ක්රි.පූ. හයවන ශත වර්ෂයේ මුල් භාගයේ දී සුළු ආසියාවේ මිලේටස් නැමැති නගරය ප්රධාන කොට ග්රීක දර්ශනය ආරම්භ වූවායැයි පිළිගැනේ. සත්ය ලබා ගැනීමට ඇති මේ ලැදිකම ක්රි.ව. 529 තෙක් විහිදී ගිය බව පෙනේ. එයට වර්ෂ 2000 කට පමණ පසු අද පවා ග්රීක දර්ශනය හැදෑරීමට උත්සාහ දැරීමෙන් එහි ඇති වැදගත්කම ප්රකට වේ.
තේල්ස් විසින් ක්රි.පූ. 585 දී සූර්ය්ය ග්රහණයක් පිළිබද අනාවැකියකි පළ කිරීමේ සිට ඇරිස්ටෝටල් මියගිය ක්රි.පූ. 322 දක්වා ඇති ශත වර්ෂ දෙකහමාර ඇතුළතය ඉතාමත් උසස් හා පලදායී බටහිර දාර්ශනික මතයක් ලොවට ලැබුණේ.
|ග්රීක දාර්ශනිකයෝ||කාලය||ක්රි.පූ. 585 සිට ක්රි.පූ. 322 දක්වා|
|මුල්කාලීන ග්රීකයෝ||යවන බුද්ධිමතුන් සත්දෙනා - Seven_Sages_of_Greece:|
|මිලේටස් හි තේල්ස්||c.624 - c.546 BC||“Know thyself“-is a warning to pay no attention to the opinion of the multitude.|
|ඇනැක්සිමැන්ඩර්||610 - 546 BCE||AnaximanderWhence things have their origin,
Thence also their destruction happens, According to necessity; For they give to each other justice and recompense For their injustice In conformity with the ordinance of Time.
Simplicius mentions that Anaximander said all these "in poetic terms", meaning that he used the old mythical language
|ඇනැක්සිමිනිස්||c. 585 – c. 525 BCE||Anaximenes of Miletus
one time everything was air, looked for the broader picture in nature, - They sought unifying causes for diversely occurring events, rather than treating each one on a case-by-case basis, or attributing them to gods or to a personified nature.
|පෛතගරස්||c. 570 – c. 495 BC||- Around 530 BC, he moved to Croton, in Magna Graecia, and there established some kind of school or guild.
This is the thing for the sake of which nature and the god engendered us. So what is this thing? When Pythagoras was asked, he said, ‘to observe the heavens,’ and he used to claim that he himself was an observer of nature, and it was for the sake of this that he had passed over into life.
Pythagoras set up an organization which was in some ways a school, in some ways a brotherhood (and here it should be noted that sources indicate that as well as men there were many women among the adherents of Pythagoras), and in some ways a monastery. It was based upon the religious teachings of Pythagoras and was very secretive. The adherents were bound by a vow to Pythagoras and each other, for the purpose of pursuing the religious and ascetic observances, and of studying his religious and philosophical theories. There is mentioning of an oath on the Tetractys.
|හෙරක්ලීටස්||c. 535 – c. 475 BCE||Heraclitus of Ephesus Logos Heraclitus of Ephesus (/ˌhɛrəˈklaɪtəs/; Greek: Ἡράκλειτος ὁ Ἐφέσιος, Hērákleitos ho Ephésios; c. 535 – c. 475 BCE) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, a native of the Greek city Ephesus, Ionia, on the coast of Asia Minor.
He was of distinguished parentage. Little is known about his early life and education, but he regarded himself as self-taught and a pioneer of wisdom. From the lonely life he led, and still more from the riddling and allegedly paradoxical nature of his philosophy and his stress upon the needless unconsciousness of humankind, he was called "The Obscure" and the "Weeping Philosopher". Heraclitus was famous for his insistence on ever-present change in the universe, as stated in the famous saying, "No man ever steps in the same river twice" (see panta rhei, below). This position was complemented by his stark commitment to a unity of opposites in the world, stating that "the path up and down are one and the same". Through these doctrines Heraclitus characterized all existing entities by pairs of contrary properties, whereby no entity may ever occupy a single state at a single time. This, along with his cryptic utterance that "all entities come to be in accordance with this Logos" (literally, "word", "reason", or "account") has been the subject of numerous interpretations.
|ඊලියානු දර්ශනය||Eleatic School|
|සිනෝපැනීස්||c. 570 – c. 475 BC||Xenophanes of Colophon -Xenophanes wrote about two extremes predominating the world: wet and dry (water and earth).
These two extreme states would alternate between one another and with the alteration human life would become extinct then regenerate (or vice versa depending on the dominant form). The idea of alternating states and human life perishing and coming back suggests he believed in the principle of causation; another distinguishing step that Xenophanes takes from Ancient philosophical traditions to ones based more on scientific observation.
Xenophanes is credited with being one of the first philosophers to distinguish between true belief and knowledge, which he further developed into the prospect that you can know something but not really know it. Due to the lack of whole works by Xenophanes, a lot of meaning is lost and a large amount of guessing is at hand, so that the implication of knowing being something deeper ("a clearer truth") may have special implications, or it may mean that you cannot know something just by looking at it. It is known that the most and widest variety of evidence was considered by Xenophanes to be the surest way to prove a theory.
His epistemology, which is still influential today, held that there actually exists a truth of reality, but that humans as mortals are unable to know it. Karl Popper read Xenophanes as saying that it is possible to act only on the basis of working hypotheses—we may act as if we knew the truth, as long as we know that this is extremely unlikely. Xenophanes' views then might serve as a basis of Critical rationalism.
|Pre-Socratic Philosophy||As the name suggests, the Greek Presocratic philosophers existed before Socrates and were the first to develop philosophy as such. Thales of Miletus
is considered to be the father of Greek philosophy. Presocratic philosophies were diverse, but they all looked to reason, observation, science, and/or mathematics - instead of mythology - for knowledge of the universe. The Presocratics also searched for a unifying principle that both ordered nature and also explained how change occurred.
|පරමාණුකවාදය||Atomist Pluralist School|
|ඇනැක්සගෝරස්||And they say that when somebody asked Anaxagoras
for what reason anyone might choose to come to be and be alive, he replied to the question by saying, ‘To observe the heavens and the stars in it, as well as moon and sun,’ since everything else at any rate is worth nothing. (p. 48)
|විතණ්ඩවාදය||Sophists||The Sophists were one influential brand of Presocratic philosophers. In general, Sophists argued that
(1) there is a fundamental distinction between human custom and nature/reality,
(2) truth is relative and is based in one's perception of the world, and
(3) rhetoric (speech) had the power to shape reality.
Therefore, the Sophists were skeptical of humanity's ability to access objective truth. We could, however, discover how to live properly in our given societies. Sophists then charged pupils money to learn the kind of rhetoric and virtue that would prepare them to live in society.
|සොක්රටීස්||469—399 B.C.E.||Hegel, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Gadamer also sees in the Socratic method an ethical way of being.|
|ප්ලේටෝ||ක්රි.පූ.428-7--347-6||Plato is one of the world's best known and most widely read and studied
philosophers. He was the student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle, and he wrote in the middle of the fourth century B.C.E. in ancient Greece. Though influenced primarily by Socrates, to the extent that Socrates is usually the main character in many of Plato's writings, he was also influenced by Heraclitus, Parmenides, and the Pythagoreans.
Plato conceives of the soul as having (at least) three parts:
and justice will be that condition of the soul in which each of these three parts "does its own work," and does not interfere in the workings of the other parts (see esp. Republic IV.435b-445b).
|ඇරිස්ටෝටල්||ක්රි.පූ.384-322||Aristotle's editors gave the name "Metaphysics" to his works on first philosophy, either because they went beyond or followed after his physical investigations. Aristotle begins by sketching the history of philosophy.
He was a student of Plato who in turn studied under Socrates. He was more empirically-minded than Plato or Socrates and is famous for rejecting Plato's theory of forms.
- ග්රීක දර්ශනය, මහාචාර්ය්ය ඒ.ඩී.පී.කලන්සූරිය, අධ්යාපන ප්රකාශන දෙපාර්තමේන්තුව, 2007මුද්රනය ඇසුරිණි.
- 'Know the value of Thyself' rightly, in "Know Thyself". Suda On Line. Tr. Catherine Roth. 13 Aug 2002. 15 Feb 2011 <http://www.stoa.org/sol-entries/gamma/334>.
- Excerpt from a speech by the character ‘Aristotle’ in Protrepticus (Hutchinson and Johnson, 2015)