ලුණු

විකිපීඩියා, නිදහස් විශ්වකෝෂය වෙතින්
වෙත පනින්න: සංචලනය, සොයන්න
Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong, People's Republic of China

ලුණු යනු ප්‍රධාන වශයෙන්ම සෝඩියම් ක්ලෝරයිඩ් වලින් සමන්විත වුණු ඛනිජයකි. සත්වයන්ට ජීවත් වීම සඳහා ලුණු කුඩා ප්‍රමාණවලින් අවශ්‍ය නමුදු වැඩිපුර ශරීරගතවීම භයානක ප්‍රතිඵල ගෙන දිය හැකිය. මූලික රසවලින් එකක් වන ලුණු ආහාර රසකාරකයක් ලෙස ලොව පුරාම භාවිතා කෙරෙයි. ලුණු දැමීම ආහාර කල් තබාගැනීමේ එක් ක්‍රමයකි.

මිනිස් පරිභෝජනය සඳහා භාවිතා කරන ලුණු අපිරිසිදු ලුණු (උදා: මුහුදු ලුණු), පිරිසිදු ලුණු (මේස ලුණු) සහ අයඩීන් මිශ්‍රිත ලුණු වශයෙන් කිහිප ආකාරයකින් පවතියි. මුහුදු ජලයෙන් හෝ පාෂාණ නිධිවලින් ලබාගන්නා සාමාන්‍ය ලුණු ස්ඵටික සුදු, ලා රෝස හෝ ලා අළු පැහැ ගනියි. ආහාරයට ගන්නා ලුණු ඒවායේ ඛනිජ අන්තර්ගතය නිසා අළු පැහැයකින් දිස්වෙයි.

ලුණුවල අඩංගු ප්‍රධාන සංඝටක වන ක්ලෝරයිඩ් සහ සෝඩියම් අයන සියලුම ජීවීන්ට තම පැවැත්ම සඳහා කුඩා ප්‍රමාණවලින් අවශ්‍ය වෙයි. ශරීරයේ ජල අන්තර්ගතය පාලනයට ලුණු දායක වෙයි. නමුත් අධික ලෙස ලුණු භාවිතය අධි රුධිර පීඩනය වැනි භයානක රෝග තත්ව ඇති කිරීමට හේතු වේ. මේ නිසා ආහාරයට ගන්නා සෝඩියම් ප්‍රමාණය පාලනය කිරීමට සීමා සෞඛ්‍ය බලධරයන් මගින් පනවා ඇත.[1][2][3][4][5]

ඉතිහාසය[සංස්කරණය]

Solution of salt in water
Table salt (NaCl) crystal

මිනිසා විසින් අතීතයේ සිටම ආහාර කල් තබාගැනීම සඳහා බඳුන්වල ඇසිරීම, කෘත්‍රිම ශිතකරණය වැනි විවිධ ක්‍රම භාවිතා කර ඇතත්, විශේෂයෙන්ම මස් වර්ග කල් තබාගැනීම සඳහා වසර දහස් ගණනකට පෙර සිට භාවිතා කළ උපක්‍රමයක් වූ ලුණු දැමීම මේ අතරින් වඩාත්ම ජනප්‍රිය එකක් විය. [6] ඉතා ඈත අතීතයේ දී ලුණු කර්මාන්තය සිදු කළ බවට සාක්ෂි රුමේනියාවේ පුරාවිද්‍යා කැණීම්වලින් හමු වී ඇත. ක්‍රිස්තු පූර්ව 6050 දී පමණ නියෝලිතික යුගයේ පැවති කුකුතෙනි ශිෂ්ටාචාරයේ මිනිසුන් ලුණු මිශ්‍රිත උල්පත් ජලය උණු කර ලුණු ලබාගත් බවට ද සාක්ෂි ලැබී තිබේ. [7] මෙම ලුණු කර්මාන්තය එම සමාජයේ මේ කාලයේ දී ඇති වූ ශීඝ්‍ර දියුණුවට හේතු වන්නට ඇතැයි සිතිය හැකිය. [8] ක්‍රිස්තු පූර්ව 6000 දී පමණ චීනයේ ෂැංසි ප්‍රදේශවාසීන් ජලාශ මතුපිට වූ ලුණු ලබාගත් බව ලුණු කර්මාන්තය පිළිබඳ ව ඇති ආදීතම සත්‍යාපනය කරන ලද තොරතුරකි. [9]

ක්‍රිස්තු පූර්ව 3000 දි පමණ ලුණු, ලුණුවල දැමූ පක්ෂීන් සහ මාළු, පුරාතණ ඊජිප්තුවේ සොහොන් බලි සඳහා යොදාගෙන ඇත. [9] ක්‍රිස්තු පූර්ව 2800 දී පමණ සිට ඊජිප්තුවරු ලෙබනන දේවදාරු, වීදුරු සහ සායම් වර්ග ලබාගැනීම පිණිස ලුණු ෆීනිසියානුවන්ට වෙළෙඳාම් කර ඇත. ෆීනිසියානුවන් මෙම ලුණු සහ ලුණු දමන ලද මාළු මධ්‍යධරණී මුහුදු මාර්ග ඔස්සේ උතුරු අප්‍රිකානු රටවලට වෙළෙඳාම සඳහා ප්‍රවාහනය කර ඇත. [9]

Along the Sahara, the Tuareg maintain routes especially for the transport of salt by Azalai (salt caravans). In 1960, the caravans still transported some 15,000 tons of salt, but this trade has now declined to roughly a third of this figure.[10]

Salzburg, Hallstatt, and Hallein lie on the river Salzach in central Austria, within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres. Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city", both taking their names from the ජර්මානු word for salt, Salz.

Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 BC. Around 400 BC, the Hallstatt Celts, who had heretofore mined for salt, began open pan salt making. During the first millennium BC, Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries.[6]

It is widely, though incorrectly,[11] believed that troops in the Roman army were paid in salt.[12] Even widely respected historical works repeat this error.[9]:63 The word salad literally means "salted," and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables.[9]:64

Mahatma Gandhi led at least 100,000 people on the "Dandi March" or "Salt Satyagraha", in which protesters made their own salt from the sea, which was illegal under British rule, as it avoided paying the "salt tax". This civil disobedience inspired millions of common people, and elevated the Indian independence movement from an elitist struggle to a national struggle.

ලුණු ප්‍රභේද[සංස්කරණය]

Unrefined ලුණු[සංස්කරණය]

ගොනුව:Seasalt.jpg
A commercial pack of sea salt

Different natural salts have different mineralities, giving each one a unique flavor. Fleur de sel, natural sea salt harvested by hand, has a unique flavor varying from region to region. In traditional Korean cuisine, so-called "bamboo salt" is prepared by roasting salt [13] in a bamboo container plugged with mud at both ends. This product absorbs minerals from the bamboo and the mud, and has been shown to increase the anticlastogenic and antimutagenic properties of doenjang.[14]

Completely raw sea salt is bitter because of magnesium and calcium compounds, and thus is rarely eaten. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases.[15]

Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives and cosmetic products. One example is bath salts, which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects.

Refined salt[සංස්කරණය]

Refined salt, which is most widely used presently, is mainly sodium chloride. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[16]) although worldwide, food uses account for 17.5% of salt production.[17] The majority is sold for industrial use. Salt has great commercial value because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper, setting dyes in textiles and fabrics, and the making of soaps and detergents.

The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries.[18] Salt can be obtained by evaporation of sea water, usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight;[19] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt, and is now often called sea salt or solar salt. Rock salt deposits are formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes,[20] and may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. Injected water dissolves the salt, and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected.

After the raw salt is obtained, it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics. Purification usually involves recrystallization. In recrystallization, a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts).[21] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals, which are kiln-dried.

Single-serving salt packets.

Since the 1950s it has been common practice in the United Kingdom to add a trace amount of sodium ferrocyanide to the brine; this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals.[22] The safety of sodium ferrocyanide as a food additive was confirmed in the United Kingdom in 1993.[23] Some anticaking agents used are tricalcium phosphate, calcium or magnesium carbonates, fatty acid salts (acid salts), magnesium oxide, silicon dioxide, calcium silicate, sodium aluminosilicate, and calcium aluminosilicate. Both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permitted the use of aluminum in the latter two compounds.[24] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution.

Table salt[සංස්කරණය]

In Western cuisines, salt is used in cooking, and also made available to diners in salt shakers on the table.

Table salt is refined salt, which contains about 97% to 99% sodium chloride.[25][26][27][28] It usually contains substances that make it free-flowing (anti-caking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate. Some people also add a desiccant, such as a few grains of uncooked rice,[29] in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture and help break up clumps when anti-caking agents are not enough. Table salt has a particle density of 2.165 g/cm3, and a bulk density (dry, ASTM D 632 gradation) of about 1.154 g/cm3.[30]

Salty condiments[සංස්කරණය]

In many East Asian cultures, salt is not traditionally used as a condiment.[31] However, condiments such as soy sauce, fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures.

Health effects[සංස්කරණය]

SEM image of a grain of table salt.

සෝඩියම් is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium) are available in unrefined salt, as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps, dizziness, or electrolyte disturbance, which can cause neurological problems, or death.[32] Drinking too much water, with insufficient salt intake, puts a person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia). Salt is sometimes used as a health aid, such as in treatment of dysautonomia.[33]

Excess salt consumption is linked with a number of conditions including[34]:

  • Stroke and cardiovascular disease.[35]
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994, the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults."[36] A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%.[37]
  • Left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy, a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease, independently of blood pressure effects."[36] "...there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy."[38] Excessive salt (sodium) intake, combined with an inadequate intake of water, can cause hypernatremia. It can exacerbate renal disease.[32]
  • Edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention).[32][39]
  • Duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[40]
  • Heartburn.[41]
  • Osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in women.[42] Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health, there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions."[36]
  • Gastric cancer (stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium, "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK."[43] However, in Japan, salt consumption is higher.[44]
  • Death: Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight)[45] can be fatal. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics, forced salt intake, and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food.[46]

The Cochrane Collaboration found that "a modest and long term reduction in population salt intake [...] would result in a lower population blood pressure, and a reduction in strokes, heart attacks and heart failure. Furthermore, our study is consistent with the fact that the lower the salt intake, the lower the blood pressure."[47] However, salt consumption is not linked to asthma.[48]

The risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies because of biochemical individuality. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real, the risks have been exaggerated for most people, or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways.[49][50]

Some isolated cultures, such as the Yanomami in South America, have been found to consume little salt, possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors.[51] However, the low salt diets of the Yanomamo Indians does not result in their low blood pressure, this has been attributed to their lack of a D/D genotype.[52][53]

Recommended intake[සංස්කරණය]

Sea salt and peppercorns.
A salt mill for sea salt.

In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that, for a typical adult, the Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI) is 4 g salt per day (1.6 g or 70 mmol sodium). However, average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium. SACN states, "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels, but achievable population goals."[54] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets.[38]

Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium,[55] as does the Auckland District Health Board in නවසීලන්තය.[56]

The NHMRC in ඕස්ට්‍රේලියාව was not able to define a recommended dietary intake (RDI). It defines an Adequate Intake (AI) for adults of 460–920 mg/day and an Upper Level of intake (UL) of 2300 mg/day.[57]

In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation,[58] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2,300 mg of sodium (= 2.3 g sodium = 5.8 g salt) per day.[59]

Meta-analysis in 2009 found that the sodium consumption of 19,151 individuals from 33 countries fit into the narrow range of 2,700 to 4,900 mg/day. The small range across many cultures, together with animal studies, suggest that sodium intake is tightly controlled by feedback loops in the body, making recommendations to reduce sodium consumption below 2,700 mg/day potentially futile.[60]

Labeling[සංස්කරණය]

UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1.5 g salt per 100 g (or 0.6 g sodium). Low is 0.3 g salt or less per 100 g (or 0.1 g sodium). If the amount of salt per 100 g is in between these figures, then that is a medium level of salt." In the UK, foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‘traffic light’ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High), Amber (Medium), or Green (Low).[61]

USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free", "low", or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium. When other health claims are made about a food (e.g. low in fat, calories, etc.), a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480 mg of sodium per 'serving.'[62]

Normal salt itself contains 40 g of sodium per 100 g of salt.

Campaigns[සංස්කරණය]

In 2004, Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt - Watch it", which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day; it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA).[63] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication.[64] In March 2007, the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt. Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair.[65]

The University of Tasmania's Menzies Research Institute maintains a website[66] to educate people about the problems of a salt-laden diet.

Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[67] established in 1996, actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt. The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children.[68]

Taxation of sodium has been proposed as a method of decreasing sodium intake and thereby improving health in countries like the United States where typical salt consumption is high.[69][70]

The Salt Institute, a salt industry body, is active in promoting the use of salt,[71] and questioning or opposing restrictions on salt intake.[72]

Additives[සංස්කරණය]

Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide, sodium iodide, or sodium iodate. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency in humans. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems, specifically endemic goiter, a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland, usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in the diet to prevent goiter, the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used.[73] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism), which can cause goitre, cretinism in children, and myxedema in adults.

Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment. The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country. In the United States, iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm, while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10–22 ppm.[74] Today, iodized salt is more common in the United States, ඕස්ට්‍රේලියාව and නවසීලන්තය than in the United Kingdom.

In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced, fluorinated table salt is available. In France, 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride.[තහවුරු කරන්න] Another additive, especially important for pregnant women, is folic acid (Vitamin B9), which gives the table salt a yellow color.

In Canada, at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar.[තහවුරු කරන්න]Sodium ferrocyanide, also known as yellow prussiate of soda, is sometimes added to salt as an anti-caking agent. The additive is considered safe for human consumption.[23][75]

Salt substitutes[සංස්කරණය]

Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet, without recourse to salt substitutes. Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride, which will increase potassium intake. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia. Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium, thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia. Those who have kidney failure, heart failure or diabetes should seek medical advice before using a salt substitute. One manufacturer, LoSalt, has issued an advisory statement[76] that those taking the following prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: amiloride, triamterene, Dytac, spironolactone (Aldactone), and eplerenone (Inspra).

Low salt diets[සංස්කරණය]

Diets low in salt are mainly low sodium diets, that is, diets that specifically aim to lower intake of sodium, potentially including salt substitutes replacing sodium with other components.

Production[සංස්කරණය]

Global salt output in 2005

Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources, such as brine wells and salt lakes, and by mining rock salt, called halite.

In 2002, total world production (of sodium chloride in general, not just table salt) was estimated at 210 million tonnes, the top five producers being the United States (40.3 million tonnes), China (32.9), Germany (17.7), India (14.5), and Canada (12.3).[77] By 2007, China had become the world's largest salt producer, surpassing the United States.

Non-dietary aspects[සංස්කරණය]

Apart from its role as the major form of table salt in the diet, sodium chloride is responsible for the salinity of the ocean, and plays a role in formation of clouds.

In religion[සංස්කරණය]

In the Hebrew Bible, thirty-five verses mention salt,[78] the earliest being the story of Lot's wife, who was turned into a pillar of salt when she looked back at the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah (Genesis 19:26) as the 'Lord' destroyed them. When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem, he is said to have "sown salt on it," probably as a curse on anyone who would re-inhabit it. (Judges 9:45)

In the Christian New Testament, six verses mention salt. In the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace, seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6).

In one of the Hadith recorded in Sunan Ibn Majah, Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said that: "Salt is the master of your food. God sent down four blessings from the sky - fire, water, iron and salt"

Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass.[79] Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf. Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water.

Salt is considered to be a very auspicious substance in Hindu mythology, and is used in particular religious ceremonies like housewarmings and weddings.

In Judaism, it is recommended to have either a salty bread or to add salt to the bread if this bread is unsalted when doing Kidush for Shabat. It is customary to spread some salt over the bread or to dip the bread in a little salt when passing the bread around the table after the Kidush.[80] To preserve the covenant between their people and God, Jews dip the Sabbath bread in salt.[81]

In Wicca, salt is symbolic of the element Earth. It is also believed to clense an area of and harmful or negative energies.

In the native Japanese religion Shinto, salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people, such as in sumo wrestling.

In Aztec mythology, Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water.

The ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans invoked their gods with offerings of salt and water. Some think this to be the origin of Holy Water in the Christian faith.[81]

See also[සංස්කරණය]

A ship loading salt from a terminal.

Notes[සංස්කරණය]

  1. "American Heart Association 2010 Dietary Guidelines". 2010 Dietary Guidelines. American Heart Association. 23 January 2009. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 16 May 2010. 
  2. "Nutrient Reference Values for ඕස්ට්‍රේලියා and New Zealand - Sodium". Nutrient Reference Values for ඕස්ට්‍රේලියා and New Zealand. ඕස්ට්‍රේලියානු Government National Health and Medical Research Council/ New Zealand Ministry of Health. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 16 May 2010. 
  3. "Dietary Guidelines focus on sodium intake, sugary drinks, dairy alternatives". Food Navigator-usa.com. Decision News Media. 27 April 2010. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 16 May 2010. 
  4. "Sodium Chloride". Eat Well, Be Well. UK Government Food Standards Agency. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 16 May 2010. 
  5. "Health Canada, Healthy Living, Sodium". Healthy Living. Health Canada. 2008. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 16 May 2010. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 සැකිල්ල:Harvcolnb
  7. Antiquity.ac.uk Antiquity, Vol 79 No 306 December 2005 The earliest salt production in the world: an early Neolithic exploitation in Poiana Slatinei-Lunca, Romania Olivier Weller & Gheorghe Dumitroaia
  8. (French) Arhives-ouvertes.fr ArchæDyn – Dijon, 23-25 june 2008 Dynamics settlement pattern, production and trades from Neolithic to Middle Ages
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 සැකිල්ල:Harvcolnb
  10. Onbekende Wereld by Wim Offeciers (based on Douchan Gersi's travels)
  11. "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th edition". Answers.com. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 2008-12-14. 
  12. For instance, in the animated short Scrooge McDuck and Money
  13. James V. Livingston (2005). Agriculture and soil pollution: new research. Nova Publishers. p. 45. ISBN 1594543100. 
  14. Shahidi, Fereidoon; John Shi; Ho, Chi-Tang (2005). Asian functional foods. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 575. ISBN 0-8247-5855-2. 
  15. References on food salt & health issues. Salt Institute.
  16. European Salt Producers' Association http://www.eu-salt.com/index3.htm
  17. Roskill Information Services http://www.roskill.com/reports/salt
  18. Salt made the world go round
  19. Nauticus - Weather Curriculum
  20. UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www.saltsense.co.uk/aboutsalt-what01.htm
  21. The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense, salt history, salt manufacture, salt uses, sodium. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry
  22. The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense, salt history, salt manufacture, salt uses, sodium. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry
  23. 23.0 23.1 Discussions of the safety of sodium hexaferrocyanate in table salt
  24. HE-620
  25. Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt, from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38.9% sodium by weight which equals 98.9% sodium chloride
  26. Calculating the listed 590mg of Sodium in a 1.5g serving size (of Smart & Final iodized salt), it is clear that it is not 99% sodium chloride since pure NaCl should contain about 870mg of Sodium
  27. Table
  28. The international Codex Alimentarius Standard for Food Grade Salt
  29. "Rice in Salt Shakers". Ask a Scientist. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 2008-07-29. 
  30. What is Salt?, Salt Institute, 2008
  31. The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 ඕස්ට්‍රේලියා: Better Health Channel (ඕස්ට්‍රේලියාව, Victoria) Salt
  33. Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page
  34. BBC News
  35. Strazzullo P, D'Elia L, Kandala NB, Cappuccio FP (2009). "Salt intake, stroke, and cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of prospective studies". BMJ 339: b4567. doi:10.1136/bmj.b4567. PMID 19934192. 
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health, page 3
  37. Cook, NR; Cutler, JA; Obarzanek, E; Buring, JE; Rexrode, KM; Kumanyika, SK; Appel, LJ; Whelton, PK (2007). "Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP)." (Free full-text). BMJ (Clinical research ed.) (British Medical Journal) 334 (7599): 885–8. doi:10.1136/bmj.39147.604896.55. PMID 17449506. PMC 1857760. http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/334/7599/885. 
  38. 38.0 38.1 Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland, page 12
  39. ඕස්ට්‍රේලියා: Better Health Channel (ඕස්ට්‍රේලියාව, Victoria) Fluid retention
  40. BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007
  41. Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn
  42. High salt diet reduces bone density in girls
  43. Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health, page 18
  44. Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk'
  45. Safety data for sodium chloride - The Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory of Oxford University
  46. Turk, E; Schulz, F; Koops, E; Gehl, A; Tsokos, M (2005). "Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic?report of three autopsy cases". Legal Medicine 7 (1): 47. doi:10.1016/j.legalmed.2004.06.005. PMID 15556015. 
  47. He FJ, MacGregor GA (9 May 2005). "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure". The Cochrane Collaboration Cochrane Reviews. The Cochrane Collaboration. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 24 May 2010. 
  48. "Low-sodium advice for asthmatics should be taken with a pinch of salt". The University of Nottingham. 15 July 2008. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 24 May 2010. 
  49. Why Files article Salt and other wounds
  50. Gary Taubes, "The (Political) Science of Salt", Science, 14 August 1998, Vol. 281. no. 5379, pp. 898 - 907
  51. Yanomami Indians in the Intersald study, (accessed 13 January 2007)
  52. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene (ACE) Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism in Mexican Populations
  53. Risk factors for cardiovascular mortality in Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites
  54. Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health
  55. Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes
  56. Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF)
  57. NHMRC Reference Nutrient Values, Sodium
  58. U. S. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt
  59. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium"
  60. McCarron, D. A.; Geerling, J. C.; Kazaks, A. G.; Stern, J. S. (2009). "Can Dietary Sodium Intake Be Modified by Public Policy?". Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 4 (11): 1878. doi:10.2215/CJN.04660709. PMID 19833911. http://cjasn.asnjournals.org/cgi/reprint/CJN.04660709v1. 
  61. Understanding labels
  62. Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A
  63. Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack
  64. Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF)
  65. Salt TV ads
  66. Dr Trevor Beard (26 March 2009). Salt Matters "Salt Matters". University of Tasmania. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 17 May 2010. 
  67. "CASH Consensus Action on Salt". 
  68. Smithers, Rebecca (28 January 2008). "Child health fears over high salt levels in sweet foods". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2008/jan/28/foodanddrink.healthandwellbeing. Retrieved 23 May 2010. 
  69. "Letter: Salt tax could reduce population's salt intake". 2010-04-01. 
  70. "Salt tax could massively reduce US mortality rates, healthcare costs". 2010-04-01. 
  71. "Salt Institute". Salt Institute. 2009. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 24 May 2010. 
  72. "Salt Institute". Salt Institute. 2009. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 24 May 2010. 
  73. Iodized Salt
  74. Iodized Salt
  75. Ferrocyanides in salt for feed use is acceptable as regards safety for target animals and human consumer...
  76. LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF)
  77. Feldman, Susan R. (2005). Sodium Chloride in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/0471238961.1915040902051820.a01.pub2. 
  78. Strong's Concordance
  79.  "Salt". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. 
  80. Chabad.org
  81. 81.0 81.1 "10+1 Things you may not know about Salt", Epikouria Magazine, Fall/Winter 2006

References[සංස්කරණය]

Further reading[සංස්කරණය]

  • Kurlansky, Mark, and S. D. Schindler. The Story of Salt. New York, NY: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 2006. ISBN 0-399-23998-7—a children's book about salt.
  • Laszlo, Pierre. Salt: Grain of Life. Arts and traditions of the table. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.
  • Department of Health, Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy , The Stationery Office.

External links[සංස්කරණය]

"http://si.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=ලුණු&oldid=284623" වෙතින් සම්ප්‍රවේශනය කෙරිණි