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චිං කායි-ෂෙක්

විකිපීඩියා වෙතින්
Official photo of President Chiang Kai-shek in 1948
Chairman of the Nationalist Government of China
තනතුර දරමින්
October 10, 1928 – December 15, 1931
PremierTan Yankai
Soong Tse-ven
පූර්වප්‍රාප්තිකයාV. K. Wellington Koo (Acting)
අනුප්‍රාප්තිකයාLin Sen
තනතුර දරමින්
August 1, 1943 – May 20, 1948
Acting until October 10, 1943
PremierSoong Tse-ven
Vice ChairmanSun Fo
පූර්වප්‍රාප්තිකයාLin Sen
අනුප්‍රාප්තිකයාHimself (as President of the Republic of China)
Chairman of the National Military Council
තනතුර දරමින්
December 15, 1931 – May 31, 1946
පූර්වප්‍රාප්තිකයාPosition established
අනුප්‍රාප්තිකයාPosition abolished
President of the Republic of China
තනතුර දරමින්
May 20, 1948 – January 21, 1949
PremierChang Chun
Wong Wen-hao
Sun Fo
උප ජනාධිපතිවරයාLi Zongren
පූර්වප්‍රාප්තිකයාHimself (as Chairman of the National Government of China)
අනුප්‍රාප්තිකයාLi Zongren (Acting)
තනතුර දරමින්
March 1, 1950 – April 5, 1975
PremierYen Hsi-shan
Chen Cheng
Yu Hung-Chun
Chen Cheng
Yen Chia-kan
Chiang Ching-kuo
උප ජනාධිපතිවරයාLi Zongren
Chen Cheng
Yen Chia-kan
පූර්වප්‍රාප්තිකයාLi Zongren (Acting)
අනුප්‍රාප්තිකයාYen Chia-kan
Premier of the Republic of China
තනතුර දරමින්
December 4, 1930 – December 15, 1931
පූර්වප්‍රාප්තිකයාSoong Tse-ven
අනුප්‍රාප්තිකයාChen Mingshu
තනතුර දරමින්
December 9, 1935 – January 1, 1938
ජනාධිපතිවරයාLin Sen
පූර්වප්‍රාප්තිකයාWang Jingwei
අනුප්‍රාප්තිකයාHsiang-hsi Kung
තනතුර දරමින්
November 20, 1939 – May 31, 1945
ජනාධිපතිවරයාLin Sen
පූර්වප්‍රාප්තිකයාHsiang-hsi Kung
අනුප්‍රාප්තිකයාSoong Tse-ven
තනතුර දරමින්
March 1, 1947 – April 18, 1947
පූර්වප්‍රාප්තිකයාSoong Tse-ven
අනුප්‍රාප්තිකයාChang Chun
1st, 3rd Director-General of the Kuomintang
තනතුර දරමින්
March 29, 1938 – April 5, 1975
පූර්වප්‍රාප්තිකයාHu Hanmin
අනුප්‍රාප්තිකයාChiang Ching-kuo (as Chairman of the Kuomintang)
පුද්ගලික තොරතුරු
උපතඔක්තෝබර් 31, 1887(1887-10-31)
Fenghua, Zhejiang, Qing China
විපතApril 5, 1975(1975-04-05) (වයස 87)
Taipei, Taiwan
Resting placeCihu Mausoleum, Taoyuan, Taiwan
ජාතියRepublic of China
දේශපාලන පක්ෂයKuomintang
කලත්‍රයාMao Fumei
Yao Yecheng
Chen Jieru
Soong Mei-ling
දරුවන්Chiang Ching-kuo
Chiang Wei-kuo (adopted)
උගත් ශාස්ත්‍රාලයBaoding Military Academy, Imperial Japanese Army Academy Preparatory School
AwardsOrder of National Glory, Order of Blue Sky and White Sun, 1st class Order of the Sacred Tripod, Legion of Merit
අපනාමය"Generalissimo"or "Red General"[1]
හමුදා සේවය
ඛණ්ඩය/සේවයRepublic of China Army
සේවා කාල සීමාව1911–1975
නිලයGeneral Special Class (特级上将)
සටන්/යුද්ධXinhai Revolution, Northern Expedition, Sino-Tibetan War, Kumul Rebellion, Soviet Invasion of Xinjiang, Chinese Civil War, Second Sino-Japanese War, Kuomintang Islamic Insurgency in China (1950–1958)
චිං කායි-ෂෙක්
"Chiang Kai-shek" in Traditional (top) and Simplified (bottom) Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
register name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
milk name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
school name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
adopted name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
මෙය චීන නාමයකි; පවුල් නාමය වන්නේ Chiang ය.

චිං කායි-ෂෙක් (චීන: 蔣介石; 31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih and known as Chiang Chungcheng (චීන: 蔣中正), was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China.

Chiang – who led the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975 – was an influential member of the Kuomintang (KMT), the Chinese Nationalist Party, as well as a close ally of Sun Yat-sen's. Chiang became the Commandant of the Kuomintang's Whampoa Military Academy and took Sun's place as leader of the KMT following the Canton Coup in early 1926. Having neutralized the party's left wing, Chiang then led Sun's long-postponed Northern Expedition, conquering or reaching accommodations with China's many warlords.[3]

From 1928 to 1948, Chiang served as chairman of the National Military Council of the Nationalist Government of the Republic of China (ROC). Chiang was socially conservative, promoting traditional Chinese culture in the New Life Movement and rejecting both western democracy and Sun's nationalist democratic socialism in favour of an authoritarian government.[තහවුරු කර නොමැත] Unable to maintain Sun's good relations with the communists, Chiang purged them in a massacre at Shanghai and repression of uprisings at Kwangtung and elsewhere.

At the onset of the Second Sino-Japanese War, which later became the Chinese theater of World War II, Zhang Xueliang kidnapped Chiang and obliged him to establish a Second United Front with the communists. After the defeat of the Japanese, the American-sponsored Marshall Mission, an attempt to negotiate a coalition government, failed in 1946. The Chinese Civil War resumed, with the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) led by Mao Zedong defeating the Nationalists and declaring the People's Republic of China in 1949. Chiang's government and army retreated to Taiwan, where Chiang imposed martial law and persecuted critics in a period known as the "White Terror". After evacuating to Taiwan, Chiang's government continued to declare its intention to retake mainland China. Chiang ruled Taiwan securely as President of the Republic of China and General of the Kuomintang until his death in 1975, just one year short of Mao's death.[4]

Like Mao, Chiang is regarded as a controversial figure: supporters credit him with playing a major part in the Allied victory of the Second World War; detractors and critics denounce him as a dictator at the front of an authoritarian autocracy who suppressed and purged opponents and critics and arbitrarily incarcerated those he deemed as opposing to the Kuomintang among others.

  1. Pakula, Hannah (2009). The last empress: Madame Chiang Kai-Shek and the birth of modern China. Simon and Schuster. p. 346. ISBN 1-4391-4893-7. සම්ප්‍රවේශය June 28, 2010.
  2. Jay Taylor. The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-Shek and the Struggle for Modern China. (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2009) p. 2.
  3. Zarrow, Peter Gue (2005). China in War and Revolution, 1895–1949. pp. 230–231.
  4. Will of Chiang Kai-shek at Wikisource.
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