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Adenomus kandianus

විකිපීඩියා වෙතින්

Adenomus kandianus
විද්‍යාත්මක වර්ගීකරණය edit
Unrecognized taxon (fix): Adenomus
විශේෂය: Template:Taxonomy/AdenomusA. kandianus
ද්වීපද නාමය
Template:Taxonomy/AdenomusAdenomus kandianus
(Günther, 1872)
පර්යාය නාම(ය)

Bufo kandianus Günther, 1872
Adenomus dasi Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda, 1998

Adenomus kandianus (Kandyan dwarf toad[2]) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae endemic to Sri Lanka.[1][3][4][5] It is a high-altitude species[5] known only from few localities.[3] The specific name kandianus means "from Kandy" and seems to suggest that the type material came from near the city of Kandy.[1]


As there had been no record of the species since 1872, it was listed as extinct by the IUCN in 2004. However, in June 2012 it was announced that almost three years earlier, in October 2009, the species was rediscovered in the Peak Wilderness Sanctuary in Sri Lanka.[6][2] In light of the discovery, the species was reclassified in 2012 as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[1] Another extant population was reported in 2014 from Pidurutalagala Forest Reserve.[7]


Adult males measure 30–35 mm (1.2–1.4 in) and adult females 40–45 mm (1.6–1.8 in) in snout–vent length. The parotoid glands are relatively long, which is the single morphological trait that separates Adenomus kandianus from Adenomus kelaartii with shorter parotoid glands.[5] The tympanum is submerged and poorly visible.[7] The toes are partially to fully webbed; the partially webbed morphs were described as a separate species, Adenomus dasi, but because the morphs show negligible genetic differences,[5] A. dasi is not longer recognized as distinct.[3][5] The fingers have no webbing.[7]

The dorsum is yellowish brown; the head is more reddish compared to the body. A tiny gold-coloured vertebral stripe is present. The parotoid glands are chocolate or dark brown. The lips have black and gold dots. The venter is gold.[7] An hourglass-shaped pattern of tubercles on the dorsum may be present.[5]

The tadpole has relatively long body (39% of total length). The body is flattened and wide anteriorly, accommodating a ventral sucker disc that covers more than half of the body. The eyes are bulbous. Gosner stage 36 specimen measures 27 mm (1.1 in) in total length.[5]


Adenomus kandianus is known from montane cloud forests[1] and tropical moist forests [8] in and near hill streams at elevations of 1,100–1,879 m (3,609–6,165 ft) above sea level.[1][8] The tadpoles develop in the streams.[1]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2020). "Adenomus kandianus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T54458A175766594.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Jeremy Hance (June 18, 2012). "Extinct toad rediscovered after hiding for 133 years in Sri Lanka". Mongabay.com. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 18 January 2014.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Frost, Darrel R. (2018). "Adenomus kandianus (Günther, 1872)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 21 September 2018.
  4. "Adenomus kandianus". AmphibiaWeb. University of California, Berkeley. 2018. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 21 September 2018.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Senevirathne, Gayani; Wijayathilaka, Nayana; Jayawardena, Beneeta; Bandara, Champika; Manamendra-Arachchi, Kelum & Pethiyagoda, Rohan (2015). "The Sri Lankan torrent toads (Bufonidae: Adenominae: Adenomus): species boundaries assessed using multiple criteria". Zootaxa. 3911 (2): 245–261. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3911.2.6. PMID 25661609.
  6. Wickramasinghe, L. J. Mendis; Dulan Ranga Vidanapathirana & Nethu Wickramasinghe (2012). "Back from the dead: The world's rarest toad Adenomus kandianus rediscovered in Sri Lanka" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3347: 63–68. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3498.1.4.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Gabadage, D. E.; de Silva, A.; Botejue, W. M. S.; Bahir, M. M.; Surasinghe, T. D.; Madawala, M. B.; Amarasinghe, A. A. T. & Karunarathna, D. M. S. S. (2014). "On the discovery of second living population of Adenomus kandianus (Günther, 1872) from Sri Lanka: with the bioecology, and detailed redescription to the species". Herpetotropicos. 10 (1–2): 37–49.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi & Anslem de Silva (2004). "Adenomus dasi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004: e.T54457A11134953. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T54457A11134953.en.

Further reading[සංස්කරණය]

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