Voynich manuscript

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Voynich manuscript
Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
Yale University
Voynich Manuscript (32).jpg
A floral illustration on page 32
Also known asBeinecke MS 408
Dateunknown, parchment dated to early 15th century[1][2]
Place of originpossibly Italy[1][2]
possibly natural[3] or constructed language[4][5]
a very small number of words were found in Latin and High German[4]
Roger Bacon,[6]
Wilfrid Voynich himself,[7]
Jakub of Tepenec,[8]
Athanasius Kircher,[9]
Raphael Mnishovsky,[6]
Antonio Averlino Filarete,[10]
Cornelis Drebbel,[11]
Anthony Ascham[4] etc.
Compiled byunknown
Illuminated byunknown
Dedicated tounknown
Size≈ 23.5 cm × 16.2 cm × 5 cm (9.3 in × 6.4 in × 2.0 in)
Formatone column in the page body, with slightly indented right margin and with paragraph divisions, and often with stars in the left margin;[12]
the rest of the manuscript appears in the form of graphics i.e. diagrams or markings for certain parts related to illustrations;
the manuscript contains foldable parts
Conditionpartially damaged and incomplete;
240 out of 272 pages found (≈ 88%)[13][10][12]
i.e. 18 out of 20 quires found
(272 pages i.e. 20 quires is the smallest estimated number, and it contains > 170,000 characters)[14]
possibly an invented script[15]
very small number of words found in Latin script[4][13]
Contentsherbal, astronomical, balneological, cosmological and pharmaceutical sections + section with recipes
Illumination(s)color ink, a bit crude, was used for painting the figures, probably later than the time of creation of the text and the outlines themselves[13]
Exemplar(s)two manuscript copies which Baresch sent twice to Kircher in Rome
Previously kept? → Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor → Jakub of Tepenec → Georg Baresch → Athanasius Kircher (copies) → Jan Marek Marci (Joannes Marcus Marci) → rector of Charles University in Prague → Athanasius Kircher → Pieter Jan Beckx → Wilfrid Voynich → Ethel Voynich → Anne Nill → Hans Peter Kraus → Yale[4][9][12][16][17]
Discoveredearliest information about the existence comes from a letter that was found inside the covers of the manuscript, and it was written in either 1665 or 1666
AccessionMS 408
Othercryptography case which has not been solved or deciphered
Evidence of retouching of text; page 3; f1r
Retouching of drawing; page 131; f72v3

Voynich manuscript යනු හඳුනා නොගත්, බොහෝදුරට අර්ථශුන්‍ය writing system එකක් භාවිතා කරමින් අතින් ලියන ලද illustrated codex එකකි.[18] මෙහි vellum පිටුවල කාබන් කාලනීර්ණය අනුව මෙය පසලොස්වන (15) ශතවර්ෂයට (1404–1438) අයත් යැයි සැලකේ.[1][2] සමහර පිටු අද දක්නට නොමැති මුත් දැනට පිටු 240 ක් ඉතිරිව පවතී.



  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Steindl, Klaus; Sulzer, Andreas (2011). "The Voynich Code — The World's Mysterious Manuscript". Archived from the original (video) on March 9, 2012. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Stolte, Daniel (February 10, 2011). "Experts determine age of book 'nobody can read'". PhysOrg. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
  3. Landini 2001, pp. 275–295
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Tiltman 1967
  5. Kahn 1967, pp. 870–871
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Philip Neal's analysis of Marci's grammar". Voynich Central. Archived from the original on October 7, 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
  7. Zandbergen, René. "Origin of the manuscript". Voynich.nu. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
  8. "The New Signature of Horczicky and the Comparison of them all". Hurontaria.baf.cz. Archived from the original on 26 January 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Zandbergen, René (May 19, 2016). "Voynich MS – 17th Century letters related to the MS". Voynich.nu. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Pelling 2006
  11. SantaColoma, H. Richard. "New Atlantis Voynich Theory". Santa-coloma.net. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Shailor
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Barabe 2009
  14. Schmeh, Klaus (January–February 2011). "The Voynich Manuscript: The Book Nobody Can Read". Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
  15. Kennedy & Churchill 2004
  16. Schuster 2009, pp. 175–
  17. D'Imperio 1978
  18. Schinner, Andreas (April 2007). "The Voynich Manuscript: Evidence of the Hoax Hypothesis". Cryptologia. 31 (2): 95–107. doi:10.1080/01611190601133539. ISSN 0161-1194. S2CID 20016840. {{cite journal}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)

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