නිදහස් අන්තර්ගතය

විකිපීඩියා, නිදහස් විශ්වකෝෂය වෙතින්
වෙත පනින්න: සංචලනය, සොයන්න

Free content, or free information, is any kind of functional work, artwork, or other creative content having no significant legal restriction relative to people's freedom to use, distribute copies, modify, and to distribute derived works of the content.[1] It is distinct from open content in that it can be modified, whereas one might not have that ability with content that is simply "open" and not "free".

Free content encompasses all works in the public domain and also those copyrighted works whose licenses honor and uphold the freedoms mentioned above. Because copyright law in most countries by default grants copyright holders monopolistic control over their creations, copyrighted content must be explicitly declared free, usually by the referencing or inclusion of licensing statements from within the work.

Though a work which is in the public domain because its copyright has expired is considered free, it can become non-free again if the copyright law changes.[2]

Legality[සංස්කරණය කරන්න]

Traditional copyright[සංස්කරණය කරන්න]

Traditionally, copyright is a legal concept, which grants the author or creator of a work legal rights to control the duplication and public performance of his or her work. In many jurisdictions, this is limited by a time period after which the works then enter the public domain. During the time period of copyright the author's work may only be copied, modified, or publicly performed with the consent of the author, unless the use is a fair use.

Traditional copyright control, when compared to free content, is limiting in several ways. It limits the use of the work of the author to those who can, or are willing to, afford the payment of royalties to the author for usage of the authors content, or limit their use to fair use. Secondly it limits the use of content whose author cannot be found. Finally it creates a perceived barrier between authors by limiting derivative works, such as mashups and collaborative content. Copyleft is based on the belief that the temporary publishing monopoly that traditional copyright created in order to encourage science and learning is not actually the best way to promote science and learning.

Public domain[සංස්කරණය කරන්න]

A public domain symbol

The public domain is a range of creative works whose copyright has expired, or was never established; as well as ideas and facts[nb 1] which are ineligible for copyright. A public domain work is a work whose author has either relinquished to the public, or no longer can claim control over, the distribution and usage of the work. As such any person may manipulate, distribute, or otherwise utilize the work, without legal ramifications. A work released into the public domain, or under a very liberal license, by its author may be referred to as "copycenter".[3]

Copyleft[සංස්කරණය කරන්න]

The copyleft symbol

Copyleft is a play on the word copyright and describes the practice of using copyright law to remove restrictions on distributing copies and modified versions of a work.[4] The aim of copyleft is to use the legal framework of copyright to enable non-author parties to be able to reuse and, in many licensing schemes, modify content that is created by an author. Unlike public domain or other non-copyleft free work, the author still maintains copyright over the material, however the author has granted a non-exclusive license to any person to distribute, and often modify, the work. Copyleft licenses require that any derivative works be distributed under the same terms, and that the original copyright notices be maintained.

A symbol commonly associated with copyleft is a reversal of the copyright symbol, facing the other way; the opening of the C points left rather than right. Unlike the copyright symbol, the copyleft symbol does not have a codified meaning.[5]

Usage[සංස්කරණය කරන්න]

Projects that provide free content exist in several areas of interest, such as software, academic literature, general literature, music, images, video, and engineering.

Technology has reduced the cost of publication and reduced the entry barrier sufficiently to allow for the production of widely disseminated materials by individuals or small groups. Projects to provide free literature and multimedia content have become increasingly prominent owing to the ease of dissemination of materials that is associated with the development of computer technology. Such dissemination may have been too costly prior to these technological developments.

Media[සංස්කරණය කරන්න]

In media, which includes textual, audio, and visual content, free licensing schemes such as some of the licenses made by Creative Commons have allowed for the dissemination of works under a clear set of legal permissions. Not all of the Creative Commons’ licenses are entirely free: their permissions may range from very liberal general redistribution and modification of the work to a more restrictive redistribution-only licensing. Since February 2008, Creative Commons licenses which are entirely free carry a badge indicating that they are "approved for free cultural works".[6] Repositories exist which exclusively feature free material provide content such as photographs, clip art, music,[7] and literature,[8].

Software[සංස්කරණය කරන්න]

The logo of the Open Source Initiative, an organization dedicated to promoting open source software
The logo of the Free Software Foundation, the organization founding the principles of free software.

Free software, often referred to as open source software, is a maturing technology with major companies utilising free software to provide both services and technology to both end users and technical consumers. The ease of dissemination has allowed for increased modularity, which allows for smaller groups to contribute to projects as well as simplifying collaboration.

Open source development models have been classified as having a similar peer-recognition and collaborative benefit incentives that are typified by more classical fields such as scientific research, with the social structures that result from this incentive model decreasing production cost.<ref>{{cite journal |url=http://www.valt.helsinki.fi/staff/herkia/kava/Seminnarit/MI_mustonen.pdf |title=Copyleft – the economics of Linux and other open source software |accessdate=March 22, 2009 |version=Discussion Paper No. 493 |last=Mustonen |first=Mikko |publisher=Department of Economics, University of Helsinki |format

  1. Stallman, Richard (November 13, 2008). Free Software and Free Manuals. Free Software Foundation. සම්ප්‍රවේශය March 22, 2009. 
  2. Anderson, Nate (July 16, 2008). EU caves to aging rockers, wants 45-year copyright extension. Ars Technica. සම්ප්‍රවේශය August 8, 2008. 
  3. Raymond, Eric S.. Copycenter. The Jargon File. සම්ප්‍රවේශය August 9, 2008. 
  4. Dusollier, S (2003). Open source and copyleft. Authorship reconsidered?. Columbia journal of Law and the Arts. 26. 
  5. Hall, G. Brent (2008). Open Source Approaches in Spatial Data Handling. Springer. පි. 29. ISBN 354074830X. http://books.google.com/?id=JZNuu8XODQMC&pg=PA29&lpg=PA29&dq=copyleft+symbol+legal+meaning. Retrieved March 22, 2009. 
  6. Linksvayer, Mike (February 20, 2008). Approved for Free Cultural Works. Creative Commons. සම්ප්‍රවේශය March 22, 2009. 
  7. iRate Radio. SourceForge.net. සම්ප්‍රවේශය March 22, 2009. 
  8. Gutenberg:No Cost or Freedom?. Project Gutenberg. April 23, 2007. සම්ප්‍රවේශය March 22, 2009. 


උපුටාදැක්වීම් දෝෂය: "nb" නම් කණ්ඩායම සඳහා <ref> ටැග පැවතුණත්, ඊට අදාළ <references group="nb"/> ටැග සොයාගත නොහැකි විය.

"https://si.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=නිදහස්_අන්තර්ගතය&oldid=272369" වෙතින් සම්ප්‍රවේශනය කෙරිණි