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ව්‍යාධිජනක බැක්ටීරියා

විකිපීඩියා වෙතින්
Pathogenic bacteria
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (small red dots) in pus from a man with a urethral discharge (Gram stain)

රෝගකාරක බැක්ටීරියා එසේත් නැත්නම් ව්‍යාධිජනක බැක්ටීරියා (ඉංග්‍රීසි:  Pathogenic bacteria) යනු රෝග ඇති කළ හැකි බැක්ටීරියා වෙයි.[1] මෙම ලිපිය මිනිසුන් හට රෝගා සාදන බැක්ටීරියා පිළිබඳව ය. බොහෝ බැක්ටීරියා විශේෂ, හානිකර නොවන අතර බොහෝ විට වැඩදායක වන නමුත් අනෙක් ඒවා බෝවන රෝග ඇති කළ හැක. මිනිසාට හානිදායක බැක්ටීරියා විශේෂ ගණන සියයකට වඩා අඩු යැයි ඇස්තමේන්තුකර ඇත.[2] එසේ වන්නේ, ආහාර මාර්ගය තුළ පමණක් බැක්ටීරියා විශේෂ දහස් ගණන් වාසය කරන්නේ යැයි සැළකෙන අතර ය.[තහවුරු කර නොමැත]

List of genera and microscopy features

[සංස්කරණය]

Many genera contain pathogenic bacterial species. They often possess characteristics that help to classify and organize them into groups. The following is a partial listing.

Genus Species Gram staining Shape Oxygen requirement Intra/Extracellular
Bacillus[3] Positive Rods Facultative anaerobic Extracellular
Bartonella[3] Negative Rods Aerobic Facultative intracellular
Bordetella[3] Negative Small coccobacilli Aerobic Extracellular
Borrelia[3] Negative, stains poorly Spirochete Anaerobic Extracellular
Brucella[3] Negative Coccobacilli Aerobic Intracellular
Campylobacter[3] Negative Spiral rods[6]
coccoid in older cultures[6]
Microaerophilic[6] Extracellular
Chlamydia and Chlamydophila[3] (not Gram-stained) Small, round, ovoid Facultative or strictly aerobic Obligate intracellular
Clostridium[3] Positive Large, blunt-ended rods Obligate anaerobic Extracellular
Corynebacterium[3] Positive (unevenly) Rods Mostly facultative anaerobic Extracellular
Enterococcus[5][9] Positive Cocci Facultative Anaerobic Extracellular
Escherichia[10][5][11] Negative Rods Facultative anaerobic Extracellular or Intracellular
Francisella[3] Negative Coccobacillus Strictly aerobic Facultative intracellular
Haemophilus Negative Coccobacilli to long and slender filaments Facultative anaerobic 5 - 10% CO2 Extracellular
Helicobacter Negative Spiral rod Microaerophile Extracellular
Legionella[3] Negative, stains poorly Cocobacilli Aerobic Facultative intracellular
Leptospira[5][14] Negative, stains poorly Spirochete Strictly aerobic Extracellular
Listeria[3] Positive, darkly Slender, short rods Facultative Anaerobic Facultative intracellular
Mycobacterium[3] (none) Long, slender rods Aerobic Intracellular
Mycoplasma[3] (none) Indistinct 'fried egg' appearance, no cell wall Mostly facultative anaerobic; M. pneumoniae strictly aerobic Extracellular
Neisseria[5][15] Negative Kidney bean-shaped Aerobic Gonococcus: facultative intracellular
N. meningitidis
: extracellular
Pseudomonas[5][16] Negative Rods Obligate aerobic Extracellular
Rickettsia[3] Negative, stains poorly Small, rod-like coccobacillary Aerobic Obligate intracellular
Salmonella[3] Negative Rods Facultative anaerobica Facultative intracellular
Shigella[5][17] Negative Rods Facultative anaerobic Extracellular
Staphylococcus[10] Positive, darkly Round cocci Facultative anaerobic Extracellular, facultative intracellular
Streptococcus[3] Positive Ovoid to spherical Facultative anaerobic Extracellular
Treponema[3] Negative, stains poorly Spirochete Aerobic Extracellular
Ureaplasma[10] Stains poorly[18] Indistinct, 'fried egg' appearance, no cell wall Anaerobic Extracellular
Vibrio[5][19] Negative Spiral with single polar flagellum Facultative anaerobic Extracellular
Yersinia[5][20] Negative, bipolarly Small rods Facultative anaerobe Intracellular

List of species and clinical characteristics

[සංස්කරණය]

This is description of the more common genera and species presented with their clinical characteristics and treatments.

Species of human pathogenic bacteria
Species Transmission Diseases Treatment Prevention
Actinomyces israelii Oral flora[22] Actinomycosis:[22] painful abscesses and cysts MRSA in the mouth, lungs,[23][24] or gastrointestinal tract.[7] Prolonged penicillin G and drainage[22]
Bacillus anthracis

Contact with cattle, sheep, goats and horses[25]
Spores enter through inhalation or through abrasions[5]

Anthrax: pulmonary, gastrointestinal and/or cutaneous symptoms.[22]

In early infection:[26]

Penicillin
Doxycycline
Ciprofloxacin
Raxibacumab[27]

Anthrax vaccine[5]
Autoclaving of equipment[5]

Bacteroides fragilis Gut flora[22] Abscesses in gastrointestinal tract, pelvic cavity and lungs[22] metronidazole[22] Wound care[28]

Aspiration prevention[28]

Bordetella pertussis

Contact with respiratory droplets expelled by infected human hosts.[5]

Whooping cough[5][22]
Secondary bacterial pneumonia[5]

Macrolides[5] such as erythromycin,[5][22] before paroxysmal stage[22]

Pertussis vaccine,[5][22] such as in DPT vaccine[5][22]

Borrelia B. burgdorferi[5][22]

B. garinii[5]
B. afzelii[5]

Ixodes hard ticks
Reservoir in mice, other small mammals, and birds[29]

Lyme disease[30][31]

Doxycycline for adults, amoxicillin for children, ceftriaxone for neurological involvement[30]

Wearing clothing that limits skin exposure to ticks.[5]
Insect repellent.[5]
Avoid areas where ticks are found.[5]

B. recurrentis[32]

and others[note 1]

Pediculus humanus corporis body louse (B. recurrentis only) and Ornithodoros soft ticks[32] Relapsing fever Penicillin, tetracycline, doxycycline[33] Avoid areas where ticks are found[32]

Better access to washing facilities[32]
Reduce crowding[32]
Pesticides[32]

Brucella B. abortus

B. canis
B. melitensis
B. suis

Direct contact with infected animal[5]
Oral, by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or milk products[5]

Brucellosis: mainly fever, muscular pain and night sweats

doxycycline[5]
streptomycin
or gentamicin[5]

Campylobacter jejuni

Fecal–oral from animals (mammals and fowl)[5][22]
Uncooked meat (especially poultry)[5][22]
Contaminated water[5]

Treat symptoms[5]
Fluoroquinolone[22] such as ciprofloxacin[5] in severe cases[5]

Good hygiene[5]
Avoiding contaminated water[5]
Pasteurizing milk and milk products[5]
Cooking meat (especially poultry)[5]

Chlamydia C. pneumoniae

Respiratory droplets[5][22]

Atypical pneumonia[22]

Doxycycline[5][22]
Erythromycin[5][22]

None[5]
C. trachomatis

vaginal sex[5]
oral sex[5]
anal sex[5] Vertical from mother to newborn(ICN)[5]
Direct or contaminated surfaces and flies (trachoma)[5]

Trachoma[5][22]
Neonatal conjunctivitis[5][22]
Neonatal pneumonia[5][22]
Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU)[5][22]
Urethritis[5][22]
Pelvic inflammatory disease[5][22]
Epididymitis[5][22]
Prostatitis[5][22]
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)[5][22]

Erythromycin[5][22]
(adults)[22] Doxycycline[5][22]
(infants and pregnant women)[22]

Erythromycin or silver nitrate in newborn's eyes[5]
Safe sex[5]
Abstinence[5]

Chlamydophila psittaci Inhalation of dust with secretions or feces from birds (e.g. parrots) Psittacosis, mainly atypical pneumonia

Tetracycline[5]
Doxycycline[5]
Erythromycin[5]

-
Clostridium C. botulinum Spores from soil,[5][22] persevere in canned food, smoked fish and honey[22]

Botulism: Mainly muscle weakness and paralysis[22]

Antitoxin[5][22]
Penicillin[22]
Hyperbaric oxygen[22]
Mechanical ventilation[22]

Proper food preservation techniques

C. difficile

Gut flora,[5][22] overgrowing when other flora is depleted[5]

Pseudomembranous colitis[5][22]

Discontinuing responsible antibiotic[5][22]
Vancomycin or metronidazole if severe[5][22]

Fecal bacteriotherapy
C. perfringens

Spores in soil[5][22]
Vaginal flora and gut flora[5]

Anaerobic cellulitis[5][22]
Gas gangrene[5][22] Acute food poisoning[5][22]

Gas gangrene:

Debridement or amputation[5][22]
Hyperbaric medicine[5][22]
High doses of doxycycline[5] or penicillin G[5][22] and clindamycin[22]
Food poisoning: Supportive care is sufficient[5]

Appropriate food handling[5]
C. tetani

Spores in soil, skin penetration through wounds[5][22]

Tetanus: muscle spasms[34]

Tetanus immune globulin[5][22] Sedatives[5]
Muscle relaxants[5]
Mechanical ventilation[5][22]
Penicillin or metronidazole[22]

Tetanus vaccine (such as in the DPT vaccine)[5]

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

respiratory droplets
part of human flora

Diphtheria: Fever, sore throat and neck swelling, potentially narrowing airways.[35]

Horse serum antitoxin
Erythromycin
Penicillin

DPT vaccine

Ehrlichia E. canis[22]

E. chaffeensis[22]

Dog tick[22] Ehrlichiosis:[22] headache, muscle aches, and fatigue
Enterococcus E. faecalis

E. faecium

Part of gut flora,[22] opportunistic or entering through GI tract or urinary system wounds[5]

Bacterial endocarditis,[22] biliary tract infections,[22] urinary tract infections[22]

Ampicillin (combined with aminoglycoside in endocarditis)[22] Vancomycin[5]

No vaccine Hand washing and other nosocomial prevention

Escherichia E. coli (generally) UTI:[5]

(resistance-tests are required first)

Meningitis:[5]

Diarrhea:[5]

  • Antibiotics above shorten duration
  • Electrolyte and fluid replacement
(no vaccine or preventive drug)[5]
  • Cooking ground beef and pasteurizing milk against O157:H7[5]
  • Hand washing and disinfection[5]
Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)
Enteropathogenic E. coli
  • Diarrhea in infants[5]
Enteroinvasive E.coli (EIEC)
Enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), including E. coli O157:H7
  • Reservoir in cattle[5]
Francisella tularensis
  • vector-borne by arthropods[5]
  • Infected wild or domestic animals, birds or house pets[5]
Tularemia: Fever, ulceration at entry site and/or lymphadenopathy.[37] Can cause severe pneumonia.[37]
  • Avoiding insect vectors[5]
  • Precautions when handling wild animals or animal products[5]
Haemophilus influenzae
  • Droplet contact[5]
  • Human flora of e.g. upper respiratory tract[5]
Meningitis:[5]

(resistance-tests are required first)

Helicobacter pylori
  • Colonizing stomach[5]
  • Unclear person-to-person transmission[5]
(No vaccine or preventive drug)[5]
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Legionella pneumophila (no vaccine or preventive drug)[5]

Heating water[5]

Leptospira species
  • Food and water contaminated by urine from infected wild or domestic animals. Leptospira survives for weeks in fresh water and moist soil.[5]
Vaccine not widely used[5]

Prevention of exposure[5]

Listeria monocytogenes
(no vaccine)[5]
  • Proper food preparation and handling[5]
Mycobacterium M. leprae
  • Prolonged human-human contact, e.g. through exudates from skin lesions to abrasion of other person[5]
Tuberculoid form:

Lepromatous form:

M. tuberculosis
  • Droplet contact[5]

(difficult, see Tuberculosis treatment for more details)[5]

Standard "short" course:[5]

Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Neisseria N. gonorrhoeae
Uncomplicated gonorrhea:[5]

Ophthalmia neonatorum:

(No vaccine)[5]
N. meningitidis
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Opportunistic;[22] Infects damaged tissues or people with immunodeficiency.[5] Pseudomonas infection:[5] (no vaccine)[5]
Nocardia asteroides In soil[22] Nocardiosis:[22] Pneumonia, endocarditis, keratitis, neurological or lymphocutaneous infection TMP/SMX[22]
Rickettsia rickettsii (no preventive drug or approved vaccine)[5]
Salmonella S typhi
Other Salmonella species


e.g. S. typhimurium[5]

  • Fecal–oral[5]
  • Food contaminated by fowl[5] (e.g. uncooked eggs)[22] or turtles[22]
(No vaccine or preventive drug)[5]
  • Proper sewage disposal[5]
  • Food preparation[5]
  • Good personal hygiene[5]
Shigella S. sonnei[5]


S. dysenteriae[22]

  • Protection of water and food supplies[5]
  • Vaccines are in trial stage[45]
Staphylococcus aureus Coagulase-positive staphylococcal infections: (no vaccine or preventive drug)
  • Barrier precautions, washing hands and fomite disinfection in hospitals
epidermidis Human flora in skin,[5][22] anterior nares[5] and mucous membranes[22] None[5]
saprophyticus Part of normal vaginal flora[5] None[5]
Streptococcus agalactiae Human flora in vagina,[5][22] urethral mucous membranes,[5] rectum[5] None[5]
pneumoniae
  • 23-serotype vaccine for adults (PPV)[5][22]
  • Heptavalent conjugated vaccine for children (PCV)[5]
pyogenes
  • Respiratory droplets[5]
  • Direct physical contact with impetigo lesions[5]
No vaccine[5]
  • Rapid antibiotic treatment helps prevent rheumatic fever[5]
viridans Oral flora,[22] penetration through abrasions Penicillin G[22]
Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum
  • Penicillin offered to recent sexual partners[49]
  • Antibiotics to pregnant women if risk of transmitting to child[5]
  • No vaccine available[5]
  • Safe sex[5]
Vibrio cholerae
Yersinia pestis Plague:

අමතර අවධානයට

[සංස්කරණය]

සටහන්

[සංස්කරණය]
  1. Relapsing fever can also be caused by the following Borrelia species: B. crocidurae, B. duttonii, B. hermsii, B. hispanica, B. miyamotoi, B. persica, B. turicatae and B. venezuelensis.
    - Barbour, Alan G. (2017). "Relapsing Fever". In Kasper, Dennis L.; Fauci, Anthony S. (eds.). Harrison's Infectious Diseases (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Education. pp. 678–687. ISBN 978-1-259-83597-1.

මූලාශ්‍ර

[සංස්කරණය]
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  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 Unless else specified in boxes then ref is: Fisher, Bruce; Harvey, Richard P.; Champe, Pamela C. (2007). Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Microbiology (Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews Series). Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 332–353. ISBN 978-0-7817-8215-9.
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