Vorbis

විකිපීඩියා, නිදහස් විශ්වකෝෂය වෙතින්
වෙත පනින්න: සංචලනය, සොයන්න
Vorbis
132px-XiphophorusLogoSVG.svg.png

Xiph.org සලකුණ
ගොනු නාම විස්තාරය .ogg .oga
අන්තර්ජාල මාධ්‍ය වර්ගය audio/ogg, audio/vorbis, audio/vorbis-config
දියුණුකරන ලද්දේ Xiph.Org Foundation
ප්‍රථම නිකුත් කිරීම සැකිල්ල:Initial release
අවසාන නිකුත් කිරීම Vorbis I / පෙබරවාරි 3, 2010 (2010-02-03)
ආකෘතියේ වර්ගය Audio compression format
Contained by Ogg, Matroska, WebM
සම්මත(ය) Specification
libvorbis
විකාශකය(න්) Xiph.Org පදනම
ප්‍රථම නිකුතුව ජූලි 19, 2002 (2002-07-19)
ස්ථාවර නිකුතුව 1.3.2 / නොවැම්බර් 1, 2010; 3 වසර ගණනකට පෙර (2010-11-01)
ලියන ලද්දේ C
මෙහෙයුම් පද්ධතිය හරස්-කරළිය
වර්ගය Audio codec, reference implementation
බලපත්‍රය BSD-style license
වෙබ් අඩවිය Xiph.org downloads

Vorbis is a free software / open source project headed by the Xiph.Org Foundation (formerly Xiphophorus company). The project produces an audio format specification and software implementation (codec) for lossy audio compression. Vorbis is most commonly used in conjunction with the Ogg container formatand it is therefore often referred to as Ogg Vorbis.

Vorbis is a continuation of audio compression development started in 1993 by Chris Montgomery. Intensive development began following a September 1998 letter from the Fraunhofer Society announcing plans to charge licensing fees for the MP3 audio format. Vorbis project started as part of the Xiphophorus company's Ogg project (also known as OggSquish multimedia project).Chris Montgomery began work on the project and was assisted by a growing number of other developers. They continued refining the source code until the Vorbis file format was frozen for 1.0 in May 2000 and a stable version (1.0) of the reference software was released on July 19, 2002.

The Xiph.Org Foundation maintains a reference implementation, libvorbis, the latest official version of which is 1.3.2, released on November 1, 2010. There are also some fine-tuned forks, most notably aoTuV, that offer better audio quality, particularly at low bitrates. These improvements are periodically merged back into the reference codebase.

නම[සංස්කරණය]

"Vorbis" is named after a Discworld character, Exquisitor Vorbis in Small Gods by Terry Pratchett. The Ogg format, however, is not named for Nanny Ogg, another Discworld character; the name is in fact derived from ogging, jargon that arose in the computer game Netrek.

භාවිතාව[සංස්කරණය]

The Vorbis format has proven popular among supporters of free software. They argue that its higher fidelity and completely free nature, unencumbered by patents, make it a well-suited replacement for patented and restricted formats like MP3.

Vorbis Example

Vorbis has different uses for consumer products. Many video game titles such as 18 Wheels of Steel, Halo, Unreal Tournament 2004, Unreal Tournament 3, Mafia: The City of Lost Heaven, Jets 'n' guns, Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, Crimsonland, Devil May Cry 3, Live For Speed and Guitar Hero: On Tour store in-game audio as Vorbis. Popular software players support Vorbis playback either natively or through an external plugin. A number of Web sites, including Wikipedia, use it.Others include Jamendo and Mindawn, as well as several national radio stations like JazzRadio, Absolute Radio, NPR, Radio New Zealand and Deutschlandradio. The Spotify audio streaming service uses Vorbis for its audio streams.

Third party developer support of the Ogg format and Vorbis still lags far behind that of the arguably technically inferior MP3 format. A March 2011 search of all software categories on Download.com shows more than 10,700 results for the term MP3, less than 2,000 for Ogg, and less than 400 for Vorbis.

ගුණත්වය: කොඩෙක් සංසන්දන[සංස්කරණය]

අසා සිටීමේ පරීක්ෂා[සංස්කරණය]

ශ්‍රව්‍ය ගුණත්වය:ආවේණික මානවකෘති[සංස්කරණය]

තාක්ෂණික තොරතුරු[සංස්කරණය]

Vorbis nominal bitrate at quality levels for 44.1 kHz stereo input. The new libvorbis v1.2 usually compress better than these values (effective bitrate may vary).
Quality Nominal Bitrate
Official Xiph.Org Foundation Vorbis aoTuV beta 3 and later
-q-2 not available 32 kbit/s
-q-1 45 kbit/s 48 kbit/s
-q0 64 kbit/s
-q1 80 kbit/s
-q2 96 kbit/s
-q3 112 kbit/s
-q4 128 kbit/s
-q5 160 kbit/s
-q6 192 kbit/s
-q7 224 kbit/s
-q8 256 kbit/s
-q9 320 kbit/s
-q10 500 kbit/s

Vorbis is intended for sample rates from 8 kHz telephony to 192 kHz digital masters and a range of channel representations (monaural, polyphonic, stereo, quadraphonic, 5.1, ambisonic, or up to 255 discrete channels). Given 44.1 kHz (standard CD audio sampling frequency) stereo input, the encoder will produce output from roughly 45 to 500 kbit/s (32 to 500 kbit/s for aoTuV tunings) depending on the specified quality setting. Quality setting goes from -0.1 to 1.0 for the Xiph library and -0.2 to 1.0 for aoTuV. Encoding front-ends map these values to an integer-based quality setting that goes from -1 to 10 for the Xiph library and -2 to 10 for aoTuV. Files encoded with a given quality setting should have the same quality of sound in all versions of the encoder, but newer versions should be able to achieve that quality with a lower bitrate. The bit rates mentioned above are only approximate; Vorbis is inherently variable-bitrate (VBR), so bitrate may vary considerably from sample to sample. (It is a free-form variable-bitrate codec and packets have no minimum size, maximum size, or fixed/expected size.)

"http://si.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vorbis&oldid=261314" වෙතින් සම්ප්‍රවේශනය කෙරිණි