ඉලෙක්ට්රොනික සංකේතයක් යනු කම්බි, විදුලි කෝෂ, ප්රතිරෝධක, සහ ට්රාන්සිස්ටර වැනි නොයෙක් විද්යුත් සහ ඉලෙක්ට්රොනික උපාංග වල විද්යුත් හෝ විද්යුත් පරිපථ ක්රමාණුරූප රූපසටහන නිරූපණය කිරීම සඳහා භාවිතා කරනු ලබන චිත්රාක්ෂරයකි.
සංකේත සඳහා වූ ප්රමිතීන්[සංස්කරණය]
There are several national and international standards for graphical symbols in circuit diagrams, in particular:
- IEC 60617 (also known as British Standard BS 3939)
- ANSI standard Y32 (also known as IEEE Std 315)
- Australian Standard AS 1102
Different symbols may be used depending on the discipline using the drawing. For example, lighting and power symbols used as part of architectural drawings may be different from symbols for devices used in electronics. National and local variations to international standards also exist.
A reference designator unambiguously identifies a component in an electrical schematic (circuit diagram) or on a printed circuit board (PCB). The reference designator usually consists of one or two letters followed by a number, e.g. R13, C1002. The number is sometimes followed by a letter, indicating that components are grouped or matched with each other, e.g. R17A, R17B. IEEE 315 contains a list of Class Designation Letters to use for electrical and electronic assemblies. For example, the letter R is a reference prefix for the resistors of an assembly, C for capacitors, K for relays.
IEEE 200-1975 or "Standard Reference Designations for Electrical and Electronics Parts and Equipments" is a standard that was used to define referencing naming systems for collections of electronic equipment. IEEE 200 was ratified in 1975. The IEEE renewed the standard in the 1990s, but withdrew it from active support shortly thereafter. This standard also has an ANSI document number ANSI Y32.16-1975. They are the same document.
This standard codified information from, among other sources, a United States military standard MIL-STD-16 which dates back to at least the 1950s in American industry.
To replace IEEE 200-1975, a standards body for Mechanical Engineers, ASME, initiated the new standard ASME Y14.44-2008.
This standard along with IEEE 315-1975 provide the electrical designer with guidance on how to properly reference and annotate everything from a simple circuit board to a complete enclosure all the way to a collection of these assemblies.
It breaks down a system into units, and then any number of sub-assemblies. The Unit is the highest level of demarcation in a system and is always a numeral. Subsequent demarcation are called assemblies and always have the Class Letter "A" as a prefix following by a sequential number starting with 1. Any number of sub-assemblies may be defined until finally reaching the component.
Especially valuable is the method of referencing and annotating cables plus their connectors within and outside assemblies. Examples:
- 1A1A44J5 - Unit 1, Assembly 1, Sub-Assembly 44, Jack 5 (J5 is a connector on a box referenced as A44)
- 1A1A45J333 - Unit 1, Assembly 1, Sub-Assembly 45, Jack 333 (J333 is a connector on a box referenced as A45)
A cable connecting these two might be:
- 1A1W35 - In the assembly A1 is a cable called W35.
Connectors on this cable would be designated:
ASME Y14.44-2008 continues the convention of Plug P and Jack J when assigning references for connectors in electrical assemblies where a J (or jack) is the more fixed and P (or plug) is the less fixed of a connector pair without regard to the gender of the connector contacts.
The construction of reference designators is covered by IEEE 200-1975/ANSI Y32.16-1975 (replaced by ASME Y14.44-2008) and IEEE-315-1975. The table below lists designators commonly used, and does not comply with the standard.
|D||Diode (including zeners, thyristors and LEDs)|
|FB or FEB||Ferrite bead|
|J||Jack connector (female)|
|LS||Loudspeaker or buzzer|
|MP||Mechanical part (including screws and fasteners)|
|P||Plug connector (male)|
|Q||Transistor (all types)|
|S||Switch (all types, including push-buttons)|
|VR||Variable Resistor (potentiometer or rheostat)|
|X||Transducer not matching any other category|
|Y||Crystal or oscillator|
Component name abbreviations widely used in industry:
- AE: aerial, antenna
- B: battery
- BR: bridge rectifier
- C: capacitor
- CRT:cathode ray tube
- D or CR: diode
- DSP:digital signal processor
- F: fuse
- FET:field effect transistor
- GDT: gas discharge tube
- IC: integrated circuit
- J: wire link ("jumper")
- JFET: junction gate field-effect transistor
- L: inductor
- LCD:Liquid crystal display
- LDR: light dependent resistor
- LED: light emitting diode
- LS: speaker
- M: motor
- MCB: circuit breaker
- Mic: microphone
- MOSFET:Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor
- Ne: neon lamp
- OP: Operational Amplifier
- PCB: printed circuit board
- PU: pickup
- Q: transistor
- R: resistor
- RLA: RY: relay
- SCR: silicon controlled rectifier
- SW: switch
- T: transformer
- TFT:thin film transistor(display)
- TH: thermistor
- TP: test point
- Tr: transistor
- U: integrated circuit
- V: valve (tube)
- VC: variable capacitor
- VFD: vacuum fluorescent display
- VLSI:very large scale integration
- VR: variable resistor
- X: crystal, ceramic resonator
- XMER: transformer
- XTAL: crystal
- Z or ZD: Zener diode
Gallery of common electronic symbols[සංස්කරණය]
රික්ත පාට (Vacuum tubes)[සංස්කරණය]
- Standard Reference Designations for Electrical and Electronics Parts and Equipments: IEEE 200-1975 (Reaffirmed 1988): Section 188.8.131.52 (2). IEEE and ANSI, New York, NY. 1975.
- Reference Designations for Electrical and Electronics Parts and Equipment: ASME Y14.44-2008 (Replaced IEEE 200-1975). ASME, Fairfield, NJ. 2008.
- Graphic Symbols for Electrical and Electronics Diagrams (Including Reference Designation Letters): IEEE-315-1975 (Reaffirmed 1993): Section 22. IEEE and ANSI, New York, NY. 1993.