හයිද්‍රාබාද්

විකිපීඩියා, නිදහස් විශ්වකෝෂය වෙතින්
වෙත පනින්න: සංචලනය, සොයන්න
హైదరాబాద్, Hyderabad
"City of Pearls", "City of Fortune "
Charminar
Location of హైదరాబాద్, Hyderabad
హైదరాబాద్, Hyderabad
Location of హైదరాబాద్, Hyderabad
in Andhra Pradesh
Country  India
State Andhra Pradesh
District(s)
Founded 1592
Mayor Election due
Commissioner B.Prasada Rao
Planning Agency GHMC, HMDA
Population
Density
Metro
3,637,483 (6th) (2001)
16,990 km2 (6,560 sq mi)
6,290,397 (6th) (2009)
Language(s) Telugu, Urdu, Hindi, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area
Elevation
Coastline
640 km2 (247 sq mi)
සැකිල්ල:M to ft
සැකිල්ල:Km to mi
Climate
Precipitation
Temperature
• Summer
• Winter
Aw (Köppen)
සැකිල්ල:Legend0
සැකිල්ල:Legend0
සැකිල්ල:Legend0
සැකිල්ල:Legend0
Website www.ghmc.gov.in

ඛණ්ඩාංක: 17°21′58″N 78°28′34″E / 17.366°N 78.476°E / 17.366; 78.476

Hyderabad (තෙලිඟු: హైదరాబాద్, උර්දු: حیدر آباد), is the capital and the most populous city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Hyderabad has a population of over 4.0 million[1] It is well-known for rich history, culture and architecture. It is known as the City of Pearls and the City of Nizams. Recently, it has emerged as a modern hub of Information Technology, ITES and Biotechnology industries.

The city has been classified as an A-1 city in terms of development priorities, due to its size, population and impact.[2]

Hyderabad has become a preferred conference venue in India, with many conferences and meetings taking place in the city. The city is home to the world's largest film studio, the Ramoji Film City as well as the third largest film industry in the country, the Telugu Film Industry known popularly as Tollywood. It is also a sporting destination with many national and international games conducted here, and is the home of the Deccan Chargers. The people here are called Hyderabadis. The city is regarded as a blend of traditionality with modernity.[3]

Etymology[සංස්කරණය]

Theories explaining the origins and etymology behind Hyderabad's name differ. A popular theory suggests that after founding the city, Quli Qutb Shah fell in love with and married a local Banjara girl known as Bhagmathi or Bhagyavathi naming the city, Bhagyanagaram. Upon her conversion to Islam, she changed her name to Hyder Mahal and thus the city was named Hyderabad .[4][5]

History[සංස්කරණය]

Tomb of Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah in Hyderabad, India.

Although Hyderabad was founded less than 500 years ago, archaeologists have unearthed Iron Age sites near the city that could date back to 500 BC.[6] Approximately, a 1000 years ago this region was ruled by Kakatiyas. Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, a ruler of the Qutb Shahi dynasty the ruling family of the Golconda, previously a feudatory of Bahmani sultanate that declared independence in 1512, founded the city of Hyderabad on the banks of the Musi River in 1591;[7] to relieve water shortage the dynasty had experienced at their old headquarters at Golconda.[8] He also ordered the construction of the Charminar, the iconic monument of the city, in 1591, reportedly in gratitude to the Almighty for arresting the plague epidemic before it did irreversible damage to his new city.[9]

The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb captured Hyderabad in 1687[10] and during this short Mughal rule, Mughal-appointed governors of the city soon gained autonomy. In 1724, Asaf Jah I, who was granted the title Nizam-ul-Mulk ("Governor of the country") by the Mughal emperor, defeated a rival official to establish control over Hyderabad.[11] Thus began the Asaf Jahi dynasty that ruled Hyderabad until a year after India's independence from Britain. Asaf Jah's successors ruled as the Nizams of Hyderabad.[12] The rule of the seven Nizams saw the growth of Hyderabad both culturally and economically. Hyderabad became the formal capital of the kingdom and Golconda was almost abandoned. Huge reservoirs, like the Nizam Sagar, Tungabhadra, Osman Sagar, Himayat Sagar, and others were built. Survey work on Nagarjuna Sagar had also begun during this time; the actual work was completed by the Government of India in 1969. The wealth and grandeur of the Nizams is demonstrated by the fabled Jewels of The Nizams which is a tourist attraction.The state was richest and the largest among the princely states of India.The land area of the state was 90,543 mi² its population in 1901 was 50,073,759. It enjoyed an estimated revenue of £90,029,000.[13]

The Chowmahalla Palace was the seat of the Asaf Jahi dynasty and was the official residence of the Nizam.

Before 1947, Hyderabad was under the suzerainty of the British Crown but was not part of British India. In 1947, at the time of the independence of British India and its Partition into the Union of India and the new state of Pakistan, the British abandoned their claim to suzerainty over the Princely states and left them to decide their own future. The Nizam, because of Islamic leanings, wished either to remain independent or to accede to Pakistan.[14] However, for the Indian Union, this was unacceptable from the strategic perspective. Nizam's efforts also triggered the largest agrarian armed rebellion in modern Indian history, the Telangana Rebellion. To deter the Nizam, Indian union chose to implement an economic blockade which made the state of Hyderabad to sign a Standstill Agreement with it. Nizam's intransigence compelled Indian Union to use military force against the landlocked princely state of Hyderabad. This operation, termed Operation Polo, was successful and on 17 September 1948 the Nizam signed an Instrument of Accession to the Union of India.[15]

On November 1, 1956, the states of India were reorganized on linguistic grounds. The territories of the State of Hyderabad were divided between newly created Andhra Pradesh, Mumbai state (later Maharashtra), and Karnataka. Hyderabad and the surrounding areas were added to Andhra Pradesh, based on the Telugu speaking community. Thus, Hyderabad became the capital city of the new state of Andhra Pradesh.[16]

Since '90s owing to liberalisation, the city has become a major hub of the IT industry which in turn brought changes in lifestyle and culture. The growth in IT sector and construction of International Airport witnessed rise in various other fields like real estate in 2000s although the Global financial crisis of 2008–2009 has had a significant impact on construction activity.[13]

Geography[සංස්කරණය]


සැකිල්ල:Climate chart

Situated on the Deccan Plateau, Hyderabad has an average elevation of about 500 metres above sea level (1,640 ft). Most of the area has a rocky terrain and some areas are hilly. Crops are commonly grown in the surrounding paddy fields.[17]

The original city of Hyderabad was founded on the banks of river Musi.[18] Now known as the historic Old City, home to the Charminar and Mecca Masjid, it lies on the southern bank of the river. The heart of the city saw a shift to the north of the river, with the construction of many government buildings and landmarks there, especially south of the Hussain Sagar lake. The rapid growth of the city, along with the merging of Secunderabad, 12 municipal circles and the Cantonment has resulted in a large, united and populous area. Still so many villages near by are getting a facelift to merge in the twin cities in the near future.[19]

Climate[සංස්කරණය]

Hyderabad has a wet and dry climate with hot summers from late February to early June, the monsoon season from late June to early October and a pleasant winter from late October to early February.[20] In the evenings and mornings the climate is generally cooler because of the city's good elevation. Hyderabad gets about 32 inches (about 810 mm) of rain every year, almost all of it concentrated in the monsoon months. The highest temperature ever recorded was 45.5 o C (113.9 °F) on June 2, 1966, while the lowest recorded temperature was 6.1o C (43 °F) on January 8, 1946.[21]

Demographics[සංස්කරණය]

සැකිල්ල:IndiaCensusPop

The city's population in 2001 was 3.6 million and it has reached over 4.0 million[1] by 2009 making it among the most populated cities in India, while the population of the metropolitan area was estimated above 6.3 million.[22] Hindus form a majority in the city. Muslims constitute about 40% of the population, making Hyderabad's Muslim community the largest in Andhra Pradesh.[23] Muslims have substantial presence across the city and especially they are densely concentrated in and around Old City (Hyderabad), where they form 70% of the population. Christians constitute a small amount of the city's population. Churches are located across the city and the popular ones are in Abids and Secunderabad areas.[24]

Language[සංස්කරණය]

Urdu and Telugu are the principal languages spoken in the city. English has a strong presence among the educated people. [15]

The Telugu spoken here has assimilated many Urdu words into it. Similarly, Urdu spoken here is also unique, with influences of Telugu and Marathi, giving rise to a dialect sometimes called Hyderabadi Urdu or Deccani. The official language, Telugu, varies a little across the state but the core language remains the same.[19]

Administration[සංස්කරණය]

Local administration[සංස්කරණය]

AP High Court at Hyderabad, the supreme judicial body of the State of Andhra Pradesh

The city is administered by a Nagar Nigam called Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC),[25] whose titular head is the Mayor of Hyderabad who has few executive powers. In the past, the mayor was chosen by the legislative body of the corporation, but just before the last elections, the state government modified the Hyderabad Municipal Corporation Act, 1955, to stipulate that the mayoral election be held directly and simultaneously with the corporation elections. The real executive power of the corporation is vested in the Municipal Commissioner, an IAS officer appointed by the Andhra Pradesh state government. The Mayor and the Corporation legislative body can and have been in the past dismissed by the state government. For several years elections had not been held for the corporation. Recently the corporation completed its full term and elections are due to the GHMC and for the post of Mayor.

A large part of the twin city Secunderabad and some parts of Hyderabad itself come under the jurisdiction of the Secunderabad Cantonment Board (SCB) owing to a large presence of military units. It provides basic infrastructure like roads, parks, water and other municipal needs to the public residing here.[26]

The GHMC is in charge of the civic needs and the infrastructure of the city. Hyderabad is divided into 150 municipal wards, each overseen by a corporator. The corporators of the administration are elected through popular vote, and almost all the political parties field candidates.The twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad are in three districts, Hyderabad, Rangareddy and Medak. The administration of each district is headed by a District Collector who is in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Central government. The district collectors also oversees the elections held in the city.[27]

Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority (HMDA), a planning agency chaired by the Chief Minister along with an IAS cadre officer has been formed to undertake developmental activities in a jurisdiction of above 6,250 km².[28]

District administration[සංස්කරණය]

Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly in Hyderabad

The Hyderabad Metropolitan area[29] falls under the following districts each headed by a collector

  1. Hyderabad district- full (16 Mandals)
  2. Medak district- part (10 Mandals)
  3. Rangareddy district-part (22 Mandals)
  4. Mahboobnagar district- part (2 Mandals)
  5. Nalgonda district-part (4 Mandals)

State and central administration[සංස්කරණය]

Hyderabad voters send 24 members to theLegislative Assembly, whose constituencies come under 5 Lok Sabha segments.

The new Assembly segments and their respective parliamentary constituencies(PC) are: Malkajgiri, Kukatpally, Uppal, Lal Bahadur Nagar (LB Nagar), Secunderabad Cantonment, Quthbullapur under Malkajgiri PC; Musheerabad, Amberpet, Khairatabad, Jubilee Hills, Sanathnagar, Nampally, Secunderabad under Secunderabad PC; Malakpet, Karwan, Goshamahal, Yakutpura, Charminar, Chandrayanagutta, Bahadurpura under Hyderabad PC; Maheswaram, Rajendranagar, Serilingampally under Chevella PC and Patancheru under Medak PC.

Law and order[සංස්කරණය]

The city is divided by the state police into Hyderabad Police and Cyberabad Police which come under the state Home Ministry and are headed by Police Commissioners, who are IPS officers. Basheerbagh houses important government offices such as the Police Commissioner's office, Police Control room, Income tax Commissioner's office, Central Excise and customs office, Central Reservation office etc. The city is divided into five police zones, each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Hyderabad and Cyberabad commissionerates.[26]

Judiciary[සංස්කරණය]

Hyderabad is the seat of the Andhra Pradesh High Court, and also has two lower courts - the Small Causes Court for civil matters and the Sessions Court for criminal cases. The High Court and Legislature are heritage buildings built by Nizam.

Economy[සංස්කරණය]

See also: List of companies based in Hyderabad, India
A store at Laad Bazaar selling bangles and jewellery. The Laadbazar and the Charminar market area are famous for pearls.
Somajiguda, one of the areas in the city where urbanization is on the rise.
Modern Street with offices on both sides of the road

Hyderabad is the financial and economic capital of the state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is the largest contributor to the state's gross domestic product, state tax and excise revenues. The workforce participation is about 29.55 percent. Starting in the 1990s, the economic pattern of the city has changed from being a primarily service city to being one with a more diversified spectrum, including trade, transport, commerce, storage, communication etc. Service industry is the major contributor, with urban workforce constituting 90% of the total workforce.[30]

Hyderabad is known as the city of pearls, lakes and, lately, for its IT companies. The bangles market known as Laad Bazaar is situated near Charminar. Products such as silverware, saris, Nirmal and Kalamkari paintings and artifacts, unique Bidri handcrafted items, lacquer bangles studded with stones,silk ware, cotton ware and handloom-based clothing materials are made and traded through the city for centuries.

Hyderabad is a major centre for pharmaceuticals with companies such as Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, Matrix Laboratories, Hetero Drugs Limited, Divis Labs, Aurobindo Pharma Limited, Lee Pharma and Vimta Labs being housed in the city. Initiatives such as Genome Valley, Fab City and the Nano Technology park are expected to create extensive infrastructure in bio-technology.[31]

Like many Indian cities, Hyderabad has witnessed a remarkable growth in the real estate business, thanks to a predominantly information-technology-driven boom in the 1990s and the retail industry growth over the last few years which have spurred hectic commercial activity. A number of mega malls have come up or are being built in the city. Real estate demand in the suburban and rural areas surrounding Hyderabad has gone up exponentially leading to reckless increase in prices over the past few years.[32]

The retail industry in Hyderabad is on the rise. Many international and national brands have set up retail chains here. The city has multiple Central Business Districts (CBDs) spread across the city. There are many major business/commercial districts from the older Charminar area to newer Kothaguda. For the advancement of infrastructure in the city, the government is building a skyscraper business district at Manchirevula, near Rajendranagar with a 450 m supertall structure APIIC Tower at its centre. Also, the Lanco Hills near Gachibowli presents the tallest structure in India for residential and commercial purposes.

Refer Industries and companies in Hyderabad

Information technology industry[සංස්කරණය]

Cyber Towers IT Park at Madhapur, the symbol of IT industry in Hyderabad.

Hyderabad has established itself as the leading destination for IT and IT-enabled services, pharmaceuticals call centres and entertainment industries. Many computer software companies, software consulting firms, business process outsourcing (BPO) firms, dealing with IT and other technological services firms have established their offices and facilities in the city since the 1990s.

The development of a township with state-of-the-art facilities called HITEC City prompted several IT and ITES companies to set up operations in the city. An aggressive promotion of growth in this area has led civic boosters to call the city Cyberabad.[33] There have been extensive investments in digital infrastructure within the city promoting the setting up of several campuses by a vast array of companies within the city. This list includes several multinational corporations having established their development centres in the city. Major areas where such campuses have been set up are Madhapur, Kondapur, Gachibowli and Uppal.

Hyderabad is home to numerous Fortune 500 Corporations, with the majority related to IT or BPO services industry. Microsoft (with its largest R&D campus outside the US), Computer Associates, Amazon, GE, IBM, AMD, Accenture, Google, Motorola, SAP AG, DuPont, Deloitte, Oracle Corporation, Dell, Franklin Templeton, Qualcomm, Nvidia, Agilent, ADP, UBS AG, Rockwell Collins, Fidelity Investments, Bank of America, CSC, Verizon, Convergys, Texas Instruments, Hewlett-Packard, Virtusa are a few of the Fortune 500 companies that have significant presence in Hyderabad. Honeywell opened a new R&D centre at Nanakramguda, which is situated on the verge of Gachibowli.

Indian IT giants such as HCL, Mahindra Satyam, Infosys, Wipro, Patni Computer Systems, Cognizant Technologies, Tata Consultancy Services, Polaris, Infotech Enterprises, etc also have their development centres in the city.

Transport[සංස්කරණය]

Road[සංස්කරණය]

The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation, which runs the world's largest fleet of buses,[34] connects Hyderabad with neighboring cities and states.

The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation[35] runs a fleet of 19,000 buses, the largest in the world.[34] Hyderabad has the third largest bus station facility in Asia, with 72 platforms for 89 buses to load passengers at a time. Officially named as the Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station, it is locally known as the Imlibun Bus Station, making trips across the state and to some parts of South India. Jubilee Bus Station at Secunderabad runs buses to various parts of the state. Buses plying in and around the city provide major commutation for city dwellers.

The yellow colored Auto Rickshaw usually referred to as an auto, is the most widely used transport service and has flag down minimum fare of Rs 12 for first 1.5 km and then Rs 7 per km. Radio Taxis and cabs by private players have provided an easy travel in the city.[36]

Hyderabad is connected to the rest of the country by National HighwaysNH-7, NH-9 and NH-202. Hyderabad is also well connected to the remaining parts of the state. Like other cities, Hyderabad suffers from traffic congestion. Completion of the Inner Ring Road and construction of the Outer Ring Road encircling Hyderabad city is also underway and is touted to make travel in the city easier. Many flyovers and undepasses are also being constructed to ease traffic congestion in the city.[36]

Rail[සංස්කරණය]

MMTS at the Necklace Road Station

Hyderabad has a light rail transportation system cum suburban railway system known as the MultiModal Transport System (MMTS) which offer connectivity between rail and road transport for the facility of the commuters. MMTS provides connectivity to all major parts of the city, and is a suitable alternative for those who want to avoid road traffic.[37]

The South Central Railway headquarters are located at Secunderabad (Hyderabad). Secunderabad is one of the major railway junctions in the Indian Railway map. The three main railway stations are Secunderabad Railway Station, Hyderabad Railway Station (Nampally) and Kachiguda Railway Station, providing connectivity not only within the city but also to the rest of the state and country. A modern railway terminal is being planned to be constructed near HITEC City railway station to facilitate passengers in the western parts of the city.[38]

Air[සංස්කරණය]

The Rajiv Gandhi International Airport at Shamshabad has a passenger terminal capacity of 40mn per annum.

There has been an unprecedented increase in the number of passengers leading to increased air traffic. The Airport at Begumpet was unable to cope up with the situation and was shut down on 22 March 2008. The new state-of-the-art Rajiv Gandhi International Airport opened on March 2008 by Sonia Gandhi at Shamshabad, southwest of the city. The airport has the second longest runway in India next to Delhi and caters to the high passenger and cargo transits. The airport runs flights to all important destinations, both domestically and internationally.

The PV Narasimha Rao Expressway, named after P. V. Narasimha Rao, former Prime Minister of India, is being constructed at an elevated level from Mehdipatnam to Rajendranagar along with an underpass and trumpet interchange for providing dedicated high speed travel to the airport. Once completed it will be the longest flyover in India. There are three wide roads leading to the new airport from the city and modern taxis and buses can shuttle passengers between the city and the airport. The Nehru Outer Ring Road has a special mention here as it serves as an expressway between Gachibowli and Shamshabad. The city hosted The Routes Regional Asia 2009 from 29 to 31 March 2009. Rajiv Gandhi International Airport bagged first place in the Routes Airport Marketing Awards in the Indian Sub-Continent category.

Proposed mass rapid transport system[සංස්කරණය]

To address the burgeoning industry and population of the city, the demands on the local transport network of the city have increased manifold in the past decade. To ease congestion, the city, state and national governments are investing in the Hyderabad Mass Rapid Transit System (Hyderabad Metro), consisting of elevated tracks through the high-density corridors of the city. The contract for developing the system was awarded to Maytas Infrastructure, though this a fresh round of bids may be invited due to the accounting scandal at Satyam Computer Services.

Culture[සංස්කරණය]

The City has evolved into a cosmopolitan society due to the heavy presence of the Information technology Industry while maintaining ancient culture and traditions. Historically, Hyderabad has been the city where distinct cultural and linguistic traditions of North India and South India meet. Hyderabadis, as residents of the city are known, have developed a distinctive culture which is a mixture of හින්දු and Muslim traditions.

Women of all cultures and faiths in Hyderabad typically wear either the traditional Indian dress, the sari, or, increasingly, the Salwar kameez especially among the younger population. The traditional Hyderabadi garb for females are the Khara Dupatta and the Shalwar Qamis, and for the males, it is the Sherwani. This is one of the more visible cultural attributes of Hyderabad. One of Hyderabad's public carnivals is the annual immersion of Lord Ganesh idols after the 10 day Ganesh Chaturthi celebrations on Ananta Chaturdashi (locally known as the Ganesh Nimajjanam). It is a spectacular event and attracts many foreigners every year. Bonalu is a vernacular festival that is celebrated with great fervour.The Hyderabadi Muslims favourite holy month is Ramzan in which every Muslim keep fasting for a month and after Eid-Ul-Fitr which is celebrated with full of joy by everyone and this day a traditional sweet is made known as Sheer Qorma. Another is the procession of Muharram which takes place every year 10th Muharram (1st month of Islamic calendar). While this event is mourned throughout the Shia Muslim world , the old city of Hyderabad, known as Charminar is famed for its grand procession in which participants sacrifice their own blood by hitting on their heads, chest and back with sharp edge weapons (knives, swords and knives attached to chains).[39]

Cuisine[සංස්කරණය]

Hyderabadi cuisine is a blend of Mughal and Persian cuisine. Hyderabadi Biryani is an iconic dish of the region. Other native preparations include Qubani ka meetha, Double ka meetha, Phirni , Nahari Kulche also known as paya and Haleem (a meat dish traditionally eaten during the holy month of Ramazan), Kaddu Ki Kheer (a sweet porridge made with sweet gourd), Sheer Qorma (a sweet liquid dish cooked with vermicelli and milk), Mirchi ka saalan, Bagaare baigan, Khatti dal, Khichdi and Khatta, Til ki chutney, baigan ki chutney, Til ka khatta, Aam ka achaar, Gosht ka achaar, Peosi (a sweet prepared with egg whites and milk), Shahi tukde, Kheema aaloo etc.[40]

Indian sweets are known for their ghee-based items. Famous sweet shops include the traditionally made. Widely found on street-corners are Irani café's that offer Irani chai, Irani samosa and Osmania biscuit.

Italian, Mexican, Chinese and Continental cuisine are all popular in the city along with typical Andhra and other South Indian cuisine. The city also has some of the best pubs in South Asia and a growing popularity for Trance Music.[41]

Hospitality[සංස්කරණය]

Hyderabad has seen an increase in the hospitality sector. Some of the Five star hotels in the city are ITC Kakatiya Sheraton at Greenlands, Taj Krishna at Banjara Hills, Taj Deccan at Banjara Hills, Hotel Novotel at Madhapur, The Marriott at Tank Bund, Ramada Hotel Manohar at Begumpet and Hotel Ista at Gachibowli. Four star hotels like Hotel Greenpark, Hotel Peppermint, Hotel Kasani GR etc.. Hotel Novotel present at Hyderabad Airport, Shamshabad is a newly built hotel for passengers coming from various countries to the city. Westin Hotels owned by Starwoods Hotels and Resorts(Owners of Shereton, Le Meridien and more) are soon to launch their luxury hotel this year. Many more hotels are in the pipeline in view of the increasing demand in this sector.[42]

There are several budget hotels existing in the city, specially in the old business districts such as Abids. They provide convenient access to the main railway stations of Kacheguda and Nampally along with close access to shopping and government departments nearby and are specially ideal for families and business travelers with a tight budget. Some of the well known ones are Hotel Geetanjali situated on Tilak Road.

Education and research[සංස්කරණය]

Indian School of Business at Hyderabad, ranked number 15 in global MBA rankings by the Financial Times of London in 2009[43]

Hyderabad is an important seat of learning in India.The city is home to three central universities, two deemed universities, and six state universities. Among them is the Osmania University, established in 1917, which is the seventh oldest university in India and the third oldest in South India.[44] Hyderabad Central University, National Academy of Legal Studies & Research, Potti Sreeramulu Telugu University, Maulana Azad National Urdu University and English and Foreign Languages University, Indira Gandhi National Open University, Dr. BR Ambedkar Open University are other famous universities which are present in the city.[45] Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, a well known educational institution in the field of Agriculture is located on the outskirts of the city.

The Indian School of Business, a top ranking business school which attracts students from all over the world is present at Gachibowli, Hyderabad.

Hyderabad is surrounded by hundreds of engineering colleges. Among the pre-eminent engineering colleges located in the city are the Indian Institute of Technology, A campus of BITS Pilani, International Institute of Information Technology, Osmania University, CBIT and Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University are located in this city. Important medical institutions include Gandhi Medical College, Osmania Medical College and several other private medical colleges, such as Deccan College of Medical Sciencesand shadan medical college. Fly-Tech Aviation Academy and Rajiv Gandhi Aviation Academy are those amongst the best institutes in the aviation field.

Hyderabad is home to numerous research institutes, including the Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), National Geophysical Research Institute(NGRI)(NGRI), IRISET for railway signal engineering and ICRISAT. Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) along with DRDL and DERL has research centres in Hyderabad to develop communication and radar systems and for the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP). Nuclear energy sector has a strong presence with three organisations under Department of Atomic Energy (India) including the Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD), Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) and Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL).[36]

Hyderabad has facilities to hold international conferences at a large scale. Hyderabad will be hosting the prestigious International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM), [46] in August, 2010. It is expected that more than 4000 Mathematicians from all over world will be participating in this conference.

Media[සංස්කරණය]

Prasads IMAX Theatre houses the largest IMAX-3D in the world.[47]
Ravindra Bharathi, a well known center for arts and theatre in the city

Film industry[සංස්කරණය]

Hyderabad is home to the largest film industry in India by sheer number of films it produces, Telugu cinema, also known as Tollywood which produces approximately three hundred movies every year. Saradhi Studios, Annapurna Studios, Ramanaidu Studios, Ramakrishna Studios, Padmalaya Studios, Ramoji Film City (the largest Film Studio in India) are some of the notable film studios in the city. The first Hyderabad International Film Festival (HIFF) was organised in 2007 by the Hyderabad Film Club and Andhra Pradesh Film Directors Association.The largest IMAX 3D Theatre in the Asia and has powerful projector in the world with24 optical focus is Prasads IMAX along with 4D Simulator at Hyderabad, India. Inox, PVR Cinemas, Cine Planet, Cinemax, BIG Cinemas and Talkie Town are some other multiplexes in Hyderabad. In the near future 17 more multiplexes are coming up in the areas like Kukatpally, Kacheguda etc.[48]

Arts and theater[සංස්කරණය]

Ravindra Bharati located at Saifabad, is an important and well known center for theatre and performing arts in the city. Many artists from around the world perform here regularly. Lalithakala Thoranam, Shilpakala Vedika are also similar centers for arts and theatre. State-of-the-art Hyderabad International Convention Centre (HICC) or simply HITEX is the first of its kind in South Asia and is comparable to the world's best convention centers.[49]

Electronic media[සංස්කරණය]

The radio industry has expanded with a number of private and government owned FM channels being introduced. The FM radio channels that broadcast in the city include AIR Vividh Bharathi FM (102.8 MHz), AIR Rainbow FM (101.9 MHz), Radio Mirchi FM (98.3 MHz), Radio City FM (91.1 MHz), Big FM (92.7 MHz), S FM (93.5 MHz) and AIR Gyan Vani FM (107.6 MHz). State-owned Doordarshan transmits two terrestrial television channels and one satellite television channel from Hyderabad. Some prominent private regional television channels broadcasting from Hyderabad are ETV, Gemini, Teja, Maa TV, Zee Telugu, ETV Urdu, ETV2, TV9, Sakshi TV, NTV, TV5, RTV, Bhakthi TV, i news|i News, Local TV.[50]

Print media[සංස්කරණය]

Hyderabad has three print media groups that publish several newspapers and magazines in Telugu, Urdu, Hindi and English. The major Telugu dailies include the Eenadu, Saakshi, Vaartha, Andhra Jyothi, Andhra Prabha, Andhra Bhoomi and Praja Shakthi. The major English dailies are The Deccan Chronicle, Business Standard, The Hindu, The Times of India, The New Indian Express and The Economic Times. Hyderabad publishes more number of Urdu dailies than any other Indian city. The major Urdu dailies are The Siasat Daily, The Munsif Daily, The Etemaad, Rehnuma-e-Deccan, Rozanama Rashtriya Sahara and The Daily Milap

Communication services[සංස්කරණය]

Hyderabad is covered by a large network of optical fibre cables. There are four fixed telephone line operators in the city: BSNL, Tata Indicom, Reliance and Airtel. There are nine mobile phone companies in which GSM players include BSNL, Vodafone, Idea, Airtel, Tata DoCoMo, Aircel; CDMA services offered by BSNL, Virgin Mobile, Tata Indicom and Reliance currently, with Spice Telecom soon to launch its services.

Sports[සංස්කරණය]

Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket stadium

Cricket and hockey are the most popular sports in the city. Hyderabad Sultans won the inaugural Premier Hockey League championship in 2005. The city took pride in hosting National Games and Afro-Asian Games. Hyderabad 10k Run is a marathon event conducted every year.[28]

The earliest stadium built in the city is the Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium. Formerly known as Fateh Maidan, it was, till recently, the city's only stadium that could conduct International cricket matches. The first cricket match played here was on November 19, 1955. The stadium is currently being used to conduct ICL matches. The new Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium at Uppal has a capacity of approximately 55,000 spectators and is being enhanced to have world class facilities. It houses an ultra-modern gymnasium along with a swimming pool.[51]

Hyderabad's Deccan Chargers franchise in the Indian Premier League was bought by Deccan Chronicle for USD 107 million. Deccan Chargers won the title for the year 2009. Notable players include Adam Gilchrist, Andrew Symonds, VVS Laxman, Herschelle Gibbs, Scott Styris, RP Singh, Shahid Afridi, Rohit Sharma, Pragyan Ojha, Chaminda Vaas and Chamara Silva. For the 2009 season, Fidel Edwards and Dwayne Smith were included in the squad and Shahid Afridi was shown the door. The city also has an ICL team named Hyderabad Heroes.[24]

The city houses the Swarnandhra Pradesh Sports Complex, the G.M.C. Balayogi Athletic Stadium at Gachibowli for hockey and football and a sophisticated Velodrome for cycling at Osmania University. The city has state-of-the-art venues for gymnastics, archery and sepak takraw, shooting at Saroornagar Indoor Arena and University of Hyderabad respectively. The Aquatics Complex Stadium at Gachibowli, with a capacity of 3000 spectators hosts swimming, diving, water polo and synchronized events. Kotla Vijay Bhaskar Reddy Indoor Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium with a capacity of 2500 spectators and wooden flooring with temperature control. SAAP Tennis Complex has a central court that holds 5000 spectators and has seven courts with synthetic surface. Water games like rowing, yachting, kayaking and canoeing are conducted at Hussain Sagar lake. The city also has five Go-Karting tracks and a Paint Ball Field. There are venues for table-tennis, basketball, equestrianism, boxing, weight-lifting with world class facilities.

The city is well known for Horse racing. The Hyderabad Race Club formerly known as the Nizam Race Club is located at Malakpet. The Hyderabad race club attracts jockeys from all over the country by conducting various derbys/events here. Deccan derby, a popular annual event is a regular feature here. The winter races also were conducted here recently. Badminton events take place at the Kotla Vijay Bhaskar Stadium and also at Gachibowli stadiums, and also played by youth and veterans in locality parks.

Famous Hyderabadis[සංස්කරණය]

For more details see Famous Hyderabadis. These people were either born or have spent substantial part of their life in Hyderabad before becoming famous. The profile of these people reflect the cosmopolitan nature of Hyderabad.

Domain Personalities
Indian Independence Movement Sarojini Naidu
Politics Marri Chenna Reddy,P Janardhan Reddy, Bandaru Dattatreya, Sultan Salahuddin Owaisi,V. Hanumantha Rao
Films Shyam Benegal, Tabu, Ramgopal Varma, Nagarjuna, Diana Hayden, Waheeda Rehman, Nagesh Kukunoor, Diya Mirza, Vivek Oberoi, Balakrishna
Sports M. L. Jaisimha, Pullela Gopichand, Shivlal Yadav, V.V.S.Laxman, Arshad Ayub, Mohammed Azharuddin, Sania Mirza, Saina Nehwal, Harsha Bhogle
Science & Technology Rakesh Sharma


Sister cities[සංස්කරණය]

සැකිල්ල:Refimprovesect

Tourist attractions[සංස්කරණය]

Statue of Buddha on the Hussain Sagar Lake.
Entrance to the Lumbini Park.
Mughal gardens at Ramoji Film City
  • Mecca Masjid - is one of the oldest mosques and the biggest mosque in India.
  • Charminar - the major landmark in Hyderabad with four graceful minarets located in the old city. It is built as a memorial for plague victims. It is in the midst of Charkaman.
  • Chowmahalla Palace- It was the seat of Asaf Jahi dynasty, where the Nizam entertained his official guests and royal visitors. Initiated in 1750 by Nizam Salabat Jung and designed along the lines of the Shah's palace in Isfahan, this actually consists of a group of palaces each used as a Durbar Hall. It has now been aesthetically renovated and is also venue for conferences.
  • Falaknuma Palace - Built by an Italian architect through one of the Paigah nobles, Nawab Viqar al-Umra', complete in Italian marble. It is a beautiful and stunning piece of architecture with Louis XIV-style decor, a lavish Mughal ambience, Italian marble staircases and ornate fountains. It has now been undertaken by Taj group to develop this as Heritage Hotel.
  • Golconda Fort - Once abandoned by Qutub Shahis, Golconda Fort is one of the most magnificent fortress complexes in India. Seated on a hill on one side and spiraling fort on the other, its location and internal design made it one of the strongest forts in the world.
  • Hussain Sagar - It is a man-made lake famous for the 19-metre tall Buddha statue on a platform island called Rock of Gibraltar present in the middle of the lake. Located on its banks is Tank Bund which consists of beautiful gardens and statues of famous personalities.
  • Hyderabad Pearls - Hyderabad has always been referred to as the “city of pearls” even though it is far away from the sea.Some of the famous pearl shops in Hyderabad are: Mangatrai (Patthargatti and Basheerbagh), Kedarnathji Motiwale and Jagadamba (Charminar, Begumpet and M G Road ).
  • Necklace road - This popular boulevard lies on the other side of the lake, linking the IMAX theatre and Sanjeevaiah park. This has become the-place-to-be for the Hyderabadis in the evenings. This strip provides a scenic atmosphere with lush lawns and long rows of flower beds. Eat-Street, Water Front are popular restaurants located on this strip. The latest addition to this strip is the Jala Vihar, a mini water world designed to soothe your senses. PV Ghat is also situated in memory of PV Narasimha Rao.
  • Qutb Shahi Tombs - Home to various Tombs dedicated to Rulers of Qutub Shahi dynasty, located at Shaikpet, near Golconda Fort. These are an example of Deccan architecture with large minarets, huge domes, delicate marble designs and multiple inner passages.
  • Ramoji Film City (RFC) - It is the world’s largest integrated film studio cum theme park, at nearly 3,000 acres (8 km²). It is also one of Asia’s most popular tourism and recreation centres. Recently, it has made its way to the Guinness Book of World Records for being the largest film studio in the world. Opened in 1996, it is about 20 min. drive from Hyderabad on Vijayawada Highway.
  • Salar Jung Museum - The museum houses the largest one-man collection of antiques in the world. Collections includeThe Veiled Rebecca and other huge collection of artifacts dating back to a few centuries. A mere day isn't enough to cover the whole museum.
  • Lumbini Park - Lumbini Park is a small public, urban park of 7.5 acres (0.030 km2; 0.0117 sq mi) adjacent to Hussain Sagar lake in the busy Necklace Road area. It has large tourist attractions. It is being maintained by Buddha Purnima Project Authority since 2000.[53] One of the major terrorist acts took place here on August 25, 2007 in which 44 people were killed.[54][55]

See also[සංස්කරණය]

References[සංස්කරණය]

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External links[සංස්කරණය]

සැකිල්ල:Hyderabad topics සැකිල්ල:State and Union Territory capitals of India සැකිල්ල:Metropolitan cities of India සැකිල්ල:Million-plus cities in India සැකිල්ල:Andhra Pradesh සැකිල්ල:World's most populated urban areas

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