සාකච්ඡාව:ශ්‍රී ලංකාව

විකිපීඩියා, නිදහස් විශ්වකෝෂය වෙතින්
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නම - name[සංස්කරණය]

("ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්තික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය" එහි නිලනාමය වෙයි) ‍මේ ගැන මටනම් සැකයි හොදින් ඒ ගැන දන්නා අයෙක් එ ය නිවැරදි කරන්න.ශ්රී ලංකාව ශ්‍රී ලංකාව ලෙසට සකස් කරන්න.

දසුන්.

---

re: නම - name[සංස්කරණය]

It is "Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka". See The Official Website of the Government of Sri Lanka
මට හිතෙන විදිහට "ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්තික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය" යන්න නිවැරදියි.

අදජ - Akila DJ

national anthem[සංස්කරණය]

  • I think. It's poinless to include whole national anthem into this Sri Lanka article. we should move it to new article.--Mayooresan 08:15, 24 March 2006 (UTC)
  • ඉංග්රීසි පිටුව should not be included in External links or See Also. It's already in otherlanguages pannel.

Removing Irrevelent Information/Links[සංස්කරණය]

gentlemen, i'm going to remove some inapropriate material from this page. wikipedia is not an ad agency nor is it a repository of urls. please refer to [1]

links to be removed rivira.lk, malkoha.com, pooranee.com, snict.com, kaputa.com, wtiw.com, jobsnet.lk, snictweb.com

These links may have a place in relevent wikipedia pages (eg: malkoha in සංගීතය



Climate in Sri Lanka

Climate:Climate is defined as the condition of the atmosphere at a particular location over a long period of time (from one month to many millions of years, but generally 30 years).  Climate is the sum of atmospheric elements (and their variations), solar radiation, temperature, humidity, clouds and precipitation (type, frequency, and amount), atmospheric pressure, and wind (speed and direction). Due to the location of Sri Lanka, within the tropics between 5o 55' to 9o 51' North latitude and between 79o 42' to 81o 53' East longitude,  the climate of the island could be characterized  as tropical. Topography:The central part of the southern half of the island is mountainous with heights more then 2.5 Km. The core regions of the central highlands contain many complex topographical features such as ridges, peaks, plateaus, basins, valleys and escarpments. The remainder of the island is practically flat except for several small hills that rise abruptly in the lowlands. These topographical features strongly affect the spatial patterns of winds, seasonal rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and other climatic elements, particularly during the monsoon season. Rainfall: Rainfall in Sri Lanka has multiple origins. Monsoonal, Convectional and expressional rain accounts for a major share of the annual rainfall. The mean annual rainfall varies from under 900mm in the driest parts (southeastern and northwestern) to over 5000mm in the wettest parts (western slopes of the central highlands). (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1 Annual Rainfall in Sri Lanka Temperature Regional differences observed in air temperature over sri lanka are mainly due to altitude, rather than to latitude. The mean monthly temperatures differs slightly depending on the seasonal movement of the sun, with some modified influence caused by rainfall. The mean annual temperature in Sri Lanka manifests largely homogeneous temperatures in the low lands and rapidly decreasing temperatures in the highlands. In the lowlands, up to and altitude of 100 m to 150 m, the mean annual temperature various between 26.5 0C to 28.5 0C, with an annual temperature of 27.5 0C. In the highlands, the temperature falls quickly as the altitude increases. The mean annual temperature of Nuwaraeliya, at 1800 m sea level, is 15.9 0C. The coldest month with respect to mean monthly temperature is generally January, and the warmest months are April and August. The mean annual temperature varies from 270C in the coastal lowlands to 160C at NuwaraEliya, in the central highlands (1900m above mean sea level). This relatively unique feature manifesting as sunny beaches to rain forests inland is a tourist attraction.

Climate Seasons The Climate of Sri Lanka is dominated by the above mentioned topographical features of the country and the Southwest and Northeast monsoons regional scale wind regimes. The Climate experienced during 12 months period in Sri Lanka can be characterized in to 4 climate seasons as follows. First Intermonsoon Season - March - April Southwest monsoon season - May - September Second Intermonsoon season - October - November Northeast Monsoon season - December – February

First Inter-monsoon Season (March - April) Warm and uncomfortable conditions, with thunderstorm-type rain, particularly during the afternoon or evening, are the typical weather conditions during this season.  The distribution of rainfall during this period shows that the entire South-western sector at the hill country receiving 250 mm of rainfall, with localize area on the South-western slops experiencing rainfall in excess of 700 mm (Keragala 771 mm). Over most parts of the island, the amount of rainfall various between 100 and 250 mm, the norteble exception being the Northern Jaffna Peninsula (Jaffna- 78 mm, Elephant pass- 83 mm).

Southwest -monsoon Season (May - September) Windy weather during this monsoon eases off the warmth that prevailed during the 1st Inter monsoon season. Southwest monsoon rains are experience at any times of the day and night, some times intermittently mainly in the Southwestern part of the country. Amount of rainfall during this season varies from about 100 mm to over 3000 mm. The highest rainfall received in the mid-elevations of the western slops (Ginigathhena- 3267 mm, Watawala- 3252 mm, Norton- 3121 mm). Rainfall decreases rapidly from these maximum regions towards the higher elevation, an in Nuwara-eliya drops to 853 mm.   The variation towards the Southwestern coastal area is less rapid, with the Southwestern coastal belt experiencing between 1000 mm to 1600 mm of rain during this 5 month long period. Lowest figures are recorded from Northern and Southeastern regions.

Second Inter-monsoon Season (October-November) The thunderstorm-type of rain, particularly during the afternoon or evening, is the typical climate during this season. But unlike in the Intermonsoon season, the influence of weather system like depression and cyclones in the Bay of Bengal is common during the second Intermonsoon season. Under such conditions, the whole country experiences strong winds with wide spread rain, sometimes leading to floods and landslides. The second Intermonsoon period of October – November  is the period with the most evenly balanced distribution of rainfall over Sri Lanka. Almost the entire island receives in excess of 400 mm of rain during this season, with the Southwestern slops receiving higher rainfall in the range 750mm to 1200 mm (Weweltalawa Estate in Yatiyantota recording 1219 mm)



Northeast -monsoon Season (December - February) The dry and cold wind blowing from the Indian land-mass will establish a comparatively cool, but dry weather over many parts making the surrounding pleasant and comfortable weather except for some rather cold morning hours. Cloud-free skies provide days full of sunshine and pleasant and cool night. During this period, the highest rainfall figures are recorded in the North, Eastern slopes of the hill country and the Eastern slopes of the Knuckles/Rangala range. The maximum rainfall is experience at Kobonella estate (1281 mm), and the minimum is in the Western coastal area around Puttalam (Chilaw- 177 mm) during this period.


Sri Lanka's position between 5 and 10 north latitude endows the country with a warm climate, moderated by ocean winds and considerable moisture. The mean temperature ranges from a low of 15.8° C in Nuwara Eliya in the Central Highlands (where frost may occur for several days in the winter) to a high of 29° C in Trincomalee on the northeast coast (where temperatures may reach 37° C). The average yearly temperature for the country as a whole ranges from 26° C to 28° C. Day and night temperatures may vary by 4 to 7 . January is the coolest month, causing people, especially those in the highlands, to wear coats and sweaters. May, the hottest period, precedes the summer monsoon rains.

The rainfall pattern is influenced by the monsoon winds of the Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal and is marked by four seasons. The first is from mid-May to October, when winds originate in the southwest, bringing moisture from the Indian Ocean. When these winds encounter the slopes of the Central Highlands, they unload heavy rains on the mountain slopes and the southwestern sector of the island. Some of the windward slopes receive up to 250 centimeters of rain per month, but the leeward slopes in the east and northeast receive little rain. The second season occurs in October and November, the intermonsoonal months. During this season, periodic squalls occur and sometimes tropical cyclones bring overcast skies and rains to the southwest, northeast, and eastern parts of the island. During the third season, December to March, monsoon winds come from the northeast, bringing moisture from the Bay of Bengal. The northeastern slopes of the mountains may be inundated with up to 125 centimeters of rain during these months. Another intermonsoonal period occurs from March until mid-May, with light, variable winds and evening thundershowers. Humidity is typically higher in the southwest and mountainous areas and depends on the seasonal patterns of rainfall. At Colombo, for example, daytime humidity stays above 70 percent all year, rising to almost 90 percent during the monsoon season in June. Anuradhapura experiences a daytime low of 60 percent during the intermonsoonal month of March, but a high of 79 percent during the November and December rains. In the highlands, Kandy's daytime humidity usually ranges between 70 and 79 percent.


Centre for Climate Change Studies The Centre for Climate Change Studies was established as a part of the Department of Meteorology by the Cabinet Memorandum dated 11th June 1999 to address issues related to Climate Change.


Climate Change in Sri Lanka

By Dr. B.R.S.B. Basnayake Introduction Climate Change is defined as statistically significant variation in either mean state of the climate or in its variability, persisting for an extended period (typically decades or longer). Climate change may be due to natural internal processes or external forcing or to persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use (IPCC, 2001). Since the industrial revolution, change of climate has been occurring at an accelerated rate as a result of human activities such as fossil fuel burnings, change of land use practices (in particular deforestation), emission of industrial gases etc. The global warming of the earth-atmosphere system is brought about by enhanced greenhouse effect. Greenhouse effect makes the surface of the earth some 33 0C warmer than it would otherwise be (i.e. with a mean surface temperature of 14 0C instead of –19 0C) and allows life forms to exist The gases that are responsible for this enhanced greenhouse effect in the natural atmosphere are Water vapor (H2O), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Methane (CH4), Ozone (O3), Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6) and Perfluorocarbons (PFCs). Atmospheric concentration of CO2 has rapidly been increased from 280 ppm during the pre industrial era to 365 ppm at present, due to enhanced anthropogenic activities to make human lives more comfort.

Rainfall Change Annual average of rainfall over Sri Lanka has been decreased by an amount of 144 millimeters, about seven percent, during 1961 to 1990 period compared to 1931 to 1960 period (Chandrapala 1997) with the standard deviation increasing from 234 to 263 millimeters. Northeast monsoon rainfall over Sri Lanka has been decreased from 1931 – 1960 to 1961-1990 periods, with an increased variability. Southwest monsoon rainfall has not shown any significant change during these two periods; however variability has been decreased during 1961-1990 compared to 1931-1960. High variability of annual rainfall is reported at Baticaloa, Kurunegala, and Rathnapura (Fig. 1) meteorological stations in the recent past compared to other meteorological stations. No significant trends of annual rainfall have been noticed during the last century. High variability of rainfall patterns could probably be due to global climate change with the increase of Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Temperature Change Annual mean air temperature anomalies have shown significant increasing trends during the recent few decades in Sri Lanka (Basnayake et al 2002). The rate of increase of mean air temperature for the 1961-1990 period is in the order of 0.016 0C per year (Chandrapala, 1996). Annual mean maximum air temperatures have shown increasing trends in almost all stations with the maximum rate of increase about 0.021 0C per year at Puttalam. Nighttime annual mean minimum air temperatures have also shown increasing trends with higher gradients. The maximum rate of increase of nighttime annual mean minimum air temperature is reported about 0.02 0C per year at Nuwara-Eliya (Fig. 2). It has been evident that increase in average annual surface temperatures across the country during recent time is largely due to the increase in nighttime minimum temperature than that of the daytime maximum temperature. This trend is similar to the global trend of rising temperature during the last century. Enhanced greenhouse effect could partly be responsible for this warming in addition to the local heat island effects caused by the rapid urbanization that has been taken place during the recent past. Baseline Climatology of Rainfall and Temperature During the Northeast Monsoon (NEM) period (December, January and February), highest rainfalls are confined to the eastern slopes of the central highlands of which the maxima of about 1200 mm is located just below the tip of the central hills (Fig. 3). This is mainly due to the somewhat rich moist flow of northeasterlies during this period. During March and April, when the 1st inter-monsoon is in effect, heavy fall are clearly observed in the southwestern parts of the island. Annual average of rainfall over Sri Lanka has been decreased by an amount of 144 millimeters, about seven percent, during 1961 to 1990 period compared to 1931 to 1960 period (Chandrapala 1997) with the standard deviation increasing from 234 to 263 millimeters. Northeast monsoon rainfall over Sri Lanka has been decreased from 1931 – 1960 to 1961-1990 periods, with an increased variability. Southwest monsoon rainfall has not shown any significant change during these two periods; however variability has been decreased during 1961-1990 compared to 1931-1960. High variability of annual rainfall is reported at Baticaloa, Kurunegala, and Rathnapura (Fig. 1) meteorological stations in the recent past compared to other meteorological stations. No significant trends of annual rainfall have been noticed during the last century. High variability of rainfall patterns could probably be due to global climate change with the increase of Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Future Scenarios of Rainfall Extreme events (floods, droughts, etc.) would be more intense and more frequent with the climate change [IPCC, 2001], due manly to variability of rainfall. In addition, wet areas get wetter and wetter and dry areas get drier and drier with the climate change. According to the results obtained, it is clearly seen that the southwest monsoon rainfall, which usually confines to the western and southwestern parts of the island, is projected to increase by the year 2025 (Fig. 6), 2050 (Fig. 8) and 2100 (Fig. 10) under the A2 scenario. Figs. 5, 7 and 9 show the northeast monsoon rainfall scenarios under the A2 emission scenario in the years 2025, 2050 and 2100 respectively, in which the northeast monsoon rainfall is projected to increase particularly over the eastern and northern areas. Future Scenarios of Temperature The global mean temperature is projected to be risen in the range of 1.4 – 5.8 0C by the year 2100 under the different emission scenarios [IPCC, 2001]. It is revealed that the mean temperature during the northeast monsoon and southwest seasons is projected to increase about 2.9 0C and 2.5 0C respectively, over the baseline, by the year 2100. Figs. 11 to 16 show the increase of mean temperature of northeast and southwest monsoons in the years 2025, 2050 and 2100. Conclusion It is reveled that the southwest monsoon and northeast monsoon rainfall is projected to increase in the future under the A2 storyline with HadCM3 model. The aerial extent, where the highest rainfalls are confined, is also projected to increase with the increase of rainfall. Rainfall change is higher during the southwest monsoon season than the northeast monsoon season. Much higher increments are noticed on the windward side of the central hills in each monsoon and less increment is noticed on the leeward side. Therefore there is a strong possibility of having water scarcity problems in the regions where the rainfall is less especially on the leeward side of the central hills and adjoin areas in each monsoon due to the population growth and increasing demand for water in the future. This situation may be aggravated as the mean temperatures are also projected to be increased with the increase of Greenhouse gases of the atmosphere under the A2 storyline. This could seriously be affected especially in the agricultural, water resources and land use sectors and therefore some adaptation measures, like rainwater harvesting, de-silting of minor tanks especially in the dry zone, need to be taken in order to cope with the anticipated climate change. The developed rainfall and temperature scenarios could be used as an impact and vulnerability assessment tool and also in developing adaptation strategies to cope with climate change in vulnerable sectors. These rainfall and temperature scenarios are based on the hypothetical emission scenarios (SRES) proposed by the IPCC. This analyses use medium emission scenario (A2) with HadCM3 model to estimate what would be the rainfall and temperature like in the future years under the anticipated climate change. It is worthwhile mentioning that some uncertainties are also involved in developing this rainfall and temperature scenarios due to the uncertainties involved in emission scenarios proposed by the IPCC. Pattern scaling method (statistical downscaling method), which utilized to downscale the rainfall and temperature scenarios, seems to be much more acceptable approach in downscaling global fields into regional or local scale, as the dynamical downscaling method needs more sophisticated limited area numerical model with unaffordable computer resources to run the model. Acknowledgement Financial assistance by GEF/UNEP/TWAS for Assessment of Impacts of and Adaptation of Climate Change (AIACC) project of Sri Lanka (Grant No. AS-12) is greatly acknowledged.

අක්ෂර වින්‍යාස දෝෂ බහුලයි![සංස්කරණය]


සිංහල භාෂාවෙන් ඇති බොහෝ ලිපි වල අක්ෂර වින්‍යාස දෝෂ බහුලව දක්නට ලබේ.

මීට එක් හේතුවක් ලෙස මා දකින්නේ කොම්බුව වැනි කොටස් (ෙ, ේ, ෛ, ො, ෝ, ෞ) ප්‍රාණාක්ෂ‍රයට පසුව නොයොදා, එය අකුරට පෙර අතුලු කිරීමයි.
(මේවා අකුරට කලින් දිස් විය මුත් ටයිප් කළ යුත්තේ අකුරට පසුවයි)


උදා :-

ෙ + ම   →   ෙම         X
ම + ෙ   →   මෙ         √

ෝ + ස   →   ෝස         X
ස + ෝ   →   සෝ         √


Akila DJ - අදජ
අදජ - Akila DJ
අඛිල දජ - ADJ


ඔබ windos xp service pack 2 පරිශිලිකයෙක් නම් මෙම දෝෂය මග හර වීමට ඔබ siyabas මෘදුකාංගය නිවැරදිව පිහිටුවන්න. එවිට මෙම දෝෂය මග හැ‍රෙනු ඇත.

www.locallanguages.lk/OS_Support වෙත පිවිස ඹබගේ OS එකට අදාල සිංහල මෘදුකාංගය බාගන්න. එවිට කොම්බුව ගැටළුවක් නොවනු ඇත. Singhalawap 15:22, 8 අප්‍රේල් 2010 (යූටීසී)

ජනාධිපති[සංස්කරණය]

නව ජනාධිපතිතුමාගේ සහ අගමැතිතුමාගේ නාමය යෙදිය යුතු වෙයි. ---Randeerjayasekara (talk) 14:14, 10 ජනවාරි 2015 (යූටීසී)

oh, ලේඛනගත පරිශීලකයන්ට පමණක් සංස්කරණය කල හැකි පරිදි මෙම පිටුව ආරක්ෂණය කර ඇත. (එමගින් ලැබෙන ආරක්ෂාව ප්‍රමාණවත් යැයි නොසිතමි).---Randeerjayasekara (talk) 14:25, 10 ජනවාරි 2015 (යූටීසී)
හිතවත් Randeerjayasekara
ඔබ යෝජනා කරන්නේ කුමන ආකාරයේ ආරක්‍ෂණයක්ද ? Singhalawap (talk) 15:44, 21 ජනවාරි 2016 (යූටීසී)

2014-2015 අතර නව ජන ග්‍රහනය ?[සංස්කරණය]

2014-2015 අතර නව ජන ග්‍රහනය 21 003 130 වේ.එය වෙනස් කරන ලෙස කාරුණිකව ඉල්ලා සිටිමි.--Ae Hacker (talk) 09:41, 12 ජූලි 2015 (යූටීසී)

නිල භාෂාව පිළිබද ව.[සංස්කරණය]

නිල භාෂාව විය යුත්තේ සිංහල පමණි.

ලංකාවේ වායවාස්තාට අනුව සිංහල හා දෙමල බාසා දෙකම රාජය භාෂා වේ. - LionsRule125 (talk) 10:24, 20 ජනවාරි 2016 (යූටීසී)

ජාතික ගීය: ශ්‍රී ලංකා මාතා නාදය නැතිව සම්පුර්ණ ගායනය ම එක් කරන ලෙස..[සංස්කරණය]

ජාතික ගීය: නාදය නැතිව සම්පුර්ණ ගායනය ම එක් කරන ලෙස මම යෝජනා කරමි.--Ae Hacker (talk) 09:49, 12 ජූලි 2015 (යූටීසී)

එම යෝජනාවට මමද එකඟවෙමි Singhalawap (talk) 15:45, 21 ජනවාරි 2016 (යූටීසී)

රාජය Government[සංස්කරණය]

මෙය ඒකීය අර්ධ-ජනාධිපතිමය ව්‍යවස්ථාදායක සමූහාණ්ඩුව, ජනතාවගේ මූල ධර්ම තුන විය යුතුයි — ඉදිරියෙහි දැක්වෙන අත්සන නොයෙදූ පරිකථනය LionsRule125 (සාකච්ඡාවදායකත්ව) විසින් 15:49, 20 ජනවාරි 2016‎ හිදී එක් කර ඇත

"https://si.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=සාකච්ඡාව:ශ්‍රී_ලංකාව&oldid=433453" වෙතින් සම්ප්‍රවේශනය කෙරිණි