නිකොටින්

විකිපීඩියා, නිදහස් විශ්වකෝෂය වෙතින්
වෙත පනින්න: සංචලනය, සොයන්න
නිකොටින්
Nicotine.svg
Nicotine3Dan2.gif
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(S)-3-[1-Methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]pyridine
Clinical data
Trade names Nicorette, Nicotrol
AHFS/Drugs.com සැකිල්ල:Drugs.com
Pregnancy cat. D (AU) D (US)
Legal status Pharmacy Only (S2) (AU) GSL (UK) OTC (US)
Dependence liability High
Routes Inhalation; Insufflation; Oral – Buccal, Sublingual, and Ingestion; Transdermal; Rectal,
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 20 to 45% (oral), 53% (intranasal), 68% (transdermal)
Protein binding <5%
Metabolism Hepatic
Half-life 1-2 hours; 20 hours active metabolite (cotinine)
Excretion Urine (10-20% (gum), pH-dependent; 30% (inhaled); 10-30% (intranasal))
Identifiers
CAS number 54-11-5 YesY[??]
ATC code N07BA01 සැකිල්ල:ATCvet
PubChem CID 89594
IUPHAR ligand 2585
DrugBank DB00184
ChemSpider 80863 YesY
UNII 6M3C89ZY6Rසැකිල්ල:Fdacite
KEGG D03365සැකිල්ල:Keggcite
ChEBI CHEBI:18723 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL3 YesY
Chemical data
Formula C10H14N2 
Mol. mass 162.12 g/mol
Physical data
Density 1.01 g/cm³
Melt. point -79 °C (-110 °F)
Boiling point 247 °C (477 °F)
 X mark.svgN (what is this?)  (verify)

Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae) and a stimulant drug. It is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. It is made in the roots and accumulates in the leaves of the plants. It constitutes approximately 0.6–3.0% of the dry weight of tobacco[1] and is present in the range of 2–7 µg/kg of various edible plants.[2]

It functions as an antiherbivore chemical; consequently, nicotine was widely used as an insecticide in the past[3][4]

  1. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 9 (PDF). සම්ප්‍රවේශය 2012-12-19. 
  2. Determination of the Nicotine Content of Various Edible Nightshades (Solanaceae) and Their Products and Estimation of the Associated Dietary Nicotine Intake. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 2008-10-05. 
  3. Rodgman, Alan; Perfetti, Thomas A. (2009). The chemical components of tobacco and tobacco smoke. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 1-4200-7883-6. සැකිල්ල:Page needed
  4. Ujváry, István (1999). "Nicotine and Other Insecticidal Alkaloids". මෙම කෘතිය තුල: Yamamoto, Izuru; Casida, John. Nicotinoid Insecticides and the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag. පිටු 29–69. 
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