ස්ටාලින්ග්‍රාඩ් සටන

විකිපීඩියා, නිදහස් විශ්වකෝෂය වෙතින්
Jump to navigation Jump to search
ස්ටාලින්ග්‍රාඩ් සටන
දෙවන ලෝක යුද්ධයෙහි නැගෙනහිර පෙරමුණෙහි කොටසකි
300px
1943 දී ස්ටාලින්ග්‍රාඩ් නගර චතුරස්‍රයේ සිට රතු ධජය ලෙළවන සෝවියට් සෙබළෙක්.
දිනය1942 අගෝස්තු 23 – 1943 පෙබරවාරි 2
(මාස 5 ක්, එක් සතියක් සහ දින 3 ක්)
ස්ථානයස්ටාලින්ග්‍රාඩ්, රුසියානු SFSR, සෝවියට් සංගමය
48°42′N 44°31′E / 48.700°N 44.517°E / 48.700; 44.517ඛණ්ඩාංක: 48°42′N 44°31′E / 48.700°N 44.517°E / 48.700; 44.517
ප්‍රතිඵලය

තීරණාත්මක [1] සෝවියට් ජයග්‍රහණය

රණපත්හු
 සෝවියට් සංගමය
ආඥාපතීන් සහ නායකයන්
එක් වූ ඒකක

නාසි ජර්මනිය Army Group B:

ප්‍රබලතාව
Initial: At the time of the Soviet counter-offensive:
  • c. 1,040,000 men (400,000+ Germans, 220,000 Italians, 143,296 Romanians, 200,000 Hungarians, 40,000 Hiwi)[4][5]
  • 10,250 artillery pieces
  • 500 tanks
  • 732 (402 operational) aircraft[6]:p.225[7]:87
Initial:
  • 187,000 personnel
  • 2,200 artillery pieces
  • 400 tanks
  • 300 aircraft[3]:p.72
At the time of the Soviet counteroffensive:
  • 1,143,000[8]
  • 13,451 artillery pieces
  • 894 tanks[8]
  • 1,115[6]:p.224 aircraft
ආපතිකයන් සහ හානියන්
  • 728,000 men
  • නාසි ජර්මනිය 400,000
  • ඉතාලි රාජධානිය 114,000
  • රුමේනියානු රාජධානිය 109,000
  • හන්ගේරියානු රාජධානිය (1920–1946) 105,000
  • 900 aircraft
  • 1,500 tanks
  • 6,000 artillery pieces
See casualties section
  • 1,129,619 men
  • 478,741 killed and missing
  • 650,878 wounded or sick
  • 2,769 aircraft
  • 4,341 tanks
  • 15,728 artillery pieces
See casualties section
ස්ටාලින්ග්‍රාඩ් සටන is located in Russia
ස්ටාලින්ග්‍රාඩ් සටන
නූතන රුසියාවේ ස්ටාලින්ග්‍රාඩ් (වර්තමානයේ වොල්ගොග්‍රාඩ්) හි පිහිටීම

ස්ටාලින්ග්‍රාඩ් සටන (1942 අගෝස්තු 23 – 1943 පෙබරවාරි 2)[9][10][11][12] නාසි ජර්මනිය සහ එහි මිත්‍රපක්ෂය විසින් සෝවියට් සංගමයට එරෙහිව සටන් කර දකුණු රුසියාවේ ස්ටාලින්ග්‍රාඩ් (වර්තමානයේ වොල්ගොග්‍රාඩ් ) නගරයේ පාලනය ලබාගැනීම සඳහා සිදු කළ දෙවන ලෝක යුද්ධයේ ප්‍රධාන සටනකි.

Marked by fierce close quarters combat and direct assaults on civilians by air raids, it is often regarded as one of the single largest (nearly 2.2 million personnel) and bloodiest (1.7–2 million wounded, killed or captured) battles in the history of warfare.[13] German forces never regained the initiative in the East and withdrew a vast military force from the West to replace their losses.[1]

The German offensive to capture Stalingrad began in August 1942, using the German 6th Army and elements of the 4th Panzer Army. The attack was supported by intensive Luftwaffe bombing that reduced much of the city to rubble. The fighting degenerated into house-to-house fighting, and both sides poured reinforcements into the city. By mid-November 1942, the Germans had pushed the Soviet defenders back at great cost into narrow zones along the west bank of the Volga River.

On 19 November 1942, the Red Army launched Operation Uranus, a two-pronged attack targeting the weaker Romanian and Hungarian armies protecting the German 6th Army's flanks.[14] The Axis forces on the flanks were overrun and the 6th Army was cut off and surrounded in the Stalingrad area. Adolf Hitler ordered that the army stay in Stalingrad and make no attempt to break out; instead, attempts were made to supply the army by air and to break the encirclement from the outside. Heavy fighting continued for another two months. By the beginning of February 1943, the Axis forces in Stalingrad had exhausted their ammunition and food. The remaining units of the 6th Army surrendered.[15]:p.932 The battle lasted five months, one week, and three days.

ඓතිහාසික සසුබිම[සංස්කරණය]

By the spring of 1942, despite the failure of Operation Barbarossa to decisively defeat the Soviet Union in a single campaign, the Wehrmacht had captured vast expanses of territory, including Ukraine, Belarus, and the Baltic republics. Elsewhere, the war had been progressing well: the U-boat offensive in the Atlantic had been very successful and Rommel had just captured Tobruk.[16]:p.522 In the east, they had stabilized their front in a line running from Leningrad in the north to Rostov in the south. There were a number of salients, but these were not particularly threatening. Hitler was confident that he could master the Red Army after the winter of 1942, because even though Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte) had suffered heavy losses west of Moscow the previous winter, 65% of Army Group Centre's infantry had not been engaged and had been rested and re-equipped. Neither Army Group North nor Army Group South had been particularly hard pressed over the winter.[17]:p.144 Stalin was expecting the main thrust of the German summer attacks to be directed against Moscow again.[1]:p.498

With the initial operations being very successful, the Germans decided that their summer campaign in 1942 would be directed at the southern parts of the Soviet Union. The initial objectives in the region around Stalingrad were the destruction of the industrial capacity of the city and the deployment of forces to block the Volga River. The river was a key route from the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea to central Russia. Its capture would disrupt commercial river traffic. The Germans cut the pipeline from the oilfields when they captured Rostov on 23 July. The capture of Stalingrad would make the delivery of Lend Lease supplies via the Persian Corridor much more difficult.[15]:909[18][19]:88

On 23 July 1942, Hitler personally rewrote the operational objectives for the 1942 campaign, greatly expanding them to include the occupation of the city of Stalingrad. Both sides began to attach propaganda value to the city based on it bearing the name of the leader of the Soviet Union. Hitler proclaimed that after Stalingrad's capture, its male citizens were to be killed and all women and children were to be deported because its population was "thoroughly communistic" and "especially dangerous".[20] It was assumed that the fall of the city would also firmly secure the northern and western flanks of the German armies as they advanced on Baku, with the aim of securing these strategic petroleum resources for Germany.[16]:p.528 The expansion of objectives was a significant factor in Germany's failure at Stalingrad, caused by German overconfidence and an underestimation of Soviet reserves.[21]

The Soviets realized that they were under tremendous constraints of time and resources and ordered that anyone strong enough to hold a rifle be sent to fight.[22]:p.94

මූලාශ්‍ර[සංස්කරණය]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Bellamy 2007
  2. Andrews, Evan. "8 Things You Should Know About WWII's Eastern Front". HISTORY.com. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 19 November 2015. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Bergström 2007
  4. Glantz 1995, p. 346
  5. Anthony Tihamer Komjathy (1982). A Thousand Years of the Hungarian Art of War. Toronto: Rakoczi Foundation. පිටු 144–45. ISBN 978-0-8191-6524-4.  ASIN is for the version cited. ISBN is for a different printing from a different publisher.
  6. 6.0 6.1 උපුටාදැක්වීම් දෝෂය: අනීතික <ref> ටැගය; hayward98 නමැති ආශ්‍රේයන් සඳහා කිසිදු පෙළක් සපයා නොතිබුණි
  7. Bergström 2006.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Glantz 1995, p. 134
  9. McDougal Littell, (2006)
  10. Roberts (2006: 143)
  11. Biesinger (2006: 699): "On August 23, 1942, the Germans began their attack."
  12. "Battle of Stalingrad". Encyclopædia Britannica. "By the end of August, ... Gen. Friedrich Paulus, with 330,000 of the German Army's finest troops ... approached Stalingrad. On 23 August a German spearhead penetrated the city's northern suburbs, and the Luftwaffe rained incendiary bombs that destroyed most of the city's wooden housing." 
  13. Luhn, Alec (8 June 2014). "Stalingrad name may return to city in wave of second world war patriotism". theguardian.com. The Guardian. The Guardian. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 16 February 2015. 
  14. Beevor (1998: 239)
  15. 15.0 15.1 Shirer 1990
  16. 16.0 16.1 Kershaw 2000
  17. Taylor and Clark, (1974)
  18. P.M.H. Bell, Twelve Turning Points of the Second World War, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 2011, p 96
  19. උපුටාදැක්වීම් දෝෂය: අනීතික <ref> ටැගය; GeorgyZhukov නමැති ආශ්‍රේයන් සඳහා කිසිදු පෙළක් සපයා නොතිබුණි
  20. Michael Burleigh (2001). The Third Reich: A New History. Pan. පි. 503. ISBN 978-0-330-48757-3. 
  21. Walsh, Stephen. (2000). Stalingrad 1942–1943 The Infernal Cauldron. London, New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-0916-8.
  22. MacDonald 1986


උපුටාදැක්වීම් දෝෂය: "Note" නම් කණ්ඩායම සඳහා <ref> ටැග පැවතුණත්, ඊට අදාළ <references group="Note"/> ටැග සොයාගත නොහැකි විය.

"https://si.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=ස්ටාලින්ග්‍රාඩ්_සටන&oldid=431444" වෙතින් සම්ප්‍රවේශනය කෙරිණි