|උපත||පෙබරවාරි 19, 1473
ටොරුන් (තෝර්න්), රාජකීය ප්රසියාව, පෝලන්තය
|මරණය||24 මැයි 1543
ෆ්රොම්බර්ක් (ෆ්රොන්න්බර්ග්), වර්මියාහී ප්රින්ස්-බිෂප්රික්, රාජකීය ප්රසියාව, පෝලන්ත රාජධානිය
|ක්ෂේත්රයන්||ගණිතය, තාරකා විද්යාව, සාමයික නීතිය, වෛද්ය විද්යාව, අර්ථශාස්ත්රය|
|ශාස්ත්ර ශාලාව||ක්රාකොෆ් විශ්වවිද්යාලය, බොලෝඤ්ඤා විශ්වවිද්යාලය, පාදුවා විශ්වවිද්යාලය, ෆෙරාරා විශ්වවිද්යාලය|
|ප්රසිද්ධයට හේතුව||සූර්යකේන්ද්රවාදය, කොපර්නිකස්ගේ නියමය|
මොහු ඉපදී ඇත්තේ 1473 පෙබරවාරි 19 වන දා පෝල්නත් රාජධානියේ ටෝරන් නගරයේ සාන්ත අමර් වීදියේ නිවසකය. ඔහුගේ නම තම පියගේ නම වන නිකලස් ගෙන් තබා ඇත. මොහු පොහොසත් තඹ වෙළෙන්දෙකු වු අතර මෝරන් නගරයේ පිළිගත් වැසියෙක් විය. නිකලස්ගේ මව බාබාරා වොස්ටන් රෝඩ් වන අතර පොහොසත් වෙළඳ පවුලකින් පැමිණි ඇය 1995 දි මිය ගියාය. නිකලස්ගේ පියා 1483 හා 1485 අතර මිය ගිය අතර ඔහුගේ මාමා වන ලුකස් වොට්සන් රෝඩ්ස් ඔහුව තම භාරයට ගත් අතර, ඔහුගේ අධ්යාපනය හා අනාගතය එමඟින් පෑදුනේය.
Nicolaus Copernicus (February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was the first astronomer to formulate a scientifically based heliocentric cosmology that displaced the Earth from the center of the universe. His epochal book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), is often regarded as the starting point of modern astronomy and the defining epiphany that began the Scientific Revolution.
Although Greek, Indian and Muslim savants had published heliocentric hypotheses centuries before Copernicus, his publication of an observation-based, mathematically-supported scientific theory of heliocentrism, demonstrating that the motions of celestial objects can be explained without putting the Earth at rest in the center of the universe, was a landmark in the history of modern science that is known as the Copernican Revolution.
Among the great polymaths of the Renaissance, Copernicus was a mathematician, astronomer, physician, classical scholar, translator, Catholic cleric, jurist, governor, military leader, diplomat and economist. Amid his extensive responsibilities, astronomy figured as little more than an avocation — yet it was in that field that he made his mark upon the world.
== Life ==pernicnce-McMullin-2005| McMullin (2005, p. 6)]]; Coyne (2005, p. 346–47).</ref>
Early traces of a heliocentric model are found in several anonymous Vedic Sanskrit texts composed in ancient India before the 7th century BCE. Additionally, the Indian astronomer and mathematician Aryabhata anticipated elements of Copernicus's work by over a thousand years.
Aristarchus of Samos in the 3rd century BCE elaborated some theories of Heraclides Ponticus (the daily rotation of the Earth on its axis, the revolution of Venus and Mercury around the Sun) to propose what was the first scientific model of a heliocentric solar system: the Earth and all other planets revolving around the Sun, the Earth rotating around its axis daily, the Moon in turn revolving around the Earth once a month. His heliocentric work has not survived, so we can only speculate about what led him to his conclusions. It is notable that, according to Plutarch, a contemporary of Aristarchus accused him of impiety for "putting the Earth in motion."
Copernicus cited Aristarchus and Philolaus in a surviving early manuscript of his book, stating: "Philolaus believed in the mobility of the earth, and some even say that Aristarchus of Samos was of that opinion." For reasons unknown (possibly from reluctance to quote pre-Christian sources), he did not include this passage in the published book. It has been argued that in developing the mathematics of heliocentrism Copernicus drew on not just the Greek, but also the work of Muslim astronomers, especially the works of Nasir al-Din Tusi (Tusi-couple), Mo'ayyeduddin Urdi (Urdi lemma) and Ibn al-Shatir. In his major work, Copernicus also discussed the theories of Ibn Battuta and Averroes.
The prevailing theory in Europe as Copernicus was writing was that created by Ptolemy in his Almagest, dating from about A.D. 150. The Ptolemaic system drew on many previous theories that viewed Earth as a stationary center of the universe. Stars were embedded in a large outer sphere which rotated relatively rapidly, while the planets dwelt in smaller spheres between — a separate one for each planet.
Copernicus's major theory was published in the book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), in the year of his death, 1543, though he had arrived at his theory several decades earlier.
In his Commentariolus Copernicus had summarized his system with the following list of seven assumptions:
- There is no one center of all the celestial circles or spheres.
- The center of the earth is not the center of the universe, but only of gravity and of the lunar sphere.
- All the spheres revolve about the sun as their mid-point, and therefore the sun is the center of the universe.
- The ratio of the earth's distance from the sun to the height of the firmament is so much smaller than the ratio of the earth's radius to its distance from the sun that the distance from the earth to the sun is imperceptible in comparison with the height of the firmament.
- Whatever motion appears in the firmament arises not from any motion of the firmament, but from the earth's motion. The earth together with its circumjacent elements performs a complete rotation on its fixed poles in a daily motion, while the firmament and highest heaven abide unchanged.
- What appear to us as motions of the sun arise not from its motion but from the motion of the earth and our sphere, with which we revolve about the sun like any other planet. The earth has, then, more than one motion.
- The apparent retrograde and direct motion of the planets arises not from their motion but from the earth's. The motion of the earth alone, therefore, suffices to explain so many apparent inequalities in the heavens.
De revolutionibus itself was divided into six books:
- General vision of the heliocentric theory, and a summarized exposition of his idea of the World
- Mainly theoretical, presents the principles of spherical astronomy and a list of stars (as a basis for the arguments developed in the subsequent books)
- Mainly dedicated to the apparent motions of the Sun and to related phenomena
- Description of the Moon and its orbital motions
- Concrete exposition of the new system
- Concrete exposition of the new system (continued)
Copernicus's theory is of extraordinary importance in the history of human knowledge. Many authors suggest that few other persons have exerted a comparable influence on human culture in general and on science in particular.[තහවුරු කරන්න] There are parallels with the life of Charles Darwin, in that both men produced a short early description of their theories, but held back on a definitive publication until late in life, against a backdrop of controversy, particularly with regard to religion.
Many meanings have been ascribed to Copernicus's theory, apart from its strictly scientific import. His work affected religion as well as science, religious belief as well as freedom of scientific inquiry. Copernicus's rank as a scientist is often compared with that of Galileo.
A corollary of Copernicanism is that scientific law need not be congruent with appearance. This contrasts with Aristotle's system, which placed much more importance on the derivation of knowledge through the senses.
Copernicus's concept marked a scientific revolution. The publication of his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium is often taken to mark the beginning of the Scientific Revolution, together with the publication of Andreas Vesalius's De Humani Corporis Fabrica.
It remains a matter of dispute whether a nationality should be attributed in hindsight to Copernicus, and if so, if he should be regarded as German or Polish. Already from the late 18th century until 1918, in a time in which no Polish state existed, the issue was noted as controversial, e. g. on German records at least since 1875 (see ADB quote above). Current German sources call the controversy, as manifested in older literature, superfluous and shameful. While the Catholic Encyclopedia does not attribute a nationality, Encyclopædia Britannica and Microsoft Encarta introduce him as "Polish astronomer", while referring to the cities of his life by their German names, not the Polish ones.
Copernicus was born, grew up and spent most of his life in Royal Prussia and therefore was a subject of the Polish crown. This is cited as a major reason why he is commonly regarded as Polish. However, in Copernicus's time, nationality had yet to play as important a role as it would later, and people generally did not think of themselves primarily as Poles or Germans. Indeed, he might have considered himself to be both at the same time.
The bust of Copernicus was in 1807 one of the first made to be enshrined later at the Walhalla temple, the German Hall of Fame. In 1875, when no Polish state and no Polish citizenship existed, with Poles being subjects to Russian, Austrian or Prussian monarchs for a century, the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie article on Copernicus acknowledged the Polish aspects of his life. In Nazi Germany, Copernicus was claimed to be purely German;. Since 1945, German assertions have returned to balanced views, while some Soviet bloc-era editions in socialist East Germany pronounced him a Pole. Acknowledgment of his connections to Poland notwithstanding, however, in Germany Copernicus is not considered "un-German" or "non-German." In 2003 he was declared eligible for Unsere Besten (Our Best), a ranking of the "200 greatest Germans" organized by ZDF TV. Since 1989, three German TV satellites had been named DFS Kopernikus.
In Poland, in 1973, the 500th anniversary of Copernicus's birth was an occasion to celebrate the "great Pole"; a banknote was issued, bearing Copernicus's likeness. Thirty years later, on June 12, 2003, the Polish Senate declared him an "exceptional Pole."
These claims and counter-claims are somewhat anachronistic. In Copernicus's lifetime, "nationality" did not have the same meaning as today. Many ethnic Germans were loyal subjects of the Polish crown. The universal language of science was Latin, and academics throughout Europe communicated in that idiom.
- Copernican principle
- Dedication to Pope Paul III
- List of things named after Copernicus
- Inferior and superior planets
- History of philosophy in Poland
- Copernicus Airport Wrocław
- Scientific revolution
- Translated by Rosen (2004, p. 58–59).
- "Timeline of the Scientific Revolution". Saint Anselm College article. http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/dbanach/timel.htm. සම්ප්රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය 2007-04-22.
- Stuart Parkes, Understanding Contemporary Germany. ISBN 0-415-14123-0
- Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Gesamtübersicht, Bd. 4, Seite 461. 
- Der Streit in der Literatur darüber, ob Kopernikus ein Deutscher oder ein Pole sei, war überflüssig und beschämend. Leider ist die ältere Literatur davon durchsetzt.University of Braunschweig
- Catholic Encyclopedia: In 1497 Nicolaus was enrolled in the University of Bologna as of German nationality and a student in canon law. 
- "Copernicus, Nicolaus". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9105759. Retrieved 2007-09-21.
- "Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer". Encyclopædia Encarta Online. Encyclopædia Encarta. 2007. http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761571204. Retrieved 2007-09-21.
- "Nicolaus Copernicus". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/copernicus/#1. සම්ප්රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය 2007-04-22.
- Norman Davies, God's Playground: A History of Poland, . ISBN 0-231-05353-3.
- Diemut Majer, Non-Germans Under the Third Reich: The Nazi Judicial and Administrative System in Germany and occupied Eastern Europe with special regard to occupied Poland, 1939-1945, . ISBN 0-8018-6493-3
- Angus Armitage (1951). The World of Copernicus, New York: Mentor Books. ISBN 0-8464-0979-8.
- Coyne, George V., S.J. (2005). The Church's Most Recent Attempt to Dispel the Galileo Myth. In McMullin (2005, pp.340–359).
- Owen Gingerich (2004). The Book Nobody Read, Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-303476-6.
- David C. Goodman and Colin A. Russell, eds. (1991). The Rise of Scientific Europe, 1500-1800. Dunton Green, Sevenoaks, Kent: Hodder & Stoughton: The Open University. ISBN 0-340-55861-X.
- Heilbron, John L. (2005). Censorship of Astronomy in Italy after Galileo. In McMullin (2005, pp.279–322).
- Arthur Koestler - The Sleepwalkers: A History of Man's Changing Vision of the Universe, New York: Grosset & Dunlap, (1963, c1959). ISBN 0-448-00159-4.
- Alexandre Koyré (1973) The Astronomical Revolution: Copernicus – Kepler – Borelli, Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-0504-1.
- Thomas Kuhn (1957). The Copernican Revolution: Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought, Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-17100-4.
- McMullin, Ernan, ed. (2005). The Church and Galileo. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. ISBN 0-268-03483-4.
- Rosen, Edward (translator) (2004) . Three Copernican Treatises:The Commentariolus of Copernicus; The Letter against Werner; The Narratio Prima of Rheticus (Second Edition, revised සංස්.). New York, NY: Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN 0486436055.
- Danielson, Dennis, "The First Copernican: Georg Joachim Rheticus and the Rise of the Copernican Revolution", Walker & Company, 2006, ISBN 0-8027-1530-3
- Nicolaus Copernicus Gesamtausgabe (complete edition), several volumes, Akademie Verlag, Berlin
- Leopold Friedrich Prowe, Nicolaus Coppernicus,
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Nicolaus Copernicus|
- Primary Sources
- සැකිල්ල:MacTutor Biography
- සැකිල්ල:Gutenberg author
- De Revolutionibus, autograph manuscript — Full digital facsimile, Jagiellonian University
- සැකිල්ල:Pl icon Copernicus's letters to various celebrities, among others the King Sigmundus I of Poland
- Copernicus in Torun
- Nicolaus Copernicus Museum in Frombork
- Portraits of Copernicus: Copernicus' face reconstructed; Portrait; Nicolaus Copernicus
- Copernicus and Astrology — Cambridge University: Copernicus had – of course – teachers with astrological activities and his tables were later used by astrologers.
- Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry
- Find-A-Grave profile for Nicolaus Copernicus
- 'Body of Copernicus' identified — BBC article including image of Copernicus using facial reconstruction based on located skull
- Copernicus and Astrology
- Nicolaus Copernicus on the 1000 Polish Zloty banknote.
- Parallax and the Earth's orbit 
- Copernicus's model for Mars 
- Retrograde Motion
- Copernicus's explanation for retrograde motion 
- Geometry of Maximum Elongation 
- Copernican Model 
- About De Revolutionibus
- The Copernican Universe from the De Revolutionibus
- De Revolutionibus, 1543 first edition — Full digital facsimile, Lehigh University
- The front page of the De Revolutionibus
- The text of the De Revolutionibus
- A java applet about Retrograde Motion
- The Antikythera Calculator (Italian and English versions)
- Pastore Giovanni, ANTIKYTHERA E I REGOLI CALCOLATORI, Rome, 2006, privately published
- සැකිල්ල:It icon Copernicus in Bologna — in Italian
- Chasing Copernicus: The Book Nobody Read — Was One of the Greatest Scientific Works Really Ignored? All Things Considered. NPR
- Copernicus and his Revolutions — A detailed critique of the rhetoric of De Revolutionibus
- Article which discusses Copernicus's debt to the Arabic tradition
- German-Polish cooperation
- (සැකිල්ල:ISO 639 name de)සැකිල්ල:Pl icon German-Polish school project on Copernicus
- (සැකිල්ල:ISO 639 name de)(ඉංග්රීසි)සැකිල්ල:Pl icon Büro Kopernikus - An initiative of German Federal Cultural Foundation
- (සැකිල්ල:ISO 639 name de)සැකිල්ල:Pl icon German-Polish "Copernicus Prize" awarded to German and Polish scientists (DFG website) (FNP website)