- පාලි - ප්රාකෘත - ධර්මපද
- සංස්කෘත - ධර්මපද
ධම්මපදය (පාලි; ප්රාකෘත: धम्मपद ධමපද; සංස්කෘත धर्मपद ධර්මපද) යනු බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේ විසින් විවිධ අවස්ථාවලදී දේශනා කොට වදාළ ගාථාවන්ගේ සංග්රහයකි . ථේරවාද ත්රිපිටකයෙහි ඛුද්දක නිකායට අයත්වන ධම්මපදය පෙළ දහමේ ජනප්රියතම ග්රන්ථයක් ලෙස හැඳින්විය හැකිය.
ධම්මපද යනු ධර්ම පාඨ ඇතුළත් කාව්යමය ලක්ෂණවලින් යුතු ථෙරවාදී බුද්ධාගමේ ඉතා ප්රසිද්ධ සහ ජනප්රිය කෘතියකි. මෙය ඛුද්දක නිකායෙහි අන්තර්ගතය.
බොහෝ ගාථාවන් ධර්ම කරුණු හා සම්බන්ධය. පාලි ධර්ම ග්රන්ථයන්හි කොටස්වල ගාථාවලින් භාගයක් පමණ දක්නට ලැබෙන්නේ වුවද, ධම්මපද යනු සූත්ර පිටකයේ ඛුද්දක නිකායේ කොටසකි. හතරවැනි හෝ පස් වැනි සියවසේ බුද්ධඝෝෂ හිමි විසින් අර්ථකථන දක්වා ඇත. එහි ගාථාවල අර්ථය පැහැදිලි කරන කථා 305 ක් අඩංගු වේ.
ධම්මපදයෙහි බොහෝ ප්රසිද්ධියට පත්ව ඇත්තේ පාලි මුද්රණය වුවද වෙනත් භාෂා අනුවාද ද ඇත.
- ඛරෝස්ති අකුරෙන් ලියන ලද ධර්ම ගුප්තක අනුවාදය.
- ලෝකෝත්තරවාද අනුවාදයක කොටස්.
- පැට්නා ධර්මපද නමින් හැඳින්වෙන බෞද්ධ සංස්කෘත මිශ්ර භාෂාවකින් කරන ලද සම්මතිය අනුවාදය.
- උදාන වර්ග වශයෙන් දන්නා මූල - ශ්රාවස්තිවාද ග්රන්ථවලට සම්බන්ධයයි.
- සංස්කෘත අනුවාද තුනක්
- ටිබෙට් පරිවර්තනයක්.මෙය ටිබෙට් සාම්ප්රදායික බුදු දහමෙහි ජනප්රියව පවතී.
- චීන කෘතීන් 4 ක් - ෆජ්යු ජින් යනුවෙන් නම් කර ඇත. මෙයින් එකක් පාලි අනුවාදයෙහි විශාල කරන ලද පරිවර්තනයක් බව පෙනේ. මෙය සාම්ප්රදායික වශයෙන් ජනප්රිය වී නැත.
The title, Dhammapada, is a compound term composed of dhamma and pada, each word having a number of denotations and connotations. Generally, dhamma can refer to the Buddha's "doctrine" or an "eternal truth" or "righteousness" or all "phenomena"; and, at its root, pada means "foot" and thus by extension, especially in this context, means either "path" or "verse" (cf. "foot (prosody)") or both. English translations of this text's title have used various combinations of these and related words.
ත්රිපිටකය (තෙවලා දහම්)
|සුත්ත පිටකය (සූත්ර පිටකය)|
According to tradition, the Dhammapada's verses were spoken by the Buddha on various occasions. Most verses deal with ethics. The text is part of the Khuddaka Nikaya of the Sutta Pitaka, although over half of the verses exist in other parts of the Pali Canon. A 4th or 5th century CE commentary attributed to Buddhaghosa includes 305 stories which give context to the verses.
Although the Pāli edition is the best-known, a number of other versions are known:
- "Gāndhārī Dharmapada" – a version possibly of Dharmaguptaka or Kāśyapīya origin in Gāndhārī written in Kharosthi script
- "Patna Dharmapada" – a version in Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, most likely Sammatiya
- "Udānavarga" – a seemingly related Mula-Sarvastivada or Sarvastivada text in
- 3 සංස්කෘත versions
- a Tibetan translation, which is popular in traditional Tibetan Buddhism
- "Mahāvastu" – a Lokottaravada text with parallels to verses in the Pāli Dhammapada's Sahassa Vagga and Bhikkhu Vagga.
- "Fajiu jing" – 4 Chinese works; one of these appears to be an expanded translation of the Pali version; this has not traditionally been very popular.
Comparing the Pali Dhammapada, the Gandhari Dharmapada and the Udanavarga, Brough (2001) identifies that the texts have in common 330 to 340 verses, 16 chapter headings and an underlying structure. He suggests that the three texts have a "common ancestor" but underlines that there is no evidence that any one of these three texts might have been the "primitive Dharmapada" from which the other two evolved.
The Dhammapada is considered one of the most popular pieces of Theravada literature. A critical edition of the Dhammapada was produced by Danish scholar Viggo Fausbøll in 1855, becoming the first Pali text to receive this kind of examination by the European academic community.
ගාථා ගණන සහ වස්තු කතා [සංස්කරණය]
ධම්මපදයේ සංගෘහිත ගාථා 423 කි. ඒ බව මෙහි නිගමන ගාථාවල ගාථා සතානි චත්තාරි තෙ වීස ච පුනා පරෙ යන්නෙන් පෙනේ. එහෙත් පස්වැනි කාශ්යප රජුගේ (ව්යවහාරික වර්ෂ 913) දම්පියා අටුවා ගැටපදයේ ඇත්තේ ගාථා 422 කි. මෙහි එන පාද සයේ ගාථාවල පේලි හුවමාරු වීමෙන් මෙසේ වුණි යැයි මතයක් පවතී. සියම් හා මරම්ම පොත් අනුවද ගැණෙන්නේ ගාථා 422 කි. පස්වැනි කාශ්යප රජුට අනුව ගාථාවන්ගේ අර්ථෝප්පත්ති කතා ඇත්තේ 300 කි. පඤ්චාධිකානි තීණි වත්ථු සතානි ලෙස බුරුම ධම්මපද නිගමන වලින් කතා 305 ක් ඇති බවක් කියැවෙයි. ලංකාවේ ධම්මපදට්ඨකථා නිගමනයේ සඳහන් වන්නේ කතා 304 කි. එකුණානි තීණි වත්ථු සතානි යනුවෙන් එහි සඳහන් වේ. වම්බටුවැවේ ධර්මකීර්ති ශ්රී ශ්රීනිවාස හිමියන් විසින් සම්පාදිත ධර්මපද ප්රදීපය ග්රන්ථයේද මෙසේ සඳහන් වේ.
සංවිධානය වී ඇති පිළිවෙල [සංස්කරණය]
පාලි ධම්මපදයෙහි ගාථා 423 ක් ඇතුළත් වේ. පරිච්ඡේද 26 කි. ඒවා පාලි භාෂාවෙන් පහත පරිදි වේ.
|i.යමක වග්ග - යුගල වර්ගය|
|ii. අප්පමාදවග්ග - අප්රමාද බව|
|iii. චිත්තවග්ග - සිතිවිලි|
|iv. පුෂ්ඵ වග්ග - මල්|
|v. බාල වග්ග - මෝඩ|
|vi. පණ්ඩිත වග්ග - ඥාණවන්ත|
|vii. අරහන්ත වග්ග - පූජනීය|
|viii. සහස්ස වග්ග - දහස්|
|ix. පාප වග්ග - පව|
|x. දණ්ඩ වග්ග - දඬුවම්|
|xi. ජරා වග්ග - මහලු|
|xii අත්ථ වග්ග - තමාම|
|xiii ලෝක වග්ග - ලෝකය|
|xiv. බුද්ධ වග්ග - බුදුන් (උධෘත බලන්න)|
|xv. සුඛ වග්ග - සැප|
|xvi. පිය වග්ග - සතුට|
|xvii. කෝධ වග්ග - තරහ|
|xix ධම්ම වග්ග - යුක්තිය|
|xx. මාග්ග වග්ග - මාර්ගය|
|xxi පකීර්ණක වග්ග - විවිධ|
|xxii නිරය වග්ග - අපාය|
|xxiii නාග වග්ග - ඇතා|
|xxiv භික්ඛු වග්ග - භික්ෂූන්|
|xxv බ්රාහ්මණ වග්ග - බමුණන්|
The following English translations are from Müller (1881). The Pali text is from the Sri Lanka Tripitaka Project (SLTP) edition.
Ch. I. Twin Verses (Yamaka-vaggo) [සංස්කරණය]
|1.||වේදනා සංඤා සංස්කාර යන චතසික ධර්මයෝ සිත මූලික කරගෙන ඇතිවේ. නරක සිතුවිලි වලින් දූෂිත වූ සිත බොරු කේලම් පරුෂ වචන ආදී කතාවෙන් කරන වැරදි කරයි නම් හෝ පර පන නැසීම සොරකම් ආදී පව් කරයිද එසේ නම් ගොනුට බර දෙමින් ගොනු පසුපස යන කරත්තය මෙන් තම වැරදිද තමාට දඬුවම් දෙමින් තමා සමඟම පැමිනෙයි.||මනෝ පුබ්බඞ ගමා ධම්මා මනෝ සෙට්ඨා මනොමයා
මනසා චෙ පදුට්ඨෙන භාසති වා කරොති වා
තතෝ නං දුක්ඛ මන්වෙති චක්කං'ව වහතෝ පදං.
|2.||වේදනා සංඤා සංස්කාර යන චතසික ධර්මයෝ සිත මූලික කරගෙන ඇතිවේ. යහපත් සිතුවිලි වලින් පැහැදුනා වූ සිත මනා තෙපුලක් කරයි නම් හෝදානය ආදී පින් කරයිද එසේ නම් ශරීරය අතනොහැර ශරීරය සමඟම ගමන් කරන සෙවනැල්ල මෙන් තම කුසලයන්ද සැපය දෙමින් තමා සමඟම පැමිනෙයි.||මනෝ පුබ්බඞ්ගමා ධම්මා මනෝ සෙට්ඨා මනෝමයා
මනසා චේ පසන්නේන භාසතී වා කරෝති වා
තතෝ නං සුඛමන්වේති ජායාව අනපායිනී.
|5.||For hatred does not cease by hatred at any time: hatred ceases by love, this is an old rule.||Na hi verena verāni sammantīdha kudācanaṃ
Averena ca sammanti esa dhammo sanantano.
Ch. X. Punishment (Daṇḍa-vaggo) [සංස්කරණය]
|131.||He who seeking his own happiness punishes or kills beings who also long for happiness, will not find happiness after death.||Sukhakāmāni bhūtāni yodaṇḍena vihiṃsati
Attano sukhamesāno pecca so na labhate sukhaṃ.
|132.||He who seeking his own happiness does not punish or kill beings who also long for happiness, will find happiness after death.||Sukhakāmāni bhūtāni yodaṇḍena na hiṃsati
Attano sukhamesāno pecca so labhate sukhaṃ.
|133.||Do not speak harshly to anybody; those who are spoken to will answer thee in the same way. Angry speech is painful, blows for blows will touch thee.||Mā'voca pharusaṃ kañci vuttā paṭivadeyyu taṃ
Dukkhā hi sārambhakathā paṭidaṇḍā phuseyyu taṃ.
Chapter XII: Self (Atta-vaggo) [සංස්කරණය]
|157.||If a man hold himself dear, let him watch himself carefully; during one at least out of the three watches a wise man should be watchful.|
|158.||Let each man direct himself first to what is proper, then let him teach others; thus a wise man will not suffer.|
|159.||If a man make himself as he teaches others to be, then, being himself well subdued, he may subdue (others); one's own self is indeed difficult to subdue.|
|160.||Self is the lord of self, who else could be the lord? With self well subdued, a man finds a lord such as few can find.|
|161.||The evil done by oneself, self-begotten, self-bred, crushes the foolish, as a diamond breaks a precious stone.|
|162.||He whose wickedness is very great brings himself down to that state where his enemy wishes him to be, as a creeper does with the tree which it surrounds.|
|163.||Bad deeds, and deeds hurtful to ourselves, are easy to do; what is beneficial and good, that is very difficult to do.|
|164.||The foolish man who scorns the rule of the venerable (Arahat), of the elect (Ariya), of the virtuous, and follows false doctrine, he bears fruit to his own destruction, like the fruits of the Katthaka reed.|
|165.||By oneself the evil is done, by oneself one suffers; by oneself evil is left undone, by oneself one is purified. Purity and impurity belong to oneself, no one can purify another.|
|166.||Let no one forget his own duty for the sake of another's, however great; let a man, after he has discerned his own duty, be always attentive to his duty.|
Ch. XIV: The Buddha (The Awakened) (Buddha-vaggo) [සංස්කරණය]
|183.||Not to commit any sin, to do good, and to purify one's mind, that is the teaching of (all) the Awakened.||Sabbapāpassa akaraṇaṃ kusalassa upasampadā
Sacittapariyodapanaṃ etaṃ buddhāna sāsanaṃ.
Ch. XX: The Way (Magga-vaggo) [සංස්කරණය]
|276.||You yourself must make an effort. The Tathagatas (Buddhas) are only preachers. The thoughtful who enter the way are freed from the bondage of Mara.||Tumhehi kiccaṃ ātappaṃ akkhātāro tathāgatā
Paṭipannā pamokkhanti jhāyino mārabandhanā.
|277.||'All created things perish,' he who knows and sees this becomes passive in pain; this is the way to purity.||Sabbe saṅkhārā aniccā'ti yadā paññāya passati
Atha nibbindati dukkhe esa maggo visuddhiyā.
|278.||'All created things are grief and pain,' he who knows and sees this becomes passive in pain; this is the way that leads to purity.||Sabbe saṅkhārā dukkhā'ti yadā paññāya passati
Atha nibbindati dukkhe esa maggo visuddhiyā.
|279.||'All forms are unreal,' he who knows and sees this becomes passive in pain; this is the way that leads to purity.||Sabbe dhammā anattā'ti yadā paññāya passati
Atha nibbindati dukkhe esa maggo visuddhiyā.
Ch. XXIV: Thirst (Taṇhā-vaggo) [සංස්කරණය]
|343.||Men, driven on by thirst, run about like a snared hare; let therefore the mendicant drive out thirst, by striving after passionlessness for himself.||Tasiṇāya purakkhatā pajā parisappanti saso'va bādhito
Tasmā tasiṇaṃ vinodaye bhikkhu ākaṅkhī virāgamattano.
|350.||If a man delights in quieting doubts, and, always reflecting, dwells on what is not delightful (the impurity of the body, &c.), he certainly will remove, nay, he will cut the fetter of Mara.||Vitakkupasame ca yo rato asubhaṃ bhāvayati sadā sato
Esa kho vyantikāhiti esa checchati mārabandhanaṃ.
Chapter XII: Self [සංස්කරණය]
157 If you hold yourself dear guard yourself diligently. Keep vigil during one of the three watches of the night.
158 Learn what is right; then teach others as the wise do.
159 Before trying to guide others, be your own guide first. It is hard to learn to guide oneself.
160 Your own self is your master; who else could be? With your own self controlled, your gain a master very hard to find.
161 The evil done by the selfish crushes them as a 162 diamond breaks a hard gem. As a vine over- powers a tree, evil over-powers the evil doer, trapping him in a situation only his enemies 163 would wish him to be in. Evil deeds, which harm oneself, are easy to do; good deeds are not so easy.
164 Foolish people who scoff at teachings of the wise, the noble, and the good, following false doctrines bring about their own down- fall like the khattaka tree, which dies after bearing fruit.
165 By oneself is evil done; by oneself one is in- jured. Do not do evil, and suffering will not come. Everyone has the choice to be pure or impure. No one can purify another.
166 Don’t neglect you own duty for another, however great. Know your own duty and perform it.
Translated by Eknath Easwaran
Literary Merits [සංස්කරණය]
The literary merits of the Dhammapada are a matter of disagreement. Pali scholar K.R. Norman notes that some readers have claimed that the Dhammapada is a "masterpiece of Indian literature", but that this assessment is not universally shared. John Brough, who wrote extensively on the subject of the related Gāndhārī Dharmapada, believed that the text had largely been composed from a patchwork of cliches, and that while it contained a few novel and well-constructed verses, suffered from an "accumulation of insipid mediocrity." While he believed that the Dhammapada did not warrant the high praised sometimes lavished upon it, Brough did note that it contained "small fragments of excellent poetry", and that the Dhammapada fared well when considered alongside other, similarly composite works. Several scholars have noted that much of the Dhammapada consists of vague moral aphorisms, many of them not clearly specific to Buddhism at all.
English translations [සංස්කරණය]
- Tr F. Max Müller, in Buddhist Parables, by E. W. Burlinghame, 1869; reprinted in Sacred Books of the East, volume X, Clarendon/Oxford, 1881; reprinted in Buddhism, by Clarence Hamilton; reprinted separately by Watkins, 2006; reprinted 2008 by Red and Black Publishers, St Petersburg, Florida, ISBN 978-1-934941-03-4; the first English translation (a Latin translation by V. Fausböll had appeared in 1855)
- Tr J. Gray, American Mission Press, Rangoon, 1881
- Tr J. P. Cooke & O. G. Pettis, Boston (Massachusetts?), 1898
- Hymns of Faith, tr Albert J. Edmunds, Open Court, Chicago, & Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., London, 1902
- Tr Norton T. W. Hazeldine, Denver, Colorado, 1902
- The Buddha's Way of Virtue, tr W. D. C. Wagiswara & K. J. Saunders, John Murray, London, 1912
- Tr Silacara, Buddhist Society, London, 1915
- Tr Suriyagoda Sumangala, in Ceylon Antiquary, 1915
- Tr A. P. Buddhadatta, Colombo Apothecaries, 1920?
- The Buddha's Path of Virtue, tr F. L. Woodward, Theosophical Publishing House, London & Madras, 1921
- In Buddhist Legends, tr E. W. Burlinghame, Harvard Oriental Series, 1921, 3 volumes; reprinted by Pali Text Society, Bristol; translation of the stories from the commentary, with the Dhammapada verses embedded
- Tr R. D. Shrikhande and/or P. L. Vaidya (according to different bibliographies; or did one publisher issue two translations in the same year?), Oriental Book Agency, Poona, 1923; includes Pali text
- "Verses on Dhamma", in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, volume I, tr C. A. F. Rhys Davids, 1931, Pali Text Society, Bristol; verse translation; includes Pali text
- Tr N. K. Bhag(w?)at, Buddha Society, Bombay, 1931/5; includes Pali text
- The Way of Truth, tr S. W. Wijayatilake, Madras, 1934
- Tr Irving Babbitt, Oxford University Press, New York & London, 1936; revision of Max Müller
- Tr K. Gunaratana, Penang, Malaya, 1937
- The Path of the Eternal Law, tr Swami Premananda, Self-Realization Fellowship, Washington DC, 1942
- Tr Dhammajoti, Maha Bodhi Society, Benares, 1944
- Tr Jack Austin, Buddhist Society, London, 1945
- Stories of Buddhist India, tr Piyadassi, 2 volumes, Moratuwa, Ceylon, 1949 & 1953; includes stories from the commentary
- Tr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Oxford University Press, London, 1950; includes Pali text
- Collection of Verses on the Doctrine of the Buddha, comp Bhadragaka, Bangkok, 1952
- Tr T. Latter, Moulmein, Burma, 1950?
- Tr W. Somalokatissa, Colombo, 1953
- Tr Narada, John Murray, London, 1954
- Tr E. W. Adikaram, Colombo, 1954
- Tr A. P. Buddhadatta, Colombo, 1954; includes Pali text
- Tr Siri Sivali, Colombo, 1954
- Tr ?, Cunningham Press, Alhambra, California, 1955
- Tr C. Kunhan Raja, Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar/Madras, 1956; includes Pali text
- Free rendering and interpretation by Wesley La Violette, Los Angeles, 1956
- Tr Buddharakkhita, Maha Bodhi Society, Bangalore, 1959; 4th edn, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka, 1996; includes Pali text
- Tr Suzanne Karpelès?, serialized in Advent (Pondicherry, India), 1960-65; reprinted in Questions and Answers, Collected Works of the Mother, 3, Pondicherry, 1977
- Growing the Bodhi Tree in the Garden of the Heart, tr Khantipalo, Buddhist Association of Thailand, Bangkok, 1966; reprinted as The Path of Truth, Bangkok, 1977
- Tr P. Lal, New York, 1967/70
- Tr Juan Mascaró, Penguin Classics, 1973
- Tr Thomas Byrom, Shambhala, Boston, Massachusetts, & Wildwood House, London, 1976 (ISBN 0-87773-966-8)
- Tr Ananda Maitreya, serialized in Pali Buddhist Review, 1 & 2, 1976/7; offprinted under the title Law Verses, Colombo, 1978; revised by Rose Kramer (under the Pali title), originally published by Lotsawa Publications in 1988, reprinted by Parallax Press in 1995
- The Buddha's Words, tr Sathienpong Wannapok, Bangkok, 1979
- Wisdom of the Buddha, tr Harischandra Kaviratna, Pasadena, 1980; includes Pali text
- The Eternal Message of Lord Buddha, tr Silananda, Calcutta, 1982; includes Pali text
- Tr Chhi Med Rig Dzin Lama, Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, Sarnath, India, 1982; tr from the modern Tibetan translation by dGe-'dun Chos-'phel; includes Pali & Tibetan texts
- Tr & pub Dharma Publishing, Berkeley, California, 1985; tr from the modern Tibetan translation by dGe-'dun Chos-'phel
- Commentary, with text embedded, tr Department of Pali, University of Rangoon, published by Union Buddha Sasana Council, Rangoon (date uncertain; 1980s)
- Tr Daw Mya Tin, Burma Pitaka Association, Rangoon, 1986; probably currently published by the Department for the Promotion and Propagation of the Sasana, Rangoon, and/or Sri Satguru, Delhi
- Path of Righteousness, tr David J. Kalupahana, Universities Press of America, Lanham, Maryland, c. 1986
- Tr Raghavan Iyer, Santa Barbara, 1986; includes Pali text
- Tr Eknath Easwaran, Arkana, London, 1986/7(ISBN 978-1-58638-019-9); reissued with new material Nilgiri Press 2007, Tomales, CA (ISBN 9781586380205)
- Tr John Ross Carter & Mahinda Palihawadana, Oxford University Press, New York, 1987; the original hardback edition also includes the Pali text and the commentary's explanations of the verses; the paperback reprint in the World's Classics Series omits these
- Tr U. D. Jayasekera, Colombo, 1992
- Treasury of Truth, tr Weragoda Sarada, Taipei, 1993
- Tr Thomas Cleary, Thorsons, London, 1995
- The Word of the Doctrine, tr K. R. Norman, 1997, Pali Text Society, Bristol; the PTS's preferred translation
- Tr Anne Bancroft?, Element Books, Shaftesbury, Dorset, & Richport, Massachusetts, 1997
- Tr F. Max Müller (see above), revised Jack Maguire, SkyLight Pubns, Woodstock, Vermont, 2002
- Tr Glenn Wallis, Modern Library, New York, 2004 (ISBN 0-679-64397-9)
- Tr Gil Fronsdal, Shambhala, Boston, Massachusetts, 2005 (ISBN 1-59030-380-6)
- Tr Bhikkhu Varado, Inward Path, Malaysia, 2007; Dhammapada in English Verse
See also online translations listed below.
- See, e.g., the Gāndhārī Dharmapada (GDhp), verses 301, 302, in: Brough (1962/2001), p. 166; and, Ānandajoti (2007), ch. 4, "Pupphavagga" (retrieved 25 November 2008 from "Ancient Buddhist Texts" at http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Buddhist-Texts/C3-Comparative-Dhammapada/CD-04-Puppha.htm).
- See, for instance, Buswell (2003): "rank[s] among the best known Buddhist texts" (p. 11); and, "one of the most popular texts with Buddhist monks and laypersons" (p. 627). Harvey (2007), p. 322, writes: "Its popularity is reflected in the many times it has been translated into Western languages"; Brough (2001), p. xvii, writes: "The collection of Pali ethical verses entitled Dhammapada is one of the most widely known of early Buddhist texts."
- See, e.g., Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), pp. 335-39, entry "Dhamma," retrieved 25 November 2008 from "U. Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.1:1:2654.pali.
- See, e.g., Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 408, entry "Pada," retrieved 25 November 2008 from "U. Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.2:1:1516.pali.
- See, for instance, C.A.F Rhys David's "Verses on Dhamma," Kalupahana's "The Path of Righteousness," Norman's "The Word of the Doctrine," Woodward's "The Buddha's Path of Virtue," and other titles identified below at "English translations".
- See also Fronsdal (2005), pp. xiii-xiv. Fronsdal, p. xiv, further comments:
- ... If we translate the title based on how the term dhammapada is used in the verses [see Dhp verses 44, 45, 102], it should probably be translated 'Sayings of the Dharma,' 'Verses of the Dharma,' or 'Teachings of the Dharma.' However, if we construe pada as 'path,' as in verse 21 ..., the title could be 'The Path of the Dharma.' Ultimately, as many translators clearly concur, it may be best not to translate the title at all.
- Pertinent episodes allegedly involving the historic Buddha are found in the commentary (Buddharakkhita & Bodhi, 1985, p. 4). In addition, a number of the Dhammapada's verses are identical with text from other parts of the Pali tipitaka that are directly attributed to the Buddha in the latter texts. For instance, Dhammapada verses 3, 5, 6, 328-330 can also be found in MN 128 (Ñāṇamoli & Bodhi, 2001, pp. 1009-1010, 1339 n. 1187).
- Harvey (2007), p. 322, line v.b., refers to the Dhammapada as "a popular collection of 423 pithy verses of a largely ethical nature." Similarly, Brough (2001)'s preface (p. xvii) starts: "The collection of Pali ethical verses entitled Dhammapada is one of the most widely known of early Buddhist texts."
- Geiger (2004), p. 19, para. 11.2 writes:
More than half the verses may be found also in other canonical texts. The compiler of the [Dhammapada] however certainly did not depend solely on these canonical texts but also made use of the great mass of pithy sayings which formed a vast floating literature in India.
- Buddhist Studies Review, 6, 2, 1989, page 153, reprinted in Norman, Collected Papers, volume VI, 1996, Pali Text Society, Bristol, page 156
- Brough (2001), pp. 44-45, summarizes his findings and inferences as:
- "... We can with reasonable confidence say that the Gāndhārī text did not belong to the schools responsible for the Pali Dhammapada, the Udānavarga, and the Mahāvastu; and unless we are prepared to dispute the attribution of any of these, this excludes the Sarvāstivādins and the Lokottaravāda-Mahāsānghikas, as well as the Theravādins (and probably, in company with the last, the Mahīśāsakas). Among possible claimants, the Dharmaguptakas and Kāśyapīyas must be considered as eligible, but still other possibilities cannot be ruled out."
- Brough (2001). The original manuscript is believed to have been written in the first or second century CE.
- See, e.g., Cone (1989).
- Journal of the Pali Text Society, volume XXIII, pages 113f
- Brough (2001), pp. 38-41, indicates that the Udanavarga is of Sarvastivadin origin.
- Hinüber (2000), p. 45, para. 89, notes:
- More than half of [the Dhammapada verses] have parallels in corresponding collections in other Buddhist schools, frequently also in non-Buddhist texts. The interrelation of these different versions has been obscured by constant contamination in the course of the text transmission. This is particularly true in case of one of the Buddhist Sanskrit parallels. The Udānavarga originally was a text corres[p]onding to the Pāli Udāna.... By adding verses from the Dhp [Dhammapada] it was transformed into a Dhp parallel in course of time, which is a rare event in the evolution of Buddhist literature.
- Law (1930), p. iv; and, Ānandajoti (2007), "Introduction," "Sahassavagga" and "Bhikkhuvagga."
- Brough (2001), pp. 23-30. After considering the hypothesis that these texts might lack a "common ancestor," Brough (2001), p. 27, conjectures:
- On the evidence of the texts themselves it is much more likely that the schools, in some manner or other, had inherited from the period before the schisms which separated them, a definite tradition of a Dharmapada-text which ought to be included in the canon, however fluctuating the contents of this text might have been, and however imprecise the concept even of a 'canon' at such an early period. The differing developments and rearrangements of the inherited material would have proceeded along similar lines to those which, in the Brahmanical schools, produced divergent but related collections of texts in the different Yajur-veda traditions.
- ... [When] only the common material [is] considered, a comparison of the Pali Dhammapada, the Gandhari text, and the Udanavarga, has produced no evidence whatsoever that any one of these has any superior claim to represent a 'primitive Dharmapada' more faithfully than the others. Since the contrary appears to have been assumed from time to time, it is desirable to say with emphasis that the Pali text is not the primitive Dharmapada. The assumption that it was would make its relationship to the other texts altogether incomprehensible.
- v. Hinüber, Oskar (2004), "Dhammapada", in Buswell, Jr., Robert E., Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, USA: Macmillan Reference USA, pp. 216–17, ISBN 0028659104
- වම්බටුවැවේ ධර්මකීර්ති ශ්රී ශ්රීනිවාස හිමියන් විසින් සම්පාදිත ධර්මපද ප්රදීපය
- Pali retrieved 2008-03-28 from "Bodhgaya News" (formerly, La Trobe U.) starting at http://www.bodhgayanews.net/tipitaka.php?title=&record=7150, and from "MettaNet - Lanka" at http://www.mettanet.org/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pitaka/5Khuddaka-Nikaya/02Dhammapada/index.html.
- Brough, John (2001). Gandhari Dharmapada (Buddhist Tradition) (v. 43). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. pp. xxi-xxii. ISBN 81-208-1740-0. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=aytJ5w074RYC&dq=Gandhari+Dharmapada&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=yh3YA_-_rG&sig=wgQn_rMwSYzqQInStPJEHzl_OKY&ei=Vk2GSdSZJ5mQsQOc15l4&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=result#PPP1,M1. Retrieved 2009-02-01.
- Ānandajoti Bhikkhu (2007). A Comparative Edition of the Dhammapada. U. of Peradeniya. Retrieved 25 Nov 2008 from "Ancient Buddhist Texts" at http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Buddhist-Texts/C3-Comparative-Dhammapada/index.htm.
- Brough, John (2001). The Gāndhārī Dharmapada. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited.
- Buswell, Robert E. (ed.) (2003). Encyclopedia of Buddhism. MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0028657189.
- Cone, Margaret (transcriber) (1989). "Patna Dharmapada" in the Journal of the Pali Text Society (Vol. XIII), pp. 101–217. Oxford: PTS. Retrieved 06-15-2008 from "Ancient Buddhist Texts" at http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Buddhist-Texts/C5-Patna/index.htm. [On-line text interspersed with Pali parallels compiled by Ānandajoti Bhikkhu (2007).]
- Fronsdal, Gil (2005). The Dhammapada. Boston: Shambhala. ISBN 1-59030-380-6.
- Geiger, Wilhelm (trans. by Batakrishna Ghosh) (1943, 2004). Pāli Literature and Language. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. ISBN 81-215-0716-2.
- Harvey, Peter (1990, 2007). An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-31333-3.
- Hinüber, Oskar von (2000). A Handbook of Pāli Literature. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-016738-7.
- Law, Bimala Churn (1930). A Study of the Mahāvastu. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink & Co. Retrieved 26 Nov 2008 from "Archive.org" at http://ia331310.us.archive.org/flipbook/flipbook.php?identifier=studyofthemahava031355mbp&datapath=/3/items/studyofthemahava031355mbp&dataserver=ia331310.us.archive.org.
- Müller, F. Max (1881). The Dhammapada (Sacred Books Of The East, Vol. X). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2008-04-02 from "WikiSource" at http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Dhammapada_(Muller).
- Ñāṇamoli, Bhikkhu (trans.) & Bhikkhu Bodhi (ed.) (2001). The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Majjhima Nikāya. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-072-X.
- Rhys Davids, T.W. & William Stede (eds.) (1921-5). The Pali Text Society’s Pali–English Dictionary. Chipstead: Pali Text Society. A general on-line search engine for the PED is available from "U. Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/pali/.
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Dhammapada at HolyeBooks.org
- by Bhikkhu Varado and Samanera Bodhesako (2008)
- by John Richards (1993)
- by Thomas Byrom (1993)
- by Buddharakkhita (1985) (pdf has intro by Bhikkhu Bodhi)
- by Thanissaro (1997)
- Detailed word-by-word translation of the Dhammapada, including explanation of grammar