ලාසා

විකිපීඩියා, නිදහස් විශ්වකෝෂය වෙතින්
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ලාසා
Lhasa-dz-zh.svg
චෙන්ගුආන්
පුරවරය (මහ නගරය)
ඉහළ වමේ සිට: ජොකාන්ග් පන්සලේ වහළය; නොර්බුලින්ග්කා ආරාමයේ ප්‍රධාන දොරටුව; පොටාලා මාලිගාව; ධර්මචක්‍රය; ටිබෙට් යාඥා රෝදය; ලාසා නගරයේ චන්ද්‍රිකා ජායාරූපක්
ඉහළ වමේ සිට: ජොකාන්ග් පන්සලේ වහළය; නොර්බුලින්ග්කා ආරාමයේ ප්‍රධාන දොරටුව; පොටාලා මාලිගාව; ධර්මචක්‍රය; ටිබෙට් යාඥා රෝදය; ලාසා නගරයේ චන්ද්‍රිකා ජායාරූපක්
චෙන්ගුආන් දිස්ත්‍රික්කය (අළු) තුළ ලාසා නගරය (කහ)
චෙන්ගුආන් දිස්ත්‍රික්කය (අළු) තුළ ලාසා නගරය (කහ)
රට  චීනය
පළාත ටිබෙට් පළාත
රජය
 • අධිකරණ වර්ගය මහ නගරය
 • නගරාධිපති සැන් ටින්කින්
 • නියෝජ්‍ය නගරාධිපති ජිග්මේ නම්ග්‍යාල්
තැපැල් කේතය 850000
ලාසා
Lhasa-dz-zh.svg
චීන නම
සරල චීන අක්ෂර 城关区
සම්ප්‍රදායික චීන 城關區
Also known as
සරල චීන අක්ෂර 拉萨
සම්ප්‍රදායික චීන 拉薩
සාහිත්‍යමය අර්ථය (Tibetan) "Place of the Gods"
දෙවන විකල්ප චීන නම
සරල චීන අක්ෂර 逻些
සම්ප්‍රදායික චීන 邏些
ටිබෙට් නම
ටිබෙට් ལྷ་ས་

ලාසා යනු මහජන චීන සමූහාණ්ඩුවේ ටිබෙට් ස්වාධීන පළාතේ අගනුවරයි.[1] ලාසාහි ප්‍රධාන නාගරික ප්‍රදේශය චෙන්ගුආන් දිස්ත්‍රික්කයෙහි පරිපාලන සීමාවන්ට අයත් වේ.[2]

මෙම නගරය 17 වන සියවසේ මැද භාගයේ ටිබෙටයේ ආගමික හා පරිපාලන අගනුවර විය. පොටාලා මාලිගය, ජොකාන්ග් පන්සල හා නොරුබුලින්කා මාළිගාව වැනි බොහෝ සංස්කෘතික වශයෙන් වැදගත් වූ ටිබෙට් බෞද්ධ සිද්ධස්ථාන මෙම නගරයෙහි පිහිටා ඇත.

ඉතිහාසය[සංස්කරණය]

By the mid 7th century, Songtsän Gampo became the leader of the Tibetan Empire that had risen to power in the Brahmaputra River (locally known as the Yarlung Tsangpo River) Valley.[3] After conquering the kingdom of Zhangzhung in the west, he moved the capital from the Chingwa Taktsé Castle in Chongye County (pinyin: Qióngjié Xiàn), southwest of Yarlung, to Rasa (Lhasa) where in 637 he raised the first structures on the site of what is now the Potala Palace on Mount Marpori.[4] In CE 639 and 641, Songtsän Gampo, who by this time had conquered the whole Tibetan region, is said to have contracted two alliance marriages, firstly to a Princess Bhrikuti of Nepal,[5] and then, two years later, to Princess Wencheng of the Imperial Tang court. Bhrikuti is said to have converted him to Buddhism, which was also the faith attributed to his second wife Wencheng. In 641 he constructed the Jokhang (or Rasa Trülnang Tsulagkhang) and Ramoche Temples in Lhasa in order to house two Buddha statues, the Akshobhya Vajra (depicting the Buddha at the age of eight) and the Jowo Sakyamuni (depicting Buddha at the age of twelve), respectively brought to his court by the princesses.[6][7] Lhasa suffered extensive damage under the reign of Langdarma in the 9th century, when the sacred sites were destroyed and desecrated and the empire fragmented.[8]

A Tibetan tradition mentions that after Songtsän Gampo's death in 649 C.E., Chinese troops captured Lhasa and burnt the Red Palace.[9][10] Chinese and Tibetan scholars have noted that the event is mentioned neither in the Chinese annals nor in the Tibetan manuscripts of Dunhuang. Lǐ suggested that this tradition may derive from an interpolation.[11] Tsepon W. D. Shakabpa believes that "those histories reporting the arrival of Chinese troops are not correct."[10]

From the fall of the monarchy in the 9th century to the accession of the 5th Dalai Lama, the centre of political power in the Tibetan region was not situated in Lhasa. However, the importance of Lhasa as a religious site became increasingly significant as the centuries progressed.[12] It was known as the centre of Tibet where Padmasambhava magically pinned down the earth demoness and built the foundation of the Jokhang Temple over her heart.[13] Islam has been present since the 11th century in what is considered to have always been a monolithically Buddhist culture.[14] Two Tibetan Muslim communities have lived in Lhasa with distinct homes, food and clothing, language, education, trade and traditional herbal medicine.

By the 15th century, the city of Lhasa had risen to prominence following the founding of three large Gelugpa monasteries by Je Tsongkhapa and his disciples. The three monasteries are Ganden, Sera and Drepung which were built as part of the puritanical Buddhist revival in Tibet.[15] The scholarly achievements and political know-how of this Gelugpa Lineage eventually pushed Lhasa once more to centre stage.

The 5th Dalai Lama, Lobsang Gyatso (1617–1682), unified Tibet and moved the centre of his administration to Lhasa in 1642 with the help of Güshi Khan of the Khoshut. With Güshi Khan as a largely uninvolved overlord, the 5th Dalai Lama and his intimates established a civil administration which is referred to by historians as the Lhasa state. The core leadership of this government is also referred to as the Ganden Phodrang, and Lhasa thereafter became both the religious and political capital.[16] In 1645, the reconstruction of the Potala Palace began on Red Hill.[17] In 1648, the Potrang Karpo (White Palace) of the Potala was completed, and the Potala was used as a winter palace by the Dalai Lama from that time onwards.[18] The Potrang Marpo (Red Palace) was added between 1690 and 1694. The name Potala is derived from Mount Potalaka, the mythical abode of the Dalai Lama's divine prototype, the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara.[19] The Jokhang Temple was also greatly expanded around this time. Although some wooden carvings and lintels of the Jokhang Temple date to the 7th century, the oldest of Lhasa's extant buildings, such as within the Potala Palace, the Jokhang and some of the monasteries and properties in the Old Quarter date to this second flowering in Lhasa's history.

By the end of the 17th century, Lhasa's Barkhor area formed a bustling market for foreign goods. The Jesuit missionary, Ippolito Desideri reported in 1716 that the city had a cosmopolitan community of Mongol, Chinese, Muscovite, Armenian, Kashmiri, Nepalese and Northern Indian traders. Tibet was exporting musk, gold, medicinal plants, furs and yak tails to far-flung markets, in exchange for sugar, tea, saffron, Persian turquoise, European amber and Mediterranean coral.[20] The Qing dynasty army entered Lhasa in 1720, and the Qing government sent resident commissioners, called the Ambans, to Lhasa. In November 11 of 1750, the murder of the regent by the Ambans triggered a riot in the city that left more than a hundred people killed, including the Ambans. After suppressing the rebels, Qing Qianlong Emperor reorganized the Tibetan government and set up the governing council called Kashag in Lhasa in 1751.

Gateway to Lhasa (western gate) the Tibetans call this chorten, Pargo Kaling pictured here at the time of the 1904 British expedition to Tibet.

In 1904 a British expedition force led by Francis Younghusband entered Lhasa and forced remaining low-level Tibetan officials to sign the Treaty of Lhasa after the fleeing of Dalai Lama. The treaty was subsequently repudiated and was succeeded by a 1906 Anglo-Chinese treaty. All Qing troops left Lhasa after the Xinhai Lhasa turmoil in 1912.

By the 20th century, Lhasa, long a beacon for both Tibetan and foreign Buddhists, had numerous ethnically and religiously distinct communities, among them Kashmiri Muslims, Ladakhi merchants, Sikh converts to Islam, and Chinese traders and officials. The Kashmiri Muslims (Khache) trace their arrival in Lhasa to the Muslim saint of Patna, Khair ud-Din, contemporary with the 5th Dalai Lama.[21] Chinese Muslims lived in a quarter to the south, and Newar merchants from Kathmandu to the north of the Barkhor market. Residents of the Lubu neighbourhood were descended from Chinese vegetable farmers who stayed over after accompanying an Amban from Sichuan in the mid-nineteenth century; some later intermarried with Tibetan women and spoke Tibetan as their first language.[22] The city's merchants catered to all kinds of tastes, importing even Australian butter and British whisky. In the 1940s, according to Heinrich Harrer:-

'There is nothing one cannot buy, or at least order. One even finds the Elizabeth Arden specialties, and there is a keen demand for them. . .You can order, too, sewing machines, radio sets and gramophones and hunt up Bing Crosby records.'[23]

After the establishment of Communist Chinese People's Republic of China, "(...) the People's Liberation Army (PLA) invaded the country in 1950. In March 1959, an uprising centered on the capital, Lhasa, prompted a massive crackdown, during which the Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (b. 1935), fled into exile."[24] Such markets and consumerism came to an abrupt end after the arrival of Chinese government troops and administrative cadres in 1950.[25] Food rations and poorly stocked government stores replaced the old markets, until the 1990s when commerce in international wares once more returned to Lhasa,[26] and arcades and malls with a cornucopia of goods sprang up.[27]

Of the 22 parks (lingkas) which surrounded the city of Lhasa, most of them over half a mile in length, where the people of Lhasa were accustomed to picnic, only three survive today: the Norbulingka, Dalai Lama's Summer Palace, constructed by the 7th Dalai Lama;[15] a small part of the Shugtri Lingka, and the Lukhang. Dormitory blocks, offices and army barracks are built over the rest.[28]

Lhasa in 1938

The Guāndì miào (關帝廟) or Gesar Lhakhang temple was erected by the Amban in 1792 atop Mount Bamare 3 kilometres (2 miles) south of the Potala to celebrate the defeat of an invading Gurkha army.[29]

The main gate to the city of Lhasa used to run through the large Pargo Kaling chorten and contained holy relics of the Buddha Mindukpa.[30]

Between 1987–1989 Lhasa experienced major demonstrations, led by monks and nuns, against the Chinese Government. After Deng Xiaoping's southern tour in 1992, Lhasa was mandated by the government to undergo economic liberalization. All government employees, their families and students were forbidden from practicing their religion, while monks and nuns were not allowed to enter government offices and the Tibet University campus. Subsequent to the introduction of the economic development policies, the influx of migrants has dramatically altered the city's ethnic mix in Lhasa.[31]

In 2000 the urbanised area covered 53 square kilometres (20 sq mi), with a population of around 170,000. Official statistics of the metropolitan area report that 70 percent are Tibetan, 34.3 are Han, and the remaining 2.7 Hui, though outside observers suspect that non-Tibetans account for some 50–70 percent. Among the Han immigrants, Lhasa is known as ‘Little Sichuan'.[31]

Lhasa (normals 1986−2015, extremes 1951−2016) සඳහා කාලගුණ දත්ත
මාසය ජන පෙබ මාර් අප්‍රේ මැයි ජුනි ජූලි අගෝ සැප් ඔක් නොවැ දෙසැ වර්ෂය
වාර්තාගත ඉහළම උෂ්ණත්වය°C (°F) 20.5
(68.9)
21.3
(70.3)
25.0
(77)
25.9
(78.6)
29.4
(84.9)
29.9
(85.8)
30.4
(86.7)
27.2
(81)
26.5
(79.7)
24.8
(76.6)
22.8
(73)
20.1
(68.2)
30.4
(86.7)
සාමාන්‍ය ඉහළම උෂ්ණත්වය °C (°F) 8.4
(47.1)
10.1
(50.2)
13.3
(55.9)
16.3
(61.3)
20.5
(68.9)
24.0
(75.2)
23.3
(73.9)
22.0
(71.6)
20.7
(69.3)
17.5
(63.5)
12.9
(55.2)
9.3
(48.7)
16.5
(61.7)
දෙෙනික සාමාන්‍ය උෂ්ණත්වය °C (°F) −0.3
(31.5)
2.3
(36.1)
5.9
(42.6)
9.0
(48.2)
13.1
(55.6)
16.7
(62.1)
16.5
(61.7)
15.4
(59.7)
13.8
(56.8)
9.4
(48.9)
3.8
(38.8)
−0.1
(31.8)
8.8
(47.8)
සාමාන්‍ය අවම උෂ්ණත්වය °C (°F) −7.4
(18.7)
−4.7
(23.5)
−0.8
(30.6)
2.7
(36.9)
6.8
(44.2)
10.9
(51.6)
11.4
(52.5)
10.7
(51.3)
8.9
(48)
3.1
(37.6)
−3
(27)
−6.8
(19.8)
2.7
(36.9)
වාර්තාගත අවම උෂ්ණත්වය °C (°F) −16.5
(2.3)
−15.4
(4.3)
−13.6
(7.5)
−8.1
(17.4)
−2.7
(27.1)
2.0
(35.6)
4.5
(40.1)
3.3
(37.9)
0.3
(32.5)
−7.2
(19)
−11.2
(11.8)
−16.1
(3)
−16.5
(2.3)
වර්ෂාපතනය mm (inches) .9
(0.035)
1.8
(0.071)
2.9
(0.114)
8.6
(0.339)
28.4
(1.118)
75.9
(2.988)
129.6
(5.102)
133.5
(5.256)
66.7
(2.626)
7.4
(0.291)
0.9
(0.035)
0.3
(0.012)
456.9
(17.987)
Avg. වැසි දින (≥ 0.1 mm) .6 1.2 2.1 5.4 9.0 14.0 19.4 19.9 14.6 4.1 .6 .4 91.3
% ආර්ද්‍රතාවය 26 25 27 36 41 48 59 63 59 45 34 29 41
මාසික මධ්‍යයන සූර්යපැය ගණන 250.9 231.2 253.2 248.8 280.4 260.7 227.0 214.3 232.7 280.3 267.1 257.2 3,003.8
සූර්යපැය ප්‍රතිශතය 78 72 66 65 66 61 53 54 62 80 84 82 67
මූලාශ්‍ර: China Meteorological Administration,[32] all-time extreme temperature[33]
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  2. "Lhasa City Master Plan". gov.cn. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 2017-08-07. 
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  4. Dorje (1999), p. 201.
  5. Snellgrove, David. 1987. Indo-Tibetan Buddhism: Indian Buddhists and Their Tibetan Successors. 2 Vols. Shambhala, Boston, Vol. II, p. 416.
  6. Anne-Marie Blondeau, Yonten Gyatso, 'Lhasa, Legend and History,' in Françoise Pommaret(ed.) Lhasa in the seventeenth century: the capital of the Dalai Lamas, Brill Tibetan Studies Library, 3, Brill 2003, pp.15-38, pp15ff.
  7. Amund Sinding-Larsen, The Lhasa atlas: : traditional Tibetan architecture and townscape, Serindia Publications, Inc., 2001 p.14
  8. Dorje (1999), pp. 68–9.
  9. Bell, Charles (1924). Tibet Past and Present. පි. 28. Archived from the original on 2011-10-02. https://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.billboard.com%2F%23%2Fartist%2FRihanna%2Fchart-history%2F658897%3Ff%3D793%26g%3DSingles&date=2011-10-02.  Reprinted in 1992 by CUP Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1048-1.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Shakabpa, W. D. (2010) [1976]. One hundred thousand moons, Volume 1. trans. by Derek F. Maher. BRILL. පි. 123. ISBN 90-04-17788-4. Archived from the original on 2011-10-02. https://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.billboard.com%2F%23%2Fartist%2FRihanna%2Fchart-history%2F658897%3Ff%3D793%26g%3DSingles&date=2011-10-02. 
  11. Li, Tiezheng (1956). The historical status of Tibet. King's Crown Press, Columbia University. පි. 6. 
  12. Bloudeau, Anne-Mari & Gyatso, Yonten. 'Lhasa, Legend and History' in Lhasa in the Seventeenth Century: The Capital of the Dalai Lamas, 2003, pp. 24-25.
  13. Bloudeau, Anne-Mari & Gyatso, Yonten. "Lhasa, Legend and History." In: Lhasa in the Seventeenth Century: The Capital of the Dalai Lamas. Françoise Pommaret-Imaeda, Françoise Pommaret 2003, p. 38. Brill, Netherlands. ISBN 978-90-04-12866-8.
  14. The Ornaments of Lhasa, Islam in Tibet, Produced by Gray Henry
  15. 15.0 15.1 Dorje (1999), p. 69.
  16. Berzin, Alexander (1996). "The History of the Early Period of Buddhism and Bon in Tibet". The Historical Interaction between the Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before the Mongol Empire. Study Buddhism. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 20 June 2016. With Tibet conceived as a demoness lying on her back and locations for the temples carefully selected according to the rules of Chinese acupuncture applied to the body of the demoness, Songtsen-gampo hoped to neutralize any opposition to his rule from local malevolent spirits. Of the thirteen Buddhist temples, the major one was constructed eighty miles from the imperial capital, at the site that later became known as “Lhasa” (Lha-sa, The Place of the Gods). At the time, it was called "Rasa" (Ra-sa, The Place of the Goats). Western scholars speculate that the Emperor was persuaded to avoid building the temple at the capital so as not to offend the traditional gods. 
  17. Laird, Thomas. (2006). The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama, pp. 175. Grove Press, New York. ISBN 978-0-8021-1827-1.
  18. Karmay, Samten C. (2005). "The Great Fifth", p. 1. Downloaded as a pdf file on 16 December 2007 from: [1]
  19. Stein, R. A. Tibetan Civilization (1962). Translated into English with minor revisions by the author. 1st English edition by Faber & Faber, London (1972). Reprint: Stanford University Press (1972), p. 84
  20. Emily T. Yeh,'Living Together in Lhasa: Ethnic Relations, Coercive Amity, and Subaltern Cosmopolitanism,' in Shail Mayaram (ed.) The other global city, Taylor & Francis US. 2009, pp.54-85, pp.58-7.
  21. John Bray, 'Trader, Middleman or Spy? The Dilemmas of a Kashmiri Muslim in Early Nineteenth-Century Tibet,' in Anna Akasoy, Charles Burnett, Ronit Yoeli-Tlalim (eds.)Islam and Tibet: Interactions Along the Musk Routes, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2011, pp.313-338, p.315.
  22. Emily T. Yeh,'Living Together in Lhasa: Ethnic Relations, Coercive Amity, and Subaltern Cosmopolitanism,' pp.59-60.
  23. Heinrich Harrer, Seven Years in Tibet, Penguin 1997 p.140, cited in Peter Bishop, The myth of Shangri-La: Tibet, travel writing, and the western creation of sacred landscape, University of California Press, 1989 p.192.
  24. Powers, John (2017). The Buddha Party: How the People's Republic of China Works to Define and Control Tibetan Buddhism. New York: Oxford University Press. පිටු 18. ISBN 9780199358151. OCLC 947145370. https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/947145370. ""From birth they had been exposed to pro-China propaganda and denunciations of the Dalai Lama and the government he headed before troops from the People's Liberation Army (PLA) invaded the country in 1950. In March 1959, an uprising centered on the capital, Lhasa, prompted a massive crackdown, during which the Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (b. 1935), fled into exile. The Tibetan Government, the Ganden Podrang, was dissolved, and a transitional administration under Chinese leadership was established."" 
  25. Robert Barnett, Lhasa: Streets with Memories, Columbia University Press, 2010 p.65
  26. Emily T. Yeh,'Living Together in Lhasa: Ethnic Relations, Coercive Amity, and Subaltern Cosmopolitanism,' p.58.
  27. Robert Barnett, Lhasa: Streets with Memories, p.104.
  28. Robert Barnett, Lhasa: Streets with Memories, Columbia University Press, 2010 p.67: "Today, except for the Dalai Lama's Summer Palace, a small part of the Shugtri Lingka (now renamed the People's Park), and the Lukhang, those parks have disappeared."
  29. Emily T. Yeh,'Living Together in Lhasa: Ethnic Relations, Coercive Amity, and Subaltern Cosmopolitanism,' p.60; The monument however does not commemorate the Tibetan epic hero, but the Chinese figure. See Lara Maconi, ‘Gesar de Pékin? Le sort du Roi Gesar de Gling, héros épique tibétain, en Chinese (post-) maoïste,’ in Judith Labarthe, Formes modernes de la poésie épique: nouvelles approches, Peter Lang, 2004 pp.371–419, p.373 n.7. Relying on H. Richardson, and R. A. Stein, Maconi says that this was erected by the Chinese general Fu Kang'an (福康安).
  30. Tung (1980), p.21 and caption to plate 17, p. 42.
  31. 31.0 31.1 Emily T. Yeh,'Living Together in Lhasa: Ethnic Relations, Coercive Amity, and Subaltern Cosmopolitanism,' p.70.
  32. 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年) (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 2010-05-04. 
  33. "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". සම්ප්‍රවේශය 2013-02-21. 
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