausen (2006)ට අනුව ය.
- කාෂ්මීරී - 5.6 million speakers
- Shina - 500,000 speakers
- Brokskat - 10,000 speakers
- Domaaki - 340 speakers
- Kundal Shahi - 700 speakers
- Kalkoti - 6,000 speakers
- Ushoji - 2,000 speakers
- Palula - 10,000 speakers
- Savi - 3,000 speakers
- පෂායී - 400,000 speakers
- Dameli - 5,000 speakers
- Gawar-Bati - 9,500 speakers
- Nangalami - 5,000 speakers
- Shumashti - 1,000 speakers
- Kalasha - 5,000 speakers
- Khowar - 290,000 speakers
- Maiya - 200,000 speakers
- Bateri - 29,000
- Chilisso - 1,000 speakers
- Gowro - 200 speakers
- Kalami - 100,000 speakers
- Tirahi - 100 speakers
- Torwali - 80,000 speakers
- Wotapuri-Katarqalai †
- Central Pahari
- Garhwali - 2.9 million speakers
- Kumaoni - 2.4 million speakers
- Eastern Pahari
- Nepali - 17 million speakers
- Jumli - 850
- Palpa †
- Dogri-Kangri (Western Pahari)
- Dogri - 4 million speakers
- Kangri - 1.1 million speakers
- Mandeali - 1.7 million
- Jaunsari - 100,000 speakers
- Kullu - 110,000
- Pahari Kinnauri - 6,300 speakers
- Mahasu Pahari - 1 million speakers
- Hinduri - 30,000 speakers
- Sirmauri - 400,000 speakers
- Punjabi - 122 million speakers
- Saraiki - 20 million speakers
- Hindko - 3.7 million speakers
- Jakati †
- Pothwari - 2.5 million speakers
- Sindhi - 25 million speakers
- Jadgali - 25,000 speakers
- Kutchi - 873,000 speakers
- Koli - 1.4 million speakers
- Parkari Koli - 250,000 speakers
- Kachi Koli - 500,000 speakers
- Wardiyara Koli - 542,000 speakers
- Luwati - 5,000 speakers
- Aer - 100-200 speakers
- Marwari - 22 million speakers
- Rajasthani proper - 20 million speakers
- Mewati - 3 million speakers
- Malvi - 5.6 million speakers
- Dhundari - 9.6 million speakers
- Harauti - 4.7 million speakers
- Mewari - 5.1 million speakers
- Shekhawati - 3 million speakers
- Bagri - 2.1 million speakers
- Dhatki - 150,000 speakers
- Gujarati - 49 million speakers
- Jandavra - 5,000 speakers
- Sourashtra - 190,000 speakers
- Vaghri - 10,000 speakers
- Vasavi - 1.2 million speakers
- Northern Bhil
- Bauria - 27,000 speakers
- Bhilori - 200,000 speakers
- Central Bhil
- Bhili proper - 3.5 million speakers
- Bhilali - 1.1 million speakers
- Chodri - 210,000 speakers
- Dhodia - 170,000 speakers
- Dhanki - 140,000 speakers
- Dubli - 250,000 speakers
- Palya Bareli - 10,000 speakers
- Pauri Bareli - 640,000 speakers
- Rathwi Bareli - 100,000 speakers
- Pardhi - 49,000 speakers
- Kalto - 15,000 speakers
- Northern Bhil
- Khandeshi - 1.9 million speakers
- Domari - 4 million speakers
- Northern Romani
- Sinte Romani - 300,000 speakers
- Carpathian Romani - 150,000 speakers
- Balkan Romani - 600,000 speakers
- Vlax Romani - 500,000 speakers
මධ්යම කලාපය (හෙවත් හින්දී)[සංස්කරණය]
Parya - 4,000 speakers
- බටහිර හින්දි
- Hindustani (including Standard Hindi and Standard Urdu) - 329 million speakers
- Braj - 21 million speakers
- Haryanvi - 8 million speakers
- Bundeli - 3.1 million speakers
- Kannauji - 9.5 million speakers
- නැගෙනහිර හින්දි
- Awadhi - 3.5 million speakers
- Bagheli - 8.4 million speakers
- Chhattisgarhi - 24 million speakers
Parya historically belonged to the Central Zone but lost intelligibility with other languages of the group due to geographic distance and numerous grammatical and lexical innovations.
These languages derive from Magadhan Apabhraṃśa Prakrit. The most widely-spoken languages in this family are Bengali with 250 million speakers, Bhojpuri with 40 million speakers, and Odia with 33 million speakers. The Eastern Nagari script is the most widely-used script, and is used for the Bengali-Assamese languages, and for Maithili and Angika which use the Tirhuta and Anga Lipi variations of the script respectively. The Kaithi script was once a commonly used script used for the Bhojpuri language and Magahi language but has now been replaced by the Devanagari script. The Odia script is used for the Odia language , Sylheti Nagari script (closely related to the Kaithi script) is used for Sylheti and Hanifi script is used for the Rohingya language (along with Perso-Arabic, Latin and Burmese script).
- Caribbean Hindustani - 166,000 speakers
- Fiji Hindi - 460,000 speakers
- Magahi/मगही - 14 million speakers
- Maithili/মৈথিলি - 33.9 million speakers
- Angika/অঙ্গিকা - 743,000 speakers
- ථාරු - 1.9 million speakers
- ඔරියා (ଓଡ଼ିଆ) - 33 million speakers
- Halbi - 600,000 speakers
- Bhatri - 220,000 speakers
- Kamar - 40,000 speakers
- Mirgan - 60,000 speakers
- Nahari - 20,000 speakers
- බෙංගාලි - අැසැම්
- Bengali/বাংলা - 268 million speakers
- Assamese/অসমীয়া - 24 million speakers
- Bishnupriya Manipuri (বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মনিপুরী) - 120,000 speakers
- Chakma (𑄌𑄋𑄴𑄟𑄳𑄦) - 330,000 speakers
- Sylheti (ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ/ছিলটি) - 11 millionChittagonianspeakers
- චිත්තගොනීය (চাঁটগাঁইয়া) - 16 million sRohingyapeakers
- රොහින්ග්යා/Ruáingga - 1.8 million speakers
- KRNB (কোচ ৰাজবংশী/রংপুরী/কমতা)
This group of languages developed from Maharashtri Prakrit. It is not clear if Dakhini (Deccani, Southern Urdu) is part of Hindustani along with Standard Urdu, or a separate Persian-influenced development from Marathi.
- Marathi - 73 million speakers
- Phudagi - 1,000 speakers
- Konkani - 7.4 million speakers
- Katkari - 12,000 speakers
- Kukna - 110,000 speakers
- Varli - 600,000 speakers
- Maharashtrian Konkani - 2.4 million speakers
The Insular Indic languages share several characteristics that set them apart significantly from the continental languages.
The following languages are related to each other, but otherwise unclassified within Indo-Aryan:
- Danwar - 46,000 speakers
- Bote-Darai - 20,000 speakers
- Chinali - 750 speakers
- Lahul Lohar - 750 speakers
The Kholosi language is a more recently discovered Indo-Aryan language spoken in two villages in southern Iran and remains currently unclassified.
- Iranic languages
- Indo-Aryan migration
- Proto-Vedic Continuity
- The family of Brahmic scripts
- Linguistic history of the Indian subcontinent
- Indo-Aryan loanwords in Tamil
- Languages of Bangladesh
- Languages of India
- Languages of Pakistan
- Languages of Nepal
- Standard Hindi first language: 260.3 million (2001), as second language: 120 million (1999). Urdu L1: 68.9 million (2001-2014), L2: 94 million (1999): Ethnologue 19.
- Bengali or Bangla-Bhasa, L1: 242.3 million (2011), L2: 19.2 million (2011), Ethnologue
- "världens-100-största-språk-2010". Nationalencyclopedin. Govt. of Sweden publication. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- Edwin Francis Bryant; Laurie L. Patton (2005). The Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History. Routledge. පිටු 246–247. ISBN 978-0-7007-1463-6. https://books.google.com/books?id=fHYnGde4BS4C.
- Kulshreshtha, Manisha; Mathur, Ramkumar (24 March 2012). Dialect Accent Features for Establishing Speaker Identity: A Case Study. Springer Science & Business Media. පි. 16. ISBN 978-1-4614-1137-6. https://books.google.com/books?id=xHmARyhRoNYC&pg=PA16.
- Robert E. Nunley; Severin M. Roberts; George W. Wubrick; Daniel L. Roy (1999), The Cultural Landscape an Introduction to Human Geography, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-080180-1, https://books.google.com/?id=7wQAOGMJOqIC, "... Hindustani is the basis for both languages ..."
- "Urdu and its Contribution to Secular Values". South Asian Voice. Archived from the original on 11 November 2007. Retrieved 26 February 2008. Unknown parameter
- "Hindi/Urdu Language Instruction". University of California, Davis. Archived from the original on 3 January 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2015. Unknown parameter
- "Ethnologue Report for Hindi". Ethnologue. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
- Otto Zwartjes Portuguese Missionary Grammars in Asia, Africa and Brazil, 1550-1800 Publisher John Benjamins Publishing, 2011 ISBN 9027283257, 9789027283252
- Paul Thieme, The 'Aryan' Gods of the Mitanni Treaties. JAOS 80, 1960, 301–17
- Matras (2012)
- "History of the Romani language".
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015. Unknown parameter
|url-status=suggested) (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Encyclopedia Iranica
- "Romani (subgroup)". SIL International. n.d. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016. Unknown parameter
- Ray, Tapas S. (2007). "Chapter Eleven: "Oriya". In Jain, Danesh; Cardona, George. The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. p. 445. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert et al., eds (2013). "Kuswaric". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/kusw1234.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert et al., eds (2013). "Chinali–Lahul Lohar". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/chin1491.
- John Beames, A comparative grammar of the modern Aryan languages of India: to wit, Hindi, Panjabi, Sindhi, Gujarati, Marathi, Oriya, and Bangali. Londinii: Trübner, 1872–1879. 3 vols.
- Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, eds. (2003), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5, https://books.google.com/books?id=jPR2OlbTbdkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=indo-aryan+languages .
- Madhav Deshpande (1979). Sociolinguistic attitudes in India: An historical reconstruction. Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers. ISBN 0-89720-007-1, ISBN 0-89720-008-X (pbk).
- Chakrabarti, Byomkes (1994). A comparative study of Santali and Bengali. Calcutta: K.P. Bagchi & Co. ISBN 81-7074-128-9
- Erdosy, George. (1995). The Indo-Aryans of ancient South Asia: Language, material culture and ethnicity. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-014447-6.
- Kobayashi, Masato.; & George Cardona (2004). Historical phonology of old Indo-Aryan consonants. Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ISBN 4-87297-894-3.
- Masica, Colin (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2, https://books.google.com/books?id=J3RSHWePhXwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=indo-aryan+languages .
- Misra, Satya Swarup. (1980). Fresh light on Indo-European classification and chronology. Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan.
- Misra, Satya Swarup. (1991–1993). The Old-Indo-Aryan, a historical & comparative grammar (Vols. 1–2). Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan.
- Sen, Sukumar. (1995). Syntactic studies of Indo-Aryan languages. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Foreign Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
- Vacek, Jaroslav. (1976). The sibilants in Old Indo-Aryan: A contribution to the history of a linguistic area. Prague: Charles University.
- The Indo-Aryan languages, 10-25-2009
- The Indo-Aryan languages Colin P.Masica
- Survey of the syntax of the modern Indo-Aryan languages (Rajesh Bhatt), February 7, 2003.