බුද්ධගෝෂ හිමි

විකිපීඩියා, නිදහස් විශ්වකෝෂය වෙතින්
වෙත පනින්න: සංචලනය, සොයන්න
Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa
වෘත්තිය Religious commentator
කාලසීමාව 5th century
විෂයයන් Theravada Buddhism
සංගණ්‍ය කෘතිය(න්) Visuddhimagga

බුද්ධ ධර්මය සහ බුද්ධාගම
පිළිබඳ  ලිපි මාලාවක කොටසකි 

Dhamma chakra.jpg
බුද්ධාගම පිළිබඳ ද්වාරය

බුදු දහමෙහි ඉතිහාසය

බෞද්ධ සංගායනා - බුදු දහමට සබැඳි සිදුවීම්

ප්‍රමුඛ චරිත

ගෞතම බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේ
ශ්‍රාවකයෝ · පසුකාලීන බෞද්ධයෝ

ධර්මය සහ බෞද්ධ යෙදුම්

චතුරාර්ය සත්‍යය
ආර්ය අෂ්ටාංගික මාර්ගය
ත්‍රි ලක්ෂණ
පටිච්ච සමුප්පාදය
සසර · නිවන
පංච ස්කන්ධ · ලෝකය
කර්මය · පුනර්භවය

පිළිවෙත් සහ මාර්ගඵල සතර

බුද්ධත්වය · බෝධිසත්ව
මාර්ගඵල සතර
ප්‍රඥාව · භාවනා · සිල්පද
පාරමිතාවන් · තෙරුවන්
බෞද්ධ ශ්‍රමණ · ගිහියා

රටවල් සහප්‍රදේශ

බුදු දහමෙහි සම්ප්‍රදායන්

ථේරවාද · මහායාන
වජ්‍රායාන
විවිධ සම්ප්‍රදායන්ට පෙර

ග්‍රන්ථයන්

පාලි ත්‍රිපිටකය · ටිබෙට් ත්‍රිපිටකය
චීන ත්‍රිපිටකය

ආශ්‍රිත ලැයිස්තුව

සංසන්දනාත්මක අධ්‍යයනයන්
බෞද්ධ සංස්කෘතියේ මූලික අංග

Bhadantācariya BuddhaghosaChinese: 覺音)was a 5th-century Indian Theravadin Buddhist commentator and scholar.[1][2] His name means "Voice of the Buddha" in the Pāli language. His best-known work is the Visuddhimagga, or Path of Purification, a comprehensive summary and analysis of the Theravada understanding of the Buddha's path to liberation. The interpretations provided by Buddhaghosa have generally constituted the orthodox understanding of Theravada scriptures since at least the 12th century CE.[3] He is generally recognized by both Western scholars and Theravadins as the most important commentator of the Theravada.[4][2]

Biography[සංස්කරණය]

Limited reliable information is available about the life of Buddhaghosa. Three primary sources of information exist: short prologues and epilogues attached to Buddhaghosa's works; details of his life recorded in the Mahavamsa, a Sri Lankan chronicle; and a later biographical work called the Buddhaghosuppatti.[5] A few other sources discuss the life of Buddhaghosa, but do not appear to add any reliable material.[6]

The biographical excerpts attached to works attributed to Buddhaghosa reveal relatively few details of his life, but were presumably added at the time of his actual composition.[6][7] Largely identical in form, these short excerpts describe Buddhaghosa as having come to Sri Lanka from India, and settled in අනුරාධපුරය.[8] Besides this information, they provide only short lists of teachers, supporters, and associates of Buddhaghosa, whose names are not generally to be found elsewhere for comparison.[8]

The Mahavamsa records that Buddhaghosa was born into a Brahmin family in the kingdom of Magadhi.[2] He is said to have been born near Bodh Gaya, and to have been a master of the Vedas, traveling through India engaging in philosophical debates.[9] Only upon encountering a Buddhist monk named Revata was Buddhaghosa bested in debate, first being defeated in a dispute over the meaning of a Vedic doctrine, and then being confounded by the presentation of a teaching from the Abhidhamma.[9] Impressed, Buddhaghosa became a Buddhist monk and undertook the study of the Tipitaka and its commentaries. On finding a text for which the commentary had been lost in India, Buddhaghosa determined to travel to Sri Lanka to study a Sinhalese commentary that was believed to have been preserved.[9]

In Sri Lanka, Buddhaghosa began to study what was apparently a very large volume of commentarial texts that had been assembled and preserved by the monks of the Mahavihara.[10] Buddhaghosa sought permission to synthesize the assembled Sinhalese-language commentaries into a comprehensive single commentary composed in the Pali language.[11] The elder monks sought to first test Buddhaghosa's knowledge, by assigning him the task of elaborating the doctrine regarding two verses of the suttas; Buddhaghosa replied by composing the Visuddhimagga.[12] His abilities were further tested when deities intervened and hid the text of his book, twice forcing him to recreate it from scratch.[11] When the three texts were found to completely summarize all of the Tripitaka and match in every respect, the monks acceded to his request and provided Buddhaghosa with the full body of their commentaries.[11]

Buddhaghosa went on to write commentaries on most of the other major books of the Pali Canon, with his works becoming the definitive Theravadin interpretation of the scriptures.[2] Having synthesized or translated the whole of the Sinhalese commentary preserved at the Mahavihara, Buddhaghosa reportedly returned to India, making a pilgrimage to Bodh Gaya to pay his respects to the bodhi tree.[11]

The details of the Mahavamsa account cannot readily be verified; while it is generally regarded by Western scholars as having been embellished with legendary events (such as the hiding of Buddhaghosa's text by the gods), in the absence of contradictory evidence it is assumed to be generally accurate.[9] While the Mahavamsa claims that Buddhaghosa was born in northern India near Bodh Gaya, the epilogues to his commentaries make reference to only one location in India as being a place of at least temporary residence: Kanci in southern India.[6] Some scholars thus conclude (among them Oskar von Hinüber and A.P. Buddhadatta) that Buddhaghosa was actually born in southern India, and was relocated in later biographies to give him closer ties to the region of the Buddha.[6]

The Buddhaghosuppatti, a later biographical text, is generally regarded by Western scholars as being legend rather than history.[13] It adds to the Mahavamsa tale certain details, such as the identity of Buddhaghosa's parents and his village, as well as several dramatic episodes, such as the conversion of Buddhaghosa's father and Buddhaghosa's role in deciding a legal case.[14] It also explains the eventual loss of the Sinhalese originals that Buddhaghosa worked from in creating his Pali commentaries by claiming that Buddhaghosa collected and burnt the original manuscripts once his work was completed.[15]

Writings and translations[සංස්කරණය]

Buddhaghosa was reputedly responsible for an extensive project of synthesizing and translating a large body of Sinhala commentaries on the Pāli Canon. His Visuddhimagga (Pāli: Path of Purification) is a comprehensive manual of Theravada Buddhism that is still read and studied today. The Mahavamsa ascribes a great many books to Buddhaghosa's composition, some of which are not believed to have been his work, but rather were composed later and attributed to him.[16]

Below is a listing of the fourteen commentaries traditionally ascribed to Buddhaghosa (Pāli: atthakatha) on the Pāli Tipitaka:[17]

Pali
Tipitaka
Buddhaghosa's
Commentary
from the
Vinaya Pitaka
Vinaya (general) Samantapasadika
Patimokkha Kankhavitarani
from the
Sutta Pitaka
Digha Nikaya Sumangalavilasini
Majjhima Nikaya Papañcasudani
Samyutta Nikaya Saratthappakasini
Anguttara Nikaya Manorathapurani
from the
Khuddaka
Nikaya
Khuddakapatha Paramatthajotika (I)
Dhammapada Dhammapada-atthakatha
Sutta Nipata Paramatthajotika (II),
Suttanipata-atthakatha
Jataka Jatakatthavannana,
Jataka-atthakatha
from the
Abhidhamma
Pitaka
Dhammasangani Atthasalini
Vibhanga Sammohavinodani
Dhatukatha Pañcappakaranatthakatha
Puggalapaññatti
Kathavatthu
Yamaka
Patthana

While traditional accounts list Buddhaghosa as the author of all of these works, the current consensus among scholars accepts only the Visuddhimagga and the commentaries on the first four nikayas as Buddhaghosa's work.[18]

Influence and Legacy[සංස්කරණය]

In the 12th century, the Sri Lankan monk Sariputta became the leading scholar of the Theravada following the reunification of the Sri Lankan monastic community by King Parakramabahu I.[19] Sariputta incorporated many of the works of Buddhaghosa into his own interpretations.[19] In subsequent years, many monks from Theravada traditions in Southeast Asia sought ordination or re-ordination in Sri Lanka because of the reputation of the Sri Lankan Mahavihara lineage for doctrinal purity and scholarship.[19] The result was the spread of the teachings of the Mahavihara tradition- and thus Buddhaghosa- throughout the Theravada world.[19] Buddhaghosa's commentaries thereby became the standard method by which the Theravada scriptures were understood, establishing Buddhaghosa as the definitive interpreter of Theravada doctrine.[12]

In later years, Buddhaghosa's fame and influence inspired various accolades. His life story was recorded, in an expanded and likely exaggerated form, in a Pali chronicle known as the Buddhaghosuppatti, or "The Development of the Career of Buddhaghosa".[12] Despite the general belief that he was Indian by birth, he later may have been claimed by the Mon people of Burma as an attempt to assert primacy over Sri Lanka in the development of Theravada tradition.[20] Other scholars believe that the Mon records refer to another figure, but whose name and personal history are much in the mold of the Indian Buddhaghosa.[21]

Finally, Buddhaghosa's works likely played a significant role in the revival and preservation of the Pali language as the scriptural language of the Theravada, and as a lingua franca in the exchange of ideas, texts, and scholars between Sri Lanka and the Theravada countries of mainland Southeast Asia. The development of new analyses of Theravada doctrine, both in Pali and Sinhalese, seems to have dried up prior to Buddhaghosa's emergence in Sri Lanka.[22] In India, new schools of Buddhist philosophy (such as the Mahayana) were emerging, many of them making use of classical සංස්කෘත both as a scriptural language and as a language of philosophical discourse.[23] The monks of the Mahavihara may have attempted to counter the growth of such schools by re-emphasizing the study and composition in Pali, along with the study of previously disused secondary sources that may have vanished in India, as evidenced by the Mahavamsa.[24] Early indications of this resurgence in the use of Pali as a literary language may be visible in the composition of the Dipavamsa and the Vimuttimagga, both dating to shortly before Buddhaghosa's arrival in Sri Lanka.[25] The addition of Buddhaghosa's works- which combined the pedigree of the oldest Sinhalese commentaries with the use of Pali, a language shared by all of the Theravada learning centers of the time- provided a significant boost to the revitalization of the Pali language and the Theravada intellectual tradition, possibly aiding the Theravada school in surviving the challenge to its position posed by emerging Buddhist schools of mainland India.[26]

Critics[සංස්කරණය]

Australian Buddhist monastic Shravasti Dhammika writes: "Even Buddhaghosa did not really believe that Theravada practice could lead to Nirvana. His Visuddhimagga is supposed to be a detailed step by step guide to enlightenment. And yet in the postscript he says he hopes that the merit he has earned by writing the Vishuddhimagga will allow him to be reborn in heaven, abide there until Metteyya (Maitreya) appears, hear his teaching and then attain enlightenment." [27] Dhammika believes there is a contradiction in Buddhaghosa's position; Buddhaghosa has compiled what is intended to a complete an authoritative guide to gaining enlightenment through the practice of the teachings of the Pali Canon, but seems to desire for himself the option of being taught in person by a Buddha rather than claiming he will be enlightened by the practices set forth in the Visuddhimagga. Shravasti Dhammika interprets this as indicating that Buddhaghosa does not believe that following the practice set forth in the Visuddhimagga will really lead him to Nirvana. Devotion to Maitreya was common in South Asia from early in the Buddhist era, and is believed to have been particularly popular during Buddhaghosa's era.[28][29]

Notes[සංස්කරණය]

  1. සැකිල්ල:Harv is more specific, estimating dates for Buddhaghosa of 370–450 CE based on the Mahavamsa and other sources. Following the Mahavamsa, සැකිල්ල:Harv places Buddhaghosa's arrival as coming during the reign of King Mahanama, between 412 and 434 CE.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 සැකිල්ල:Harv
  3. සැකිල්ල:Harv
  4. සැකිල්ල:Harv
  5. සැකිල්ල:Harv
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 සැකිල්ල:Harv
  7. සැකිල්ල:Harv
  8. 8.0 8.1 සැකිල්ල:Harv
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 සැකිල්ල:Harv
  10. සැකිල්ල:Harv
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 සැකිල්ල:Harv
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 සැකිල්ල:Harv
  13. සැකිල්ල:Harv
  14. සැකිල්ල:Harv
  15. සැකිල්ල:Harv
  16. සැකිල්ල:Harv
  17. Table based on සැකිල්ල:Harv For translations see Atthakatha
  18. For instance, regarding the Khuddha Nikaya commentaries, සැකිල්ල:Harv writes:
    Neither Pj [Paramattha-jotika] I nor Pj II can be dated, not even in relation to each other, except that both presuppose Buddhaghosa. In spite of the 'Buddhaghosa colophon' added to both commentaries ... no immediate relation to Buddhaghosa can be recognized.... Both Ja [Jataka-atthavannana] and Dhp-a [Dhammapada-atthakatha] are traditionally ascribed to Buddhaghosa, an assumption which has been rightly questioned by modern research....
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 සැකිල්ල:Harv
  20. සැකිල්ල:Harv
  21. සැකිල්ල:Harv
  22. සැකිල්ල:Harv
  23. සැකිල්ල:Harv
  24. සැකිල්ල:Harv
  25. සැකිල්ල:Harv
  26. සැකිල්ල:Harv
  27. The Broken Buddhaby S. Dhammika, see p.13 of 80
  28. Sponberg, Alan (2004), "Maitreya", in Buswell, Jr., Robert E., Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, USA: Macmillan Reference USA, pp. 737-738, ISBN 0028659104 
  29. "Maitreya (Buddhism) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia". සම්ප්‍රවේශය 2009-01-28. 

References[සංස්කරණය]

  • Crosby, Kate (2004), "Theravada", in Buswell, Jr., Robert E., Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, USA: Macmillan Reference USA, pp. 836-841, ISBN 0028659104 
  • v. Hinüber, Oskar (1996), A Handbook of Pali Literature, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., ISBN 8121507782 
  • Pranke, Patrick A. (2004), "Myanmar", in Buswell, Jr., Robert E., Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, USA: Macmillan Reference USA, pp. 574-577, ISBN 0028659104 
  • Strong, John (2004), "Buddhaghosa", in Buswell, Jr., Robert E., Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, USA: Macmillan Reference USA, pp. 75, ISBN 0028659104 

Internal links[සංස්කරණය]

External links[සංස්කරණය]

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