හෙයිටි

විකිපීඩියා, නිදහස් විශ්වකෝෂය වෙතින්
වෙත පනින්න: සංචලනය, සොයන්න
හෙයිටි ජනරජය
  • රිපුබ්ලික ඩයි අයිටි (ප්‍රංශ)
  • රෙපිබ්ලික් ඩයි අයිටි (හයිටියානු ක්‍රියෝල්)
උද්යෝග පාඨය: "L'Union Fait La Force"  (French)

"Unity Creates Strength"
ජාතික ගීය: La Dessalinienne
අගනුවර Port-au-Prince
18°32′N 72°20′W / 18.533°N 72.333°W / 18.533; -72.333
විශාලතම නගරය capital
නිල භාෂාව(න්) Haitian Creole, French
ජනවාර්ගික කණ්ඩායම්  95.0% black, 5% mulatto and white[1]
ජාති නාමය Haitian
රජය Parliamentary republic
 -  ජනාධිපති Michel Martelly
 -  අග්‍රාමාත්‍ය Jean-Max Bellerive
Formation
 -  as Saint-Domingue 1697 
 -  Independence from ප්‍රංශය
1 January 1804 
වර්ග ප්‍රමාණය
 -  සම්පූර්ණ 27,751 කිමී2 (140th)
10,714 සතරැස් සැත 
 -  ජලය (%) 0.7
ජනගහණය
 -  2009 ඇස්තමේන්තුව 10,033,000[2] (82nd)
 -  ඝණත්වය 361.5/කිමී2 (31st)
936.4/සතරැස් සැත
GDP (PPP) 2008 ඇස්තමේන්තුව
 -  සම්පූර්ණ $11.570 billion[3] 
 -  ඒක පුද්ගල $1,317[3] 
GDP (නාමික) 2008 ඇස්තමේන්තුව
 -  සම්පූර්ණ $6.943 billion[3] 
 -  ඒක පුද්ගල $790[3] 
Gini (2001) 59.2
ඉහළ
HDI (2007) 0.532[4]
bug දෝෂය: අනීතික HDI අගයhttp://bugzilla.wikimedia.org/show_bug.cgi?id=දෝෂය: අනීතික HDI අගය · 149th
ව්‍යවහාර මුදල Gourde (HTG)
වේලා කලාපය (UTC-5)
රිය පදවන්නේ right
අන්තර්ජාල TLD .ht
ඇමතුම් කේතය 509

Haiti (උසුරුවනුයේ /ˈheɪtiː/; French Haïti, pronounced: [a.iti]; Haitian Creole: Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti (République d'Haïti ; Repiblik Ayiti) is a Caribbean country. Along with the Dominican Republic, it occupies the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antillean archipelago. Ayiti (land of high mountains) was the indigenous Taíno or Amerindian name for the mountainous western side of the island. The country's highest point is Pic la Selle, at 2,680 metres (8,793 ft). The total area of Haiti is 27,750 square kilometres (10,714 sq mi) and its capital is Port-au-Prince. Haitian Creole and French are the official languages.

Haiti's regional, historical and ethnolinguistic position is unique for several reasons. It was the first independent nation in Latin America, the first post-colonial independent black-led nation in the world, and the only nation whose independence was gained as part of a successful slave rebellion. Despite having common cultural links with its Hispano-Caribbean neighbors, Haiti is the only predominantly Francophone independent nation in the Americas. It is one of only two independent nations in the Western Hemisphere (along with Canada) that designate French as an official language; the other French-speaking areas are all overseas départements, or collectivités, of ප්‍රංශය.

On January 12, 2010, a 7.0-magnitude earthquake struck Haiti, with its epicenter 16 miles west of the capital and largest city, Port-au-Prince, which was devastated. At least tens of thousands of people were killed, although it will take time to determine the exact number of dead; the Presidential palace, Parliament and many other important structures were destroyed, along with countless homes, businesses, hospitals, schools and shantytowns.[5]

ඉතිහාසය[සංස්කරණය]

Precolonial and Spanish colonial periods[සංස්කරණය]

The island of Hispaniola, of which Haiti occupies the western third, is one of many Caribbean islands inhabited at the time of European arrival by the Taíno Indians, speakers of an Arawakan language. The Taíno name for the entire island was Kiskeya. In the Taíno societies of the Caribbean Islands, the largest unit of political organization was led by a cacique; hence the term 'caciquedom' (French caciquat, Spanish cacicazgo) for these Taíno polities, which are often called "chiefdoms". Before the arrival of Christopher Columbus, the island of Hispaniola was divided among five or six long-established caciquedoms.[6][7]

The five caciquedoms of Hispaniola at the time of the arrival of Christopher Columbus. The modern country of Haiti spans most of the territory of the caciquedoms of Xaragua ("Jaragua" in modern Spanish) and Marien.

The caciquedoms were tributary kingdoms, with payment consisting of harvests. Taíno cultural artifacts include cave paintings in several locations in the country, which have become national symbols of Haiti and tourist attractions. Modern-day Léogane, a town in the southwest, is at the site of Xaragua's former capital.

1510 pictograph telling a story of missionaries arriving in Hispaniola

Christopher Columbus landed at Môle Saint-Nicolas on 5 December 1492, and claimed the island for Spain. Nineteen days later, his ship the Santa María ran aground near the present site of Cap-Haïtien; Columbus was forced to leave behind 39 men, founding the settlement of La Navidad. Following the destruction of La Navidad by the local indigenous people, Columbus moved to the eastern side of the island and established La Isabela. One of the earliest leaders to fight off Spanish conquest was Queen Anacaona, a princess of Xaragua who married Caonabo, the cacique of Maguana. The couple resisted Spanish rule in vain; she was captured by the Spanish and executed in front of her people. To this day, Anacaona is revered in Haiti as one of the country's founders.* Map of Haiti

The Spaniards exploited the island for its gold, mined chiefly by local Amerindians directed by the Spanish occupiers. Those refusing to work in the mines were killed or sold into slavery. Europeans brought with them chronic infectious diseases that were new to the Caribbean, to which the indigenous population lacked immunity. These new diseases were the chief cause of the dying off of the Taíno,[8] but ill treatment, malnutrition, and a drastic drop in the birthrate as a result of societal disruption also contributed. The first recorded smallpox outbreak in the Americas occurred on Hispaniola in 1507. [9]

The Laws of Burgos, 1512–1513, were the first nationally codified set of laws' governing the behavior of Spanish settlers in America, particularly with regards to native Indians. They forbade the maltreatment of natives, and endorsed their conversion to Catholicism.[10] The national government of Spain found it difficult to enforce these laws in a distant colony.

The Spanish governors began importing enslaved Africans for labor. In 1517, Charles V authorized the draft of slaves. The Taínos became virtually, but not completely, extinct on the island of Hispaniola. Some who evaded capture fled to the mountains and established independent settlements. Survivors mixed with escaped African slaves (runaways called maroons) and produced a multiracial generation called zambos. French settlers later called people of mixed African and Amerindian ancestry marabou. The mestizo were children born to relationships between native women and European – usually Spanish – men. During French rule, children of mixed race, usually born of unions between African women and European men, were called mulâtres. Creoles [11] are a mixture of European, Amerindian, and African ancestry regardless of skin color.

François l'Olonnais was nicknamed "Flail of the Spaniards" and had a reputation for brutality – offering no quarter to Spanish prisoners

As a gateway to the Caribbean, Hispaniola became a haven for pirates. The western part of the island was settled by French buccaneers. Among them was Bertrand d'Ogeron, who succeeded in growing tobacco. His success prompted many of the numerous buccaneers and freebooters to turn into settlers. This population did not submit to Spanish royal authority until the year 1660 and caused a number of conflicts. By 1640, the buccaneers of Tortuga were calling themselves the Brethren of the Coast. French pirate Jean Lafitte, who operated in New Orleans and Galveston, was born in Port-au-Prince around 1782. [12]

One of the best known early Saint-Domingue immigrants to mainland North America was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable, who was born in St Marc, Saint-Domingue in 1745 and established a fur trading post at present-day Chicago, Illinois. John James Audubon, the renowned ornithologist and painter, was born in 1785 in Les Cayes, Saint-Domingue and painted, cataloged and described the birds of North America.

In 1779 more than 500 volunteers from Saint-Domingue, under the command of Comte d'Estaing, fought alongside American colonial troops against the British in the Siege of Savannah, one of the most significant foreign contributions to the American Revolutionary War.[තහවුරු කරන්න]

17th century settlement[සංස්කරණය]

Bertrand d'Orgeron attracted many colonists from Martinique and Guadeloupe, such as the Roy family (Jean Roy, 1625–1707); Hebert (Jean Hebert, 1624, with his family) and Barre (Guillaume Barre, 1642, with his family). They and others were driven from their lands when more land was needed for the extension of the sugar plantations. From 1670 to 1690, a drop in the tobacco markets affected the island and significantly reduced the number of settlers.

The first windmill for processing sugar was created in 1685.

Treaty of Ryswick and slave colony[සංස්කරණය]

ප්‍රංශය and Spain settled hostilities on the island by the Treaty of Ryswick of 1697, which divided Hispaniola between them. ප්‍රංශය received the western third and subsequently named it Saint-Domingue (not the current Santo-Domingo, which is in the Dominican Republic and was part of the eastern side given to the Spanish through the treaty). Many French colonists soon arrived and established plantations in Saint-Domingue due to high profit potential. From 1713 to 1787, approximately 30,000 French colonists emigrated (chiefly from Bordeaux) to the western part of the island[තහවුරු කරන්න], while by 1763 the French population of Canada numbered only 65,000.[13]

By about 1790, Saint-Domingue had greatly overshadowed its eastern counterpart in terms of wealth and population. It quickly became the richest French colony in the New World due to the immense profits from the sugar, coffee and indigo industries. This outcome was made possible by the labor and knowledge of thousands of enslaved Africans who brought to the island skills and technology for indigo production. The French-enacted Code Noir (Black Code), prepared by Jean-Baptiste Colbert and ratified by Louis XIV, established rigid rules on slave treatment and permissible freedom. Saint-Domingue has been described as one of the most brutally efficient slave colonies; one-third of newly imported Africans died within a few years. [14]

හයිටි විප්ලවය[සංස්කරණය]

Jean Jacques Dessalines, leader of the Haitian Revolution and the first ruler of an independent Haiti

Inspired by the French Revolution and principles of the rights of men, free people of color and slaves in Saint-Domingue and the French and West Indies pressed for freedom and more civil rights. Most important was the revolution of the slaves in Saint-Domingue, starting in the heavily African-majority northern plains in 1791. In 1792 the French government sent three commissioners with troops to try to reestablish control. They began to build an alliance with the free people of color who wanted more civil rights. In 1793, ප්‍රංශය and Great Britain went to war, and British troops invaded Saint-Domingue. The execution of Louis XVI heightened tensions in the colony. To build an alliance with the gens de couleur and slaves, the French commissioners Sonthonax and Polverel abolished slavery in the colony. Six months later, the National Convention led by the Jacobins endorsed abolition and extended it to all the French colonies. [15]

Toussaint l'Ouverture, a former slave and leader in the slave revolt –a man who rose in importance as a military commander because of his many skills – achieved peace in Saint-Domingue after years of war against both external invaders and internal dissension. Having established a disciplined, flexible army, l'Ouverture drove out not only the Spaniards but also the British invaders who threatened the colony. He restored stability and prosperity by daring measures which included inviting the return of planters and insisting that freed men work on plantations to renew revenues for the island. He also renewed trading ties with Great Britain and the United States. In the uncertain years of revolution, the United States played both sides, with traders supplying both the French and the rebels. [16]

Independence[සංස්කරණය]

When the French government changed, new members of the national legislature, lobbied by planters, began to rethink their decisions on colonial slavery. After Toussaint l'Ouverture created a separatist constitution, Napoleon Bonaparte sent an expedition of 20,000 men under the command of his brother-in-law, General Charles Leclerc, to retake the island. Leclerc's mission was to oust l'Ouverture and restore slavery. The French achieved some victories, but within a few months, yellow fever had killed most of the French soldiers. [17] Leclerc invited Toussaint l'Ouverture to a parley, kidnapped him and sent him to ප්‍රංශය, where he was imprisoned at Fort de Joux. He died there in 1803 of exposure and tuberculosis [14] or malnutrition and pneumonia. In its attempt to retake the colony, ප්‍රංශය had lost more than 50,000 soldiers, including 18 generals. [18]

Battle between Polish troops in French service and the Haitian rebels. Some Polish soldiers became sympathetic to the natives' cause and joined the Haitian rebels. [19]

Slaves, free gens du couleur and allies continued their fight for independence after the French transported L'Ouverture to ප්‍රංශය.

The native leader Jean-Jacques Dessalines – long an ally and general of Toussaint l'Ouverture – defeated French troops led by Donatien-Marie-Joseph de Vimeur, vicomte de Rochambeau, at the Battle of Vertières. At the end of the double battle for emancipation and independence, former slaves proclaimed the independence of Saint-Domingue on 1 January 1804,[20] declaring the new nation be named Haïti, to honor one of the indigenous Taíno names for the island. Haiti is the only nation born of a slave revolt. [14] Historians have estimated the slave rebellion resulted in the death of 100,000 blacks and 24,000 of the 40,000 white colonists. [21]

The revolution in Saint Domingue unleashed a massive multiracial exodus: French Créole colonists fled with those slaves they still held, as did numerous free people of color, some of whom were slaveholders and also transported slaves with them.[22] In 1809, nearly 10,000 refugees from Saint-Domingue arrived from Cuba, where they had first fled, to settle en masse in New Orleans.[23] They doubled that city’s population and helped preserve its French language and culture for several generations. In addition, the newly arrived slaves added to the city's African and multiracial culture.[24]

Dessalines was proclaimed Emperor for life by his troops.[25] He exiled or killed the remaining whites and ruled as a despot.[26] In the continuing competition for power, he was assassinated on 17 October 1806.[20] The country was divided then between a kingdom in the north directed by Henri I, and a republic in the south directed by Alexandre Pétion, an homme de couleur. Henri I is best known for constructing the Citadelle Laferrière, the largest fortress in the Western Hemisphere, to defend the island against the French.

In 1815 Simon Bolivar, the South American political leader who was instrumental in Latin America's struggle for independence from Spain, received military and financial assistance from Haiti, which was at the time a young republic that had won its independence from ප්‍රංශය in the world's first (and only) successful slave revolt. Bolivar had fled to Haiti after an attempt had been made on his life in Jamaica, where he had unsuccessfully sought support for his efforts. In 1817, on condition that Bolivar free any enslaved people he encountered in his fight for South American independence, Haiti provided Bolivar with soldiers, weapons and financial assistance, which were critical in enabling him to liberate New Granada (now Colombia), Venezuela, Ecuador, Panama and Peru.[තහවුරු කරන්න]

ගොනුව:Boyer-steward-194.jpg
Jean-Pierre Boyer, one of the leaders of the Haitian Revolution, and President of Haiti from 1818 to 1843

Beginning in 1821, President Jean Pierre Boyer, also an homme de couleur and successor to Pétion, managed to reunify the two parts of St. Domingue and extend control over the western part of the island. [27] In addition, after Santo Domingo declared its independence from Spain, Boyer sent forces in to take control. Boyer then ruled the entire island. Dominican historians have portrayed the period of the Haitian occupation (1822–42) as cruel and barbarous. During this time, however, Boyer also freed Santo Domingo's slaves.[28] During his presidency, Boyer tried to halt the downward trend of the economy by passing the Code Rural. Its provisions sought to tie the peasant labourers to plantation land by denying them the right to leave the land, enter the towns, or start farms or shops of their own.[29]

During his administration, Boyer's government negotiated with Loring D. Dewey, an agent of the American Colonization Society (ACS), to encourage free blacks from the United States (US) to emigrate to Haiti. They hoped to gain people with skills to contribute to the independent nation. In the early 19th century, the ACS, an uneasy blend of abolitionists and slaveholders, proposed resettlement of American free blacks to other countries, primarily to a colony in Liberia, as a solution to problems of racism in the US. Starting in September 1824, more than 6,000 American free blacks migrated to Haiti, with transportation paid by the ACS.[30] Due to the poverty and other difficult conditions there, many returned to the US within a short time.

In July 1825, King Charles X of ප්‍රංශය sent a fleet of fourteen vessels and thousands of troops to reconquer the island. Under pressure, President Boyer agreed to a treaty by which ප්‍රංශය formally recognized the independence of the nation in exchange for a payment of 150 million francs (the sum was reduced in 1838 to 90 million francs) – an indemnity for profits lost from the slave trade. French abolitionist Victor Schoelcher wrote, "Imposing an indemnity on the victorious slaves was equivalent to making them pay with money that which they had already paid with their blood."

After losing the support of Haiti's elite, Boyer was ousted in 1843. A long succession of coups followed his departure to exile. In its 200-year history, Haiti has suffered 32 coups; the instability of government and society has hampered its progress.[31] National authority was disputed by factions of the army, the elite class, and the growing commercial class, increasingly made up of numerous immigrant businessmen: Germans, Americans, French and English. In 1912 Syrians residing in Haiti participated in a plot in which the presidential palace was destroyed. On more than one occasion, French, U.S., German and British forces claimed large sums of money from the vaults of the National Bank of Haiti.[32] Expatriates bankrolled and armed opposing groups.

In addition, national governments intervened in Haitian affairs. For instance, U.S. Marines supported a military revolt against the government in 1888. In 1892 the German government supported suppression of the reform movement of Anténor Firmin. In January 1914, British, German and United States forces entered Haiti, ostensibly to protect their citizens from civil unrest.[32]

Since 1915[සංස්කරණය]

The United States occupied the island from 1915 to 1934. This occupation was initially resisted by a peasant revolt termed the "cacos" insurrection which was led by Charlemagne Péralte. Accusations of "indiscriminate" killing by US Marines were formally investigated by US Brigadier General George Barnett who concluded that 3250 "natives" were killed.[33] A later investigation noted that 98 Marines perished in the conflict as well.[33] The Haitian administration dismantled the constitutional system, built roads, and established the National Guards that ran the country after the Marines left.

Scholars agree that Haiti was in much better shape after the occupation than before, but some accuse the US of estabishing a "shaky" foundation that left the country with a doomed financial structure. This was due to a 1922 $40 million loan owed to the US as well as the country's national treasury and to the Banque Nationale owned by a New York bank.[33] The result was a financial system that siphoned the country's wealth to offshore creditors instead of reinvesting it in the country's economy.[33]

The US occupation forces established a boundary between Haiti and the Dominican Republic by taking disputed land from the latter. When the US left in 1937, Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo – in an event known as the Parsley Massacre – ordered his Army to kill Haitians living on the Dominican side of the border. [33][34] In a "three-day genocidal spree", he murdered between 10,000 and 20,000 Haitians.[33] He then developed a uniquely Dominican policy of racial discrimination, Antihaitianismo ("anti-Haitianism"), targeting the mostly-black inhabitants of his neighboring country.


1957–1986[සංස්කරණය]

From 1957 to 1986, the Duvalier family reigned as dictators, with a personality cult and major corruption. Dr. François Duvalier, known as "Papa Doc", was the President of Haiti from 1957 until his death in 1971; he was succeeded by his son, Jean-Claude Duvalier, also known as "Baby Doc", who ruled from 1971 until his ouster in 1986. The Duvalier regimes created the private army and terrorist death squads known as Tonton Macoutes. Many Haitians fled to exile in the United States and Canada, especially French-speaking Québec. In the 1970s the United States funded major efforts to establish assembly plants in Haiti for U.S. manufacturers. In the mid 1980s the US continued military and economic aid to the regime.[35]

In the 1960s and 1970s Haiti's diaspora made vital contributions to the establishment of francophone Africa's newly independent countries as university professors, medical doctors, administrators and development specialists emigrated to these countries[තහවුරු කරන්න]. The Africa Regional Office of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), based in Ghana, was headed during most of the 1960s by a prominent Haitian agronomist, Garvey Laurent (born in Jeremie, Haiti, 1923). During the 1970s Laurent negotiated the establishment of most of the FAO's Country Representative Offices throughout Africa.

In 1986, protests against "Baby Doc" led the U.S. to arrange for Jean-Claude Duvalier and his family to be exiled to ප්‍රංශය. Army leader General Henri Namphy headed a new National Governing Council.[35]

In March 1987, a new Constitution was overwhelmingly approved by Haiti's population. General elections in November were aborted hours after dozens of inhabitants were shot in the capital by soldiers and the Tonton Macoute, and scores more were massacred around the country.

1990s[සංස්කරණය]

In December 1990, the former priest Jean-Bertrand Aristide was elected President in the Haitian general election, winning by more than two thirds of the vote. His 5 year mandate began on 7 February 1991. In August 1991, Jean-Bertrand Aristide's government faced a non-confidence vote within the Haitian Chamber of Deputies and Senate. Eighty three voted against him, while only eleven members voted in support of Aristide's government. Following a coup d' état in September 1991, President Aristide was flown into exile. In accordance with Article 149 of Haiti's Constitution of 1987, Supreme Court Justice Joseph Nerette was named Provisional President and elections were called for December 1991 – elections which were blocked by the international community[තහවුරු කරන්න] – and the resulting chaos extended into 1994.

In 1994, Haitian General Raoul Cédras asked former U.S. President Jimmy Carter to help avoid a U.S. military invasion of Haiti. [36] President Carter relayed this information to President Clinton, who asked Carter, in his role as founder of The Carter Center, to undertake a mission to Haiti with Senator Sam Nunn, D-GA, and former Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman Colin Powell. [36] The team successfully negotiated the departure of Haiti's military leaders and the peaceful entry of U.S. forces under Operation Uphold Democracy, thereby paving the way for the restoration of Jean-Bertrand Aristide as president. [36] In October 1994, Aristide returned to Haiti to complete his term in office.[37] Aristide disbanded the Haitian army, and established a civilian police force. Aristide vacated the presidency in February 1996, which had been the scheduled end of his 5 year term based on the date of his inauguration.

In 1996, René Préval was elected as president for a five-year term, winning 88% of the popular vote. Préval had previously served as Aristide's Prime Minister from February to October 1991.

2000s[සංස්කරණය]

See also: 2004 Haitian rebellion, Ottawa Initiative, and United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti

Aristide was re-elected in 2000. His second term was marked by accusations of corruption. In 2004 a paramilitary coup ousted Aristide a second time. (See 2004 Haitian rebellion.) Aristide was removed by U.S. Marines from his home in what he described as a "kidnapping", and was then briefly held by the government of the Central African Republic (to which the U.S. had decided to fly him). Aristide obtained his release and went into exile in South Africa.

Boniface Alexandre assumed interim authority. In February 2006, following elections marked by uncertainties and popular demonstrations, René Préval (close to the still-popular Aristide and former president of the Republic of Haiti between 1995 and 2000) was elected president.

The United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (also known as MINUSTAH) has been in the country since the 2004 Haiti Rebellion.

2010s[සංස්කරණය]

2010 භූ කම්පනය[සංස්කරණය]

On January 12, 2010, at 21:53 UTC, (4:53 pm local time) Haiti was struck by a magnitude-7.0 earthquake, the country's most severe earthquake in over 200 years.[38] The epicenter of the quake was just off the Haitian capital Port-au-Prince.[39] The focus was about 6 miles (10 km) underground, according to the USGS.

It has been estimated that the death toll could reach 200,000.[40] Widespread damage resulted from the quake, with a majority of buildings collapsing due to poor structural design and construction. The capital city was devastated. The Presidential Palace was badly damaged, with the second floor entirely collapsing onto the first floor; the Haitan Parliament building and the National Cathedral were also destroyed.

Politics[සංස්කරණය]

මෙයද බලන්න: Elections in Haiti, National Assembly of Haiti, President of Haiti, සහ Military of Haiti

The government of Haiti is a semi-presidential republic, a pluriform multiparty system wherein the President of Haiti is head of state elected directly by popular elections.[තහවුරු කරන්න] The Prime Minister acts as head of government and is appointed by the President, chosen from the majority party in the National Assembly. Executive power is exercised by the President and Prime Minister who together constitute the government.

Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the National Assembly of Haiti. The government is organized unitarily, thus the central government delegates powers to the departments without a constitutional need for consent. The current structure of Haiti's political system was set forth in the Constitution of Haiti on 29 March 1987. The current president is René Préval.

Haitian politics have been contentious. Most Haitians are aware of Haiti's history as the only country in the Western Hemisphere to undergo a successful slave revolution. On the other hand, the long history of oppression by dictators – including François Duvalier and his son Jean-Claude Duvalier – has markedly affected the nation. ප්‍රංශය and the United States have repeatedly intervened in Haitian politics since the country's founding, sometimes at the request of one party or another. In January 2010, up to 10,000 U.S. troops are to be sent to earthquake-hit Haiti.[41]

Cité Soleil, Haiti’s largest slum in the capital of Port-au-Prince, has been called "the most dangerous place on Earth" by the United Nations. [42] The slum is a stronghold of supporters of former Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, [43] who, according to the BBC, "accused the US of forcing him out - an accusation the US rejected as 'absurd'".[44]


According to Corruption Perceptions Index, Haiti has a particularly high level of corruption. [45][46]

Departments, arrondissements, and communes[සංස්කරණය]

Haiti is divided into ten departments. The departments are listed below, with the departmental capital cities in parentheses.

Departments of Haiti
  1. Artibonite (Gonaïves)
  2. Centre (Hinche)
  3. Grand'Anse (Jérémie)
  4. Nippes (Miragoâne)
  5. Nord (Cap-Haïtien)
  6. Nord-Est (Fort-Liberté)
  7. Nord-Ouest (Port-de-Paix)
  8. Ouest (Port-au-Prince)
  9. Sud-Est (Jacmel)
  10. Sud (Les Cayes)

The departments are further divided into 41 arrondissements, and 133 communes which serve as second- and third-level administrative divisions.

Geography[සංස්කරණය]

Map of Haiti

Haiti is situated on the western part of Hispaniola, the second largest island in the Greater Antilles. Haiti is the third largest country in the Caribbean behind Cuba and the Dominican Republic (the latter shares a 360 kilometer (224 mi) border with Haiti). Haiti at its closest point is only about සැකිල්ල:Convert/nmi away from Cuba and has the second longest coastline (සැකිල්ල:Convert/LoffAonD/Soff) in the Greater Antilles, Cuba having the longest. Haiti's terrain consists mainly of rugged mountains interspersed with small coastal plains and river valleys.

The northern region consists of the Massif du Nord (Northern Massif) and the Plaine du Nord (Northern Plain). The Massif du Nord is an extension of the Cordillera Central in the Dominican Republic. It begins at Haiti's eastern border, north of the Guayamouc River, and extends to the northwest through the northern peninsula. The lowlands of the Plaine du Nord lie along the northern border with the Dominican Republic, between the Massif du Nord and the North Atlantic Ocean. The central region consists of two plains and two sets of mountain ranges. The Plateau Central (Central Plateau) extends along both sides of the Guayamouc River, south of the Massif du Nord. It runs from the southeast to the northwest. To the southwest of the Plateau Central are the Montagnes Noires, whose most northwestern part merges with the Massif du Nord. Its westernmost point is known as Cap Carcasse.


The southern region consists of the Plaine du Cul-de-Sac (the southeast) and the mountainous southern peninsula (also known as the Tiburon Peninsula). The Plaine du Cul-de-Sac is a natural depression which harbors the country's saline lakes, such as Trou Caïman and Haiti's largest lake, Lac Azuei. The Chaîne de la Selle mountain range – an extension of the southern mountain chain of the Dominican Republic (the Sierra de Baoruco) – extends from the Massif de la Selle in the east to the Massif de la Hotte in the west. This mountain range harbors Pic la Selle, the highest point in Haiti at 2,680 metres (8,793 ft) * Map of Haiti.

The country's most important valley in terms of crops is the Plaine de l'Artibonite, which is oriented south of the Montagnes Noires. This region supports the country's (also Hispaniola's) longest river, the Riviere l'Artibonite which begins in the western region of the Dominican Republic and continues most of its length through central Haiti and onward where it empties into the Golfe de la Gonâve. The eastern and central region of the island is a large elevated plateau. Haiti also includes various offshore islands. The historically famous island of Tortuga (Île de la Tortue) is located off the coast of northern Haiti. The arrondissement of La Gonâve is located on the island of the same name, in the Golfe de la Gonâve. Gonâve Island is moderately populated by rural villagers. Île à Vache (Cow Island), a lush island with many beautiful sights, is located off the tip of southwestern Haiti. Also part of Haiti are the Cayemites and Île d' Anacaona.

Satellite image depicting the border between Haiti (left) and the Dominican Republic (right), 2002

Environment[සංස්කරණය]

In 1925, Haiti was lush, with 60% of its original forest covering the lands and mountainous regions. Since then, the population has cut down an estimated 98% of its original forest cover for use as fuel for cookstoves, and in the process has destroyed fertile farmland soils, contributing to desertification.[47]

In addition to soil erosion, deforestation has caused periodic flooding, as seen on 17 September 2004. Tropical storm Jeanne skimmed the north coast of Haiti, leaving 3,006 people dead in flooding and mudslides, mostly in the city of Gonaïves.[48] Earlier that year in May, floods had killed over 3,000 people on Haiti's southern border with the Dominican Republic.[49]

Health[සංස්කරණය]

Half of the children in Haiti are unvaccinated and just 40% of the population has access to basic health care.[50] Even before the 2010 earthquake, nearly half the causes of deaths have been attributed to HIV/AIDS, respiratory infections, meningitis and diarrheal diseases, including cholera and typhoid, according to the World Health Organization.[51] Ninety percent of Haiti’s children suffer from waterborne diseases and intestinal parasites.[52] Approximately 5% of Haiti's adult population is infected with HIV.[53] Cases of tuberculosis (TB) in Haiti are more than ten times as high as those in other Latin American countries.[54] Some 30,000 people in Haiti suffer each year from malaria.[55]

Economy[සංස්කරණය]

Bas-Ravine, in the northern part of Cap-Haitien

By most economic measures, Haiti is the poorest country in the Americas. It had a nominal GDP of 7.018 billion USD in 2009, with a GDP per capita of 790 USD, about $2 per person per day.[56]

It is an impoverished country, one of the world's poorest and least developed. Comparative social and economic indicators show Haiti falling behind other low-income developing countries (particularly in the hemisphere) since the 1980s. Haiti now ranks 149th of 182 countries in the United Nations Human Development Index (2006). About 80% of the population were estimated to be living in poverty in 2003.[57] Most Haitians live on $2 or less per day. [58] Haiti has 50% illiteracy,[59] and over 80% of college graduates from Haiti have emigrated, mostly to the United States.[60] Cité Soleil is considered one of the worst slums in the Americas,[61] most of its 500,000 residents live in extreme poverty.[42] Poverty has forced at least 225,000 children in Haiti's cities into slavery, working as unpaid household servants.[62]

About 66% of all Haitians work in the agricultural sector, which consists mainly of small-scale subsistence farming,[63] but this activity makes up only 30% of the GDP. The country has experienced little formal job-creation over the past decade, although the informal economy is growing. Mangoes and coffee are two of Haiti's most important exports.[63] Haiti's richest 1% own nearly half the country's wealth.[64] Haiti has consistently ranked among the most corrupt countries in the world on the Corruption Perceptions Index.[65] Since the day of "Papa Doc" Duvalier, Haiti's government has been notorious for its corruption. Haitian dictator "Baby Doc" Duvalier, his wife Michelle, and three other people are believed to have taken $504 million from the Haitian public treasury between 1971 and 1986.[66]

Foreign aid makes up approximately 30–40% of the national government's budget. The largest donor is the United States – followed by Canada, and the European Union also contributes aid.[67] From 1990 to 2003, Haiti received more than $4 billion in aid. The United States alone had provided Haiti with 1.5 billion in aid. [68] Venezuela and Cuba also make various contributions to Haiti's economy, especially after alliances were renewed in 2006 and 2007. In January 2010, China promised $4.2 million for the quake-hit island,[69] and President Obama pledged $100 million in US assistance.[70] යුරෝපියානු සංගමය nations promised more than 400 million euros ($616 million) in emergency aid and reconstruction funds for Haiti.[71]

U.S. aid to the Haitian government was completely cut off in 2001–2004 after the 2000 election was disputed and President Aristide was accused of various misdeeds.[72] After Aristide's departure in 2004, aid was restored, and the Brazilian army led the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti peacekeeping operation. Following almost 4 years of recession ending in 2004, the economy grew by 1.5% in 2005.[73]

In 2005 Haiti's total external debt reached an estimated US$1.3 billion, which corresponds to a debt per capita of US$169. In September 2009, Haiti met the conditions set out by the IMF and World Bank's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries program to qualify for cancellation of its external debt. [74]

Education[සංස්කරණය]

Of Haiti's 8.7 million inhabitants, the literacy rate of 65.9% is the lowest in the region.සැකිල්ල:Which? Haiti counts 15,200 primary schools, of which 90% are non-public and managed by the communities, religious organizations or NGOs.[75] The enrollment rate for primary school is 67%, and fewer than 30% reach 6th grade. Secondary schools enroll 20% of eligible-age children. Charity organizations like Food for the Poor and Haitian Health Foundation are currently working on building schools for children as well as providing them necessary school supplies.

The educational system of Haiti is based on the French system. Higher education – under the responsibility of the Ministry of Education.[69] is provided by universities and other public and private institutions. [76]

A list of universities in Haiti includes:

  • University of Caraibe (Université Caraïbe) (CUC)
  • University of Haiti (Université d'État d'Haïti) (UEH)
  • University Notre Dame of Haiti (Université Notre Dame d'Haïti) (UNDH)
  • Université Chrétienne du Nord d'Haïti (UCNH)
  • Université Lumière / MEBSH
  • Université Quisqueya (UNIQ)
  • Ecole Supérieure d'Infotronique d'Haïti (ESIH)
  • Université Roi Henri Christophe
  • Université Publique de l'Artibonite aux Gonaïves (UPAG)
  • Université Publique du Nord au Cap-Haïtien (UPNCH)
  • Université Publique du Sud au Cayes (UPSAC)
  • Universite de Fondwa (UNIF)
  • Ecole Le Bon Samaritain

Demographics[සංස්කරණය]

Population of Haiti (in thousands) from 1961 to 2003

Although Haiti averages approximately 360 people per square kilometer (940 per sq mi.), its population is concentrated most heavily in urban areas, coastal plains, and valleys. Haiti's population was about 9.8 million according to UN 2008 estimates,[77] with half of the population being under 20 years.[78] The first formal census, taken in 1950, showed that the population was 3.1 million.[79] Haiti has the highest fertility rate in the Western Hemisphere.[80]

90–95% of Haitians (depending on the source) are of predominately African descent; the remaining 5–10% of the population are mostly of mixed-race background. A small percentage of the non-black population consists primarily of Caucasian/white Haitians; mostly of Arab,[81] Western European (French, German, Polish, Portuguese and Spanish), and Jewish origin.[82][83] Haitians of Asian descent (mostly of Chinese origin) number approximately 400.[82]

Haitians of mixed race live mostly in the wealthier suburbs of the capital, such as Pétionville or Kenscoff. Many were born in the southwestern regions of Haiti, such as: Jacmel, Les Cayes, Cavaillon. During the colonial years there was a higher proportion of Europeans in this area than in the north, which was more isolated, had fewer cities and was devoted to large plantations with extensive populations of enslaved Africans. Some of the white planter fathers ensured the education of their sons (and sometimes daughters), even sending some to school in ප්‍රංශය. Some of the mixed-race population was therefore able to build more social capital than those in the north of mostly African descent. In addition, the free people of color (les gens du couleur libre) (or mulatto) population had more civil rights than did Africans who were free. By the time of the revolution, there were numerous educated mixed-race men who became part of the leadership of the country. As in most Latin American countries, there is no one-drop rule regarding African ancestry in Haiti.

Haitian diaspora[සංස්කරණය]

Millions of Haitians live abroad, chiefly in North America: the Dominican Republic, United States, Cuba, Canada (primarily Montreal) and Bahamas. They live in other nations like ප්‍රංශය, French Antilles, the Turks and Caicos, Venezuela and French Guiana.

In the United States alone there are an estimated 600,000 Haitians,[84] plus 100,000 in Canada[85] and an estimated 800,000 in the Dominican Republic.[86] The Haitian community in ප්‍රංශය numbers about 80,000,[87] and up to 80,000 Haitians now live in the Bahamas.[88] A U.N. envoy in October 2007 found racism against blacks in general, and Haitians in particular, to be rampant in every segment of Dominican society.[89] The Obama administration has made Haiti a priority in the hemisphere, reviewing immigration policy.[90]

In January 2010, Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced that Canada will consider fast-tracking immigration to help Haitian earthquake refugees.[91] U.S. Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano announced that the estimated 100,000 to 200,000 Haitians "not legally in the United States" as of January 12, 2010, would be granted a form of asylum called temporary protected status (TPS).[92] Thousands of Haiti earthquake survivors, including Haitian children left orphaned in the aftermath of earthquake, could be relocated to the United States.[93] Senegal is offering parcels of land – even an entire region if they come en masse – to people affected by the earthquake in Haiti.[94]

In North America[සංස්කරණය]

There is a significant Haitian population in South Florida, specifically the Miami enclave of Little Haiti. New Orleans, Louisiana has many historic ties to Haiti that date back to the Haitian Revolution. New York City, especially in Flatbush, East Flatbush and Springfield Gardens, also has a thriving émigré community with the second largest population of Haitians of any state in the nation. There are also large and active Haitian communities in Boston, Spring Valley (New York), New Jersey, Washington D.C., Providence, Rhode Island, Georgia, Connecticut and Pennsylvania. There are also large Haitian communities in Montreal, Quebec, Paris, ප්‍රංශය, Havana, Cuba and Kingston, Jamaica.

Michaëlle Jean, the current Governor General of Canada, was a refugee from Haiti coming to Canada in 1968 at age 11.

Languages[සංස්කරණය]

One of Haiti's two official languages is French, which is the principal written, spoken in schools, and administratively authorized language. It is spoken by most educated Haitians and is used in the business sector. The second is the recently standardized Haitian Creole,[95] which is spoken by virtually the entire population of Haiti. Haitian creole is one of the French-based creole languages, which also contains significant African influence, as well as influence from Spanish and Taíno. Haitian creole is closely related to Louisiana Creole. Spanish is also spoken by a good portion of the population, though it is not an official language.

Religion[සංස්කරණය]

මෙයද බලන්න: Roman Catholicism in Haiti

Haiti is a largely Christian country, with Roman Catholicism professed by 80% of Haitians. Protestants make up about 16% of the population. Haitian Vodou, a New World Afro-diasporic faith unique to the country, is practiced by roughly half the population.[96] Religious practice often spans Haiti and its diaspora as those who have migrated interact through religion with family in Haiti.[97]

Culture[සංස්කරණය]

"Tap tap" bus in Port-Salut

Haiti has a long and storied history and therefore retains a very rich culture. Haitian culture is a mixture of primarily French, African elements, and native Taíno, with some lesser influence from the colonial Spanish. The country's customs essentially are a blend of cultural beliefs that derived from the various ethnic groups that inhabited the island of Hispaniola. In nearly all aspects of modern Haitian society however, the European and African elements dominate. Haiti is world famous for its distinctive art, notably painting and sculpture.

සංගීතය[සංස්කරණය]

The music of Haiti is influenced mostly by European colonial ties and African migration (through slavery). In the case of European colonization, musical influence has derived primarily from the French, however Haitian music has been influenced to a significant extent by its Spanish-speaking neighbors, the Dominican Republic and Cuba, whose Spanish-infused music has contributed much to the country's musical genres as well. Styles of music unique to the nation of Haiti include music derived from vodou ceremonical traditions and the wildly popular Compas.

Compas (in French) or Kompa (in Creole) is a complex, ever-changing music that arose from African rhythms and European ballroom dancing, mixed with Haiti's bourgeois culture. It is a refined music, played with an underpinning of tipico, and méringue (related to Dominican merengue) as a basic rhythm. Haiti didn't have any recorded music until 1937 when Jazz Guignard was recorded non-commercially. One of the most popular Haitian artists is Wyclef Jean. His music is somewhat hip-hop mixed with world music.

බොජුන්[සංස්කරණය]

The cuisine of Haiti originates from several culinary styles from the various historical ethnic groups that populated the western portion of the island of Hispaniola, namely the French, African, and the Taíno Amerindians.

Haitian cuisine is similar to the rest of the Latin-Caribbean (the French and the Spanish-speaking countries of the Antilles) however it differs in several ways from its regional counterparts. Its primary influence derive from French, and African cuisine, with notable derivatives from native Taíno and Spanish culinary technique. Though similar to other cooking styles in the region, it carries a uniqueness native only to the country and an appeal to many visitors to the island. Haitians use vegetables and meats extensively and peppers and similar herbs are often used for strengthening flavor. Dishes tend to be seasoned liberally and consequently Haitian cuisine tends to be moderately spicy, not mild and not too hot. In the country, however, many businesses of foreign origin have been established introducing several foreign cuisines into the mainstream culture. Years of adaptation have led to these cuisines (ie: Levantine from Arab migration to Haiti) to merge into Haitian cuisine.

Rice and beans in several differing ways are eaten throughout the country regardless of location, becoming a sort of national dish. They form the staple diet, which consists of a lot of starch and is high in carbohydrates. In the more rural areas, however, at great distances from the major cities, other foods are eaten to a larger degree such as mais moulu; a dish comparable to cornmeal that can be eaten with sauce pois, a bean sauce made from one of many types of beans such as kidney, pinto, or garbanzo beans, or pigeon peas (known in other countries as gandules).

Mais Moulu can be eaten with fish (often red snapper), or alone depending on personal preference. Tomato, oregano, cabbage, avocado, red and green peppers are several of the many types of vegetables/fruits that are used in Haitian dishes. Banane Pésée, flattened plantain slices that are fried in soybean oil (known as tostones in the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico), are eaten frequently in Haiti as both a snack food and as part of a meal. They are frequently eaten with tassot and/or griot, which is deep-fried goat and pork respectively.

See also[සංස්කරණය]

Notes[සංස්කරණය]

  1. "CIA – The World Factbook – Haiti". US Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ha.html. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය January 13, 2010. 
  2. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009). "World Population Prospects, Table A.1" (PDF). 2008 revision. United Nations. Retrieved on December 3, 2009.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "Haiti". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=263&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=47&pr.y=12. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය October 1, 2009. 
  4. "Human Development Report 2009. Human development index trends: Table G". The United Nations. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය October 18, 2009. 
  5. NewYorkTimes earthquake story
  6. Cassá 1995: 126
  7. Wilson 1990: 110
  8. "David A. Koplow, Smallpox: The Fight to Eradicate a Global Scourge". http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/9968/9968.ch01.php. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය January 13, 2010. 
  9. "History of Smallpox – Smallpox Through the Ages" Texas Department of State Health Services Retrieved January 14, 2010
  10. "Laws of Burgos, 1512–1513" Retrieved January 14, 2010
  11. "French Creole". http://www.frenchcreoles.com/CreoleCulture/quadroons/mulattoes,%20mixed%20race,%20creoles.htm. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය January 13, 2010. 
  12. "Saving New Orleans" Smithsonian magazine, August 2006
  13. "Immigration History of Canada" L’Encyclopédie de l’histoire du Québec / The Quebec History Encyclopedia, Retrieved January 14, 2010
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Paul Farmer (April 15, 2004), "Who removed Aristide?", archived from the original on June 6, 2008, http://web.archive.org/web/20080608222428/http://www.lrb.co.uk/v26/n08/farm01_.html, retrieved January 13, 2010 
  15. "Decree of the National Convention of 4 February 1794, Abolishing Slavery in all the Colonies" Retrieved January 14, 2010
  16. "Poles in Haiti", The New York Times, March 22, 1987; Retrieved January 14, 2010
  17. "The Haitian Debacle: Yellow Fever and the Fate of the French" Montana State University; Retrieved January 14, 2010
  18. Birth of a Nation / "Has the bloody 200-year history of Haiti doomed it to more violence?", San Francisco Chronicle, May 30, 2004
  19. Pachonski, "Book Review", Poland's Caribbean Tragedy: A Study of Polish Legions in the Haitian War of Independence 1802–1803, Webster University
  20. 20.0 20.1 "A Brief History of Dessalines from 1825 Missionary Journal", Webster University
  21. Blackpast.com "Haitian Revolution 1791–1804"
  22. "From Saint-Domingue to Louisiana". The African-American Migration Experience.
  23. "In Congo Square: Colonial New Orleans", The Nation, December 10, 2008
  24. "Haitians", University of Louisiana
  25. Constitution of Haity sic New-York Evening Post July 15 1805
  26. Independent Haiti Library of Congress Country Studies
  27. Sagás, Ernesto (October 14, 1994). "An apparent contradiction? Popular perceptions of Haiti and the foreign policy of the Dominican Republic". Sixth Annual Conference of the Haitian Studies Association. http://haitiforever.com/windowsonhaiti/esagas2.shtml. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය August 19, 2007. 
  28. "Dominican Republic – History Dominican Republic", Encyclopædia Britannica
  29. "1820 -- 1843: The rule of Jean-Pierre Boyer", Webster University
  30. US Gazette, Philadelphia, 1824, from Girard Alphonse Firire, Ph.D., "HAITI AND ITS DIASPORA: NEW HISTORICAL, CULTURAL AND ECONOMIC FRONTIERS", 27 August 1999, accessed 15 January 2010
  31. "Haiti Starts Over, Once Again", NPR: National Public Radio.
  32. 32.0 32.1 Paul Farmer, The Uses of Haiti (Common Courage Press: 1994)
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 33.4 33.5 Paul Farmer, Aids and accusation: Haiti and the geography of blame 2006 California University Press ISBN 978-0-520-24839-7, pp. 180-181
  34. Wucker, Michele. "Why the Cocks Fight: Dominicans, Haitians and the Struggle for Hispaniola". Windows on Haiti. http://www.ling.upenn.edu/courses/Fall_2003/ling001/wucker.html. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය December 26, 2007. 
  35. 35.0 35.1 US Embassy to Haiti website Retrieved January 13, 2010
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 The Carter Center, "Activities by Country: Haiti", http://www.cartercenter.org/countries/haiti.html, retrieved July 17, 2008 
  37. MISSION TO HAITI: THE SCENE; For Aristide's Followers, Every Step Is a Dance, Every Cheer a Song NYTimes.com
  38. "Magnitude 7.0 – Haiti Region". http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2010/us2010rja6/. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය January 12, 2010. 
  39. "Major earthquake off Haiti causes hospital to collapse – Telegraph". telegraph.co.uk. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/centralamericaandthecaribbean/haiti/6977308/Major-earthquake-off-Haiti-causes-hospital-to-collapse.html. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය January 12, 2010. 
  40. "Haiti says 200,000 may be dead, violence breaks out - Reuters". reuters.com. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE66B5IZ20100115. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය January 14, 2010. 
  41. "US sending 10,000 troops to earthquake-hit Haiti" BBC News, January 15, 2010
  42. 42.0 42.1 ""Ghosts of Cité Soleil" a harrowing look at Haiti's hellish slums" The Seattle Times, August 10, 2007
  43. "Haitian Gangs Seek Truce That Would Ease Elections (Update1)" Bloomberg.com, August 25, 2005
  44. "The long history of troubled ties between Haiti and the US " BBC News, January 16, 2010
  45. "2006 Corruption Perceptions Index reinforces link between poverty and corruption". Transparency International. November 6, 2006. http://www.transparency.org/news_room/latest_news/press_releases/2006/en_2006_11_06_cpi_2006. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය January 15, 2009. 
  46. "Hoping for change in Haiti’s Cité-Soleil". International Red Cross. http://www.redcross.int/EN/mag/magazine2006_2/10-11.html. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය January 15, 2009. 
  47. "Forestry". http://countrystudies.us/haiti/53.htm. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය September 18, 2006. 
  48. "Photo Gallery: Jeanne hits Haiti". Orlando Sentinel. http://www.orlandosentinel.com/sfl-0923haitigallery,0,7266223.photogallery. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය September 18, 2006. 
  49. Deforestation Exacerbates Haiti Floods
  50. "Haiti Survivors Face Outbreaks of Diarrhea, Malaria (Update1)" BusinessWeek, January 14, 2010
  51. "Haiti earthquake could trigger possible medical 'perfect storm'" CNN.com, January 13, 2010
  52. "ENVIRONMENT: Haiti Can't Face More Defeats" IPS ipsnews.net, November 13, 2008
  53. "Haiti's Aids and voodoo challenge" BBC News, November 20, 2003
  54. "Haiti Introduction" Globalsecurity.org
  55. "Haiti and Dominican Republic Look to Eradicate Malaria" FOXNews.com, October 8, 2009
  56. "CIA – The World Factbook – Haiti". US Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ha.html. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය January 13, 2010. 
  57. CIA – The World Factbook – Haiti
  58. "Haitians Hit Hard by Food Crisis". National Public Radio (NPR), February 7, 2008
  59. "Country Profile: Haiti" British Foreign and Commonwealth Office
  60. "Latin America Shouldn't Bet Everything On Remittances - World Bank"
  61. "U.N. Troops Fight Haiti Gangs One Street at a Time" The New York Times, February 10, 2007
  62. "Report: 225,000 Haiti children in slavery" USATODAY.com, December 22, 2009
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  64. "Haiti: An economic basket-case" BBC News, March 1, 2004
  65. "Haiti tops world corruption table" BBC News, November 6, 2006
  66. "Haiti: The Long Road to Recovery" Public Broadcasting Service (PBS)
  67. "$1 Billion Is Pledged to Help Haiti Rebuild, Topping Request" The New York Times, July 21, 2004
  68. "Q+A-Haiti's aid controversy" Reuters, September 28, 2009
  69. "Haiti aid a telling test of China-Taiwan relations" San Francisco Chronicle, January 16, 2010
  70. "Obama pledges $100 million in aid for Haiti earthquake" Los Angeles Times, January 14, 2010
  71. "Haiti fears grows despite surge in relief effort". Yahoo News. January 18, 2009.
  72. "Before fall of Aristide, Haiti hit by aid cutoff" The Boston Globe, March 7, 2004
  73. "Haiti: Economy" Michigan State University
  74. Haiti: Enhanced Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries - Completion Point Document - International Monetary Fund, September 2009
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  77. "Country profile: Haiti" BBC News, November 10, 2008
  78. "New Haiti Census Shows Drastic Lack of Jobs, Education, Maternal Health Services" United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
  79. "Haiti - Population" Library of Congress Country Studies
  80. "Reaching Out to a Devastated Haiti" The New York Times, January 14, 2010
  81. "The Upper Class" Library of Congress Country Studies
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  83. "The Virtual Jewish History Tour: Haiti". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/haiti.html. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය January 14, 2010. 
  84. "Haiti's chaos reverberates for expatriates in American cities". Csmonitor.com, March 3, 2004
  85. Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories – 20% sample data, Statistics Canada (2006) Retrieved on August 11, 2008
  86. Pina, Diógenes. "DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Deport Thy (Darker-Skinned) Neighbour". Inter Press Service (IPS). http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=37018. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය October 14, 2008. 
  87. "ප්‍රංශය Suspends Expulsions Of Illegal Haitians" CBC News, January 14, 2010
  88. "Bahamas outlook clouds for Haitians " BBC News, September 20, 2009
  89. "UN experts find ‘profound and entrenched’ racial bias in Dominican Republic" UN News Centre
  90. "Divided diaspora hopes to find a single vision for Haiti's future" MiamiHerald.com, May 8, 2009
  91. Canada considers fast-tracking Haitian immigration, CBC News (January 15, 2010) Retrieved on January 15, 2010
  92. "Earthquake Leads U.S. to Relax Policy on Haitian Refugees" Time January, 15, 2010
  93. "Report: Thousands of Haiti earthquake survivors could be sent to Orlando" OrlandoSentinel.com, January 15, 2010
  94. "Senegal offers land to Haitians" BBC News, January 17, 2010
  95. "creolenationallanguageofhaiti". Indiana.edu. http://www.indiana.edu/~creole/creolenatllangofhaiti.html. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය January 14, 2010. 
  96. CIA World Facts Book - Haiti
  97. *McAlister, Elizabeth. 1998. "The Madonna of 115th St. Revisited: Vodou and Haitian Catholicism in the Age of Transnationalism." In S. Warner, ed., Gatherings in Diaspora Philadelphia: Temple University Press

References[සංස්කරණය]

  • Cassá, Roberto. 1995. Los indios de las Antillas. Madrid: MAPFRE. Series: Pueblos y lenguas indígenas, 10.
  • Wilson, Samuel M. 1990. Hispaniola: Caribbean chiefdoms in the age of Columbus. Univ. of Alabama Press.

Further reading[සංස්කරණය]

External links[සංස්කරණය]

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