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විකිපීඩියා වෙතින්

Systematic (IUPAC) name
Clinical data
Trade names Nicorette, Nicotrol
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
Pregnancy cat. D (AU) D (US)
Legal status Pharmacy Only (S2) (AU) GSL (UK) OTC (US)
Dependence liability High
Routes Inhalation; Insufflation; Oral – Buccal, Sublingual, and Ingestion; Transdermal; Rectal,
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 20 to 45% (oral), 53% (intranasal), 68% (transdermal)
Protein binding <5%
Metabolism Hepatic
Half-life 1-2 hours; 20 hours active metabolite (cotinine)
Excretion Urine (10-20% (gum), pH-dependent; 30% (inhaled); 10-30% (intranasal))
CAS number 54-11-5 YesY[??]
ATC code N07BA01 සැකිල්ල:ATCvet
PubChem CID 89594
IUPHAR ligand 2585
DrugBank DB00184
ChemSpider 80863 YesY
KEGG D03365 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:18723 YesY
Chemical data
Formula C10H14N2 
Mol. mass 162.12 g/mol
  • CN(CCC1)[C@@H]1C2=CC=CN=C2
  • InChI=1S/C10H14N2/c1-12-7-3-5-10(12)9-4-2-6-11-8-9/h2,4,6,8,10H,3,5,7H2,1H3/t10-/m0/s1 YesY

Physical data
Density 1.01 g/cm³
Melt. point -79 °C (-110 °F)
Boiling point 247 °C (477 °F)
 N (what is this?)  (verify)

Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae) and a stimulant drug. It is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. It is made in the roots and accumulates in the leaves of the plants. It constitutes approximately 0.6–3.0% of the dry weight of tobacco[1] and is present in the range of 2–7 µg/kg of various edible plants.[2] It functions as an antiherbivore chemical; consequently, nicotine was widely used as an insecticide in the past[3][4]

  1. ^ "Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 9" (PDF). සම්ප්‍රවේශය 2012-12-19.
  2. ^ "Determination of the Nicotine Content of Various Edible Nightshades (Solanaceae) and Their Products and Estimation of the Associated Dietary Nicotine Intake". සම්ප්‍රවේශය 2008-10-05.
  3. ^ Rodgman, Alan; Perfetti, Thomas A. (2009). The chemical components of tobacco and tobacco smoke. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 1-4200-7883-6. LCCN 2008018913.[page needed]
  4. ^ Ujváry, István (1999). "Nicotine and Other Insecticidal Alkaloids". In Yamamoto, Izuru; Casida, John (eds.). Nicotinoid Insecticides and the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag. pp. 29–69.
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