හොකි ලෝක කුසලානය
The Hockey World Cup, sometimes called the Hockey World Championships, is an international field hockey competition organised by the International Hockey Federation (FIH). The tournament was started in 1971. It is held every four years, bridging the four years between the Summer Olympics.
There is also a Women's Hockey World Cup, which has been held since 1974 and was organised by the International Federation of Women's Hockey Associations (IFWHA) until 1981, when the governing bodies merged into the current International Hockey Federation in 1982.
Five countries have dominated the event's history. Pakistan is the most successful team, having won the tournament four times. The Netherlands have won three titles, and ජර්මනිය and ඕස්ට්රේලියාව have each won two titles. India won the tournament once.
The 2010 Hockey World Cup was held in India from February 28 to March 13 at New Delhi's Dhyan Chand National Stadium. ඕස්ට්රේලියාව defeated ජර්මනිය 2-1 in the final, to win their second World Cup title.
The Hockey World Cup was first conceived by Pakistan's Air Marshal Nur Khan. He proposed his idea to the FIH under the name of Patrick Rowley, the first editor of World Hockey magazine. Their idea was approved on October 26, 1969, and adopted by the FIH Council at a meeting in Brussels on April 12, 1970. The FIH decided that the inaugural World Cup would be held in October 1971, in Pakistan.
However, political issues would prevent that first competition from being played in Pakistan. Pakistan and India had been at war with each other only six years earlier. When Pakistan invited India to compete in the tournament, a crisis arose. Pakistanis, led by cricketer Abdul Hafeez Kardar, protested against India's participation in the Hockey World Cup.
Given the intense political climate between Pakistan and India, the FIH decided to move the tournament elsewhere. In March 1971, the FIH decided to move the first Hockey World Cup to the Real Club de Polo grounds in Barcelona, ස්පාඤ්ඤය, which was considered a neutral and peaceful European site.
The FIH has set no requirements or limitations on the size of the competition. The 1971 Cup included only ten nations, the smallest World Cup to date. The 1978 Cup featured fourteen nations. The 2002 Cup featured sixteen nations, the largest World Cup to date. The remaining 9 World Cups have featured 12 nations.
The first three tournaments were held every two years. The 1978 Cup was the only tournament held three years from the previous tournament. Since 1982, the tournament has been held every four years, halfway between the Summer Olympics field hockey competition.
The Hockey World Cup trophy was designed by the Bashir Moojid and created by the Pakistani Army. On March 27, 1971, in Brussels, the trophy was formally handed to FIH President Rene Frank by Mr H.E Masood, the Pakistani Ambassador to Belgium. The trophy consists of a silver cup with an intricate floral design, surmounted by a globe of the world in silver and gold, placed on a high blade base inlaid with ivory. At its peak is a model hockey stick and ball. Without its base, the trophy stands 120.85 mm high. Including the base, the trophy stands 650 mm. It weighs 11,560 g, including 895 g of gold, 6815 g of silver, 350 g of ivory and 3500 g of teak.
The Hockey World Cup consists of a qualification stage and a final tournament stage. The format for each stage is the same.
The qualification stage has been a part of the Hockey World Cup since 1977. All participating teams play in the qualification round. The teams divide into two or more pools and compete for a berth in the final tournament. The top two teams are automatically qualified and the rest of the berths are decided in playoffs.
The final tournament features the continental champions and other qualified teams. Sometimes it also features the winners of the Summer Olympics' hockey competition or the continental runners-up. The teams divide into pools once more and play a round robin tournament. The composition of the pools is determined using the current world rankings. The top two teams in each pool play in the semifinals for a place in the final. The bottom two teams in the semifinals have a third place playoff. The rest of the teams have playoffs to determine their final positions. If they are third or fourth in their pool, they play for fifth place; if they are fifth or sixth in their pool, they play for ninth place.
Successful national teams[සංස්කරණය]
Twenty-four teams have qualified for a Hockey World Cup. Of these, eleven teams have made it to the semifinals. Seven teams have made it through to the finals. To date, Pakistan has been the most successful team in the World Cup, with four titles from six appearances in the final. The Netherlands have also been successful, with three titles from five appearances in the final.
ජර්මනිය has been the most successful team in the World Cup in recent years. They won the tournament in 2002 and 2006. In addition, ජර්මනිය has reached the semifinals in every World Cup except for the inaugural tournament in 1971. ඕස්ට්රේලියාව has broken the German dream of wining World Cup for third time in a row in 2010 and now have won 2 titles. India have won their lone title in 1975.
Below is a list of teams that have finished in the top four positions in the tournament:
|සැකිල්ල:Fh||4 (1971, 1978, 1982, 1994)||2 (1975, 1990*)||1 (1973)|
|සැකිල්ල:Fh||3 (1973*, 1990, 1998*)||2 (1978, 1994)||2 (2002, 2010)||1 (1982)|
|සැකිල්ල:Fh||2 (1986, 2010)||2 (2002, 2006)||4 (1978, 1982, 1990, 1994*)||1 (1998)|
|සැකිල්ල:Fh||2 (2002, 2006*)||2 (1982, 2010)||4 (1973, 1975, 1986, 1998)||3 (1978, 1990, 1994)|
|සැකිල්ල:Fh||1 (1975)||1 (1973)||1 (1971)|
|සැකිල්ල:Fh||2 (1971*, 1998)||1 (2006)|
|සැකිල්ල:Fh||1 (1986*)||1 (2010)|
|සැකිල්ල:Fh||2 (2002, 2006)|
- * = host
- # = no longer in existence
Performance by host nations[සංස්කරණය]
Nine nations have hosted the Hockey World Cup. Only the Netherlands (1973 and 1998) and ජර්මනිය (2006) have won the tournament as hosts. Spain, England, and Pakistan emerged as host runners-up in the 1971, 1986 and 1990 tournaments. ඕස්ට්රේලියාව placed third when it hosted the 1994 tournament in Sydney.
Performance by continental zones[සංස්කරණය]
To date, the finals of the Hockey World Cup have been contested by Asian, European and Oceania continental teams. Asian and European teams are tied with five titles each. ඕස්ට්රේලියාව is the only team from Oceania to win the tournament. The Americas is the only continental zone that has not made an appearance in a Hockey World Cup semifinal.
|Asian||5 titles, won by Pakistan (4) and India (1)|
|European||5 titles, won by Netherlands (3) and ජර්මනිය (2)|
|Oceania||2 titles, won by ඕස්ට්රේලියාව(2)|
|African||Fourth place (Kenya, 1971)|
|Americas||Sixth place (Argentina, 1986)|
- # = no longer in existence