"වේද" හි සංශෝධන අතර වෙනස්කම්

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සංස්කරණ සාරාංශයක් නොමැත
සුළු (robot Adding: nds:Vedas)
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සංස්කෘත බසින් වේද යනු '''දැණුම''' වේ. මෙය ඉංග්‍රීසි '''[[science]]''' යන්නට ආසන්න තේරුමක් ගෙනදෙයි. ([[Sanskrit]] {{lang|sa|वेद}}, ''{{IAST|véda}}'', "[[knowledge]]") are a large body of texts originating in [[History of India|Ancient India]]. They form the oldest layer of [[Sanskrit literature]]<ref>see e.g. {{Harvnb|MacDonell|2004|p=29-39}}; ''Sanskrit literature'' (2003) in Philip's Encyclopedia. Accessed 2007-08-09</ref> and the oldest [[Hindu scripture|sacred texts]] of [[Hinduism]].<ref>see e.g. {{Harvnb|Radhakrishnan|Moore|1957|p=3}}; Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and {{IAST|Upaniṣads}}", in: {{Harvnb|Flood|2003|p=68}}</ref>
 
The class of "'''Vedic texts'''" is aggregated around the four canonical '''''{{IAST|Saṃhitās}}''''' or Vedas proper (''turīya''), of which three (''traya'') are related to the performance of [[yajna]] ([[sacrifice]]) in historical ([[Iron Age India|Iron Age]]) [[historical Vedic religion|Vedic religion]]:
# the [[Rigveda]], containing hymns to be recited by the {{IAST|[[hotṛ]]}} or chief priest;
# the [[Yajurveda]], containing formulas to be recited by the [[adhvaryu]] or officiating priest;
# the [[Samaveda]], containing formulas to be chanted by the {{IAST|[[udgātṛ]]}}.
The fourth is the [[Atharvaveda]], a collection of spells and incantations, stories, predictions, apotropaic charms and some speculative hymns.<ref> Bloomfield, M. The Atharvaveda and the Gopatha-Brahmana, (Grundriss der Indo-Arischen Philologie und Altertumskunde II.1.b.) Strassburg 1899; Gonda, J. A history of Indian literature: I.1 Vedic literature (Samhitas and Brahmanas); I.2 The Ritual Sutras. Wiesbaden 1975, 1977</ref>
 
According to Hindu tradition, the Vedas are ''[[apaurusheyatva|{{IAST|apauruṣeya}}]]'' "not of human agency"<ref> Apte, pp. 109f. has "not of the authorship of man, of divine origin"</ref>, are supposed to have been directly revealed, and thus are called ''[[śruti]]'' ("what is heard").<ref>{{Harvnb|Apte|1965|p=887}}</ref><ref>{{Harvnb|Muller|1891|p=17-18}}</ref>. Vedic [[mantra]]s are recited at Hindu prayers, religious functions and other auspicious occasions.
 
The various Indian [[Hindu philosophy|philosophies]] and [[Hindu denominations|sects]] have taken differing positions on the Vedas. Schools of Indian philosophy which cite the Vedas as their scriptural authority are classified as "orthodox" ([[astika|āstika]]). Other traditions, notably [[Buddhism]] and [[Jainism]], which did not regard the Vedas as authorities are referred to by traditional Hindu texts as "heterodox" or "non-orthodox" ([[nastika|nāstika]]) schools.<ref>{{Harvnb|Flood|1996|p=82}}</ref><ref>"The brahmin by caste alone, the teacher of the <i>Veda</i>, is (jokingly) etymologized as the 'non-meditator' (<i>ajhāyaka</i>). Brahmins who have memorized the three <i>Vedas</i> (<i>tevijja</i>) really know nothing: it is the process of achieving Enlightenment - what the Buddha is said to have achieved in the three watches of that night - which constitutes the true 'three knowledges.'" R.F. Gombrich in Paul Williams, ed., "Buddhism: Critical Concepts in Religious Studies." Taylor and Francis 2006, page 120.</ref> In addition to Buddhism and Jainism, [[Sikhism]] also does not accept the authority of the Vedas.<ref>{{cite journal |last=Chahal |first= Dr. Devindar Singh |year=2006 |month=Jan-June |title=''Is Sikhism a Unique Religion or a Vedantic Religion?'' |journal=Understanding Sikhism - The Research Journal |volume=8 |issue=1 |pages= 3–5 |accessdate= }}</ref> <ref name="AGGS">{{cite book | title= Aad Guru Granth Sahib |publisher= Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Amritsar | year =1983}} </ref>
 
== Etymology and usage==
{{wiktionary|Veda}}
{{wiktionary|Vedic}}
The [[Sanskrit language|Sanskrit]] word ''{{IAST|véda}}'' "knowledge, wisdom" is derived from the root ''vid-'' "to know". This is reconstructed as being derived from the [[Proto-Indo-European language|Proto-Indo-European]] root ''{{PIE|*u̯eid-}}'', meaning "see" or "know".<ref>{{Harvnb|Monier-Williams|2006|p=1015}}; {{Harvnb|Apte|1965|p=856}}</ref>
 
As a noun, the word appears only in a single instance in the Rigveda, in [[RV 8]].19.5, translated by Griffith as "ritual lore":
:''{{IAST| yáḥ samídhā yá âhutī / yó védena dadâśa márto agnáye / yó námasā svadhvaráḥ}}''
:"The mortal who hath ministered to Agni with oblation, fuel, ritual lore, and reverence, skilled in sacrifice."
Geldner's translation of the same passage has ''{{lang|de|Wissen}}'' "knowledge". <ref> K.F. Geldner. Der Rig-Veda, Harvard Oriental Series 33-37, Cambridge 1951 </ref>
 
The noun is from [[Proto-Indo-European language|Proto-Indo-European]] ''{{PIE|*u̯eidos}}'', cognate to [[Greek language|Greek]] {{lang|grc|(ϝ)εἶδος}} "aspect", "form". Not to be confused is the homonymous 1st and 3rd person singular perfect tense ''{{IAST|véda}}'', cognate to Greek {{lang|grc|(ϝ)οἶδα}} ''(w)oida'' "I know". Root cognate are Greek ''[[idea|ἰδέα]]'', [[English language|English]] ''[[wit]]'', ''[[witness]]'', ''[[wisdom]]'', ''[[vision]]'' (the last from the Latin ''video'', ''videre''), [[German language|German]] ''wissen'' ("to know", "knowledge"), [[Danish language|Danish]] ''vide'' (to know) [[Norwegian language|Norwegian]] ''viten'' ("knowledge"), [[Swedish language|Swedish]] ''veta'' ("to know"), [[Russian language|Russian]] 'ведать/vedat' ("to know"), 'видеть/videt' ("to see"), [[Polish language|Polish]] ''wiedza'' ("knowledge"), [[Latin language|Latin]] ''[[video]]'' ("I see"), [[Czech language|Czech]] ''vím'' ("I know") or ''vidím'' ("I see"), [[Slovak language|Slovak]] ''vedieť'' ("to know") or ''vidieť'' ("to see"), and [[Dutch language|Dutch]] ''weten'' ("to know").<ref>see e.g. Pokorny's 1959 ''[[Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch]]'' s.v. ''{{PIE|u̯(e)id-}}''²; Rix' ''[[Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben]]'', ''{{PIE|u̯ei̯d-}}''.</ref>
 
In English, the term ''Veda'' is mostly used to refer to the ''Samhitas'' (collection of ''[[mantras]]'', or chants) of the four canonical Vedas (''Rigveda'', ''Yajurveda'', ''Samaveda'' and ''Atharvaveda''). The adjective ''Vedic'' on the other hand has wide currency, and depending on whether the context is academic ([[Indology|Indological]] or [[Philology|Philological]]) or religious (contemporary [[Hinduism]]) may refer either to the corpus of [[Vedic Sanskrit]] texts or to Hindu tradition in general.{{Fact|date=September 2008}}
 
The Sanskrit term ''{{IAST|veda}}'' as a common noun meaning "knowledge"", but can also be used to refer to fields of study unrelated to liturgy or ritual, e.g. in ''{{IAST|agada-veda}}'' "medical science", ''{{IAST|sasya-veda}}'' "science of agriculture" or ''{{IAST|sarpa-veda}}'' "science of snakes" (already found in the early Upanishads); ''{{IAST|durveda}}'' means "with evil knowledge, ignorant".{{Fact|date=September 2008}}
 
== Chronology ==
{{main|Vedic period}}
 
The Vedas are among the [[early literature|oldest sacred texts]] in the world dating from c. 1500-500BCE. Most [[Indologist]]s agree that an [[oral tradition]] existed long before a literary tradition tentatively may have been set in (in one shakha, Kanva) from about the 1st century BCE; however it was again superseded by oral tradition until c. 1000 CE.<ref>For the possibility of written texts during the first century BCE see: Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and {{IAST|Upaniṣads}}", in: {{Harvnb|Flood|2003|p=69}}; For oral composition and oral transmission for "many hundreds of years" before being written down, see: {{Harvnb|Avari|2007|p=76}}.</ref>
Due to the ephemeral nature of the manuscript material (birch bark or palm leaves), surviving manuscripts rarely surpass an age of a few hundred years.<ref>{{cite book | last = Brodd | first = Jefferey | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = World Religions | publisher = Saint Mary's Press | date = 2003 | location = Winona, MN | pages = | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 978-0-88489-725-5 }}</ref> The Benares Sanskrit University has a Rigveda manuscript of the mid-14th century, however, there are a number of older Veda manuscripts in [[Nepal]] belonging to the Vajasaneyi tradition that are dated from the 11th century onwards.
 
The Vedic period lasts for about a millennium, spanning the [[Late Bronze Age]] and the [[Iron Age India|Iron Age]]. Gavin Flood<ref name="Flood">{{Harvnb|Flood|1996|p=37}}</ref> sums up mainstream estimates, according to which the Rigveda was compiled from as early as 1500 BCE over a period of several centuries. The Vedic period reaches its peak only after the composition of the mantra texts, with the establishment of the various [[shakha]]s all over Northern India which annotated the mantra [[samhitas]] with [[Brahmana]] discussions of their meaning, and reaches its end in the age of [[Gautama Buddha|Buddha]] and [[Panini (grammarian)|Panini]] and the rise of the [[Mahajanapadas]] (archaeologically, [[Northern Black Polished Ware]]). Michael Witzel gives a time span of c. 1500 BCE to c. 500-400 BCE. Witzel makes special reference to the [[Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni|Mitanni material]] of ca. 1400 BCE as the only epigraphic record of Indo-Aryan that may date to the Rigvedic period. However Mitanni Indo-Aryan is linguistically slightly older than the language of the Rigveda, and the comparison thus still does not allow for an absolute dating of any Vedic text. He gives 150 BCE ([[Patanjali]]) as a [[Terminus_post_quem|terminus ante quem]] for all Vedic Sanskrit literature, and 1200 BCE (the early [[Iron Age India|Iron Age]]) as [[Terminus_post_quem|terminus post quem]] for the Atharvaveda.<ref>Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and {{IAST|Upaniṣads}}", in: {{Harvnb|Flood|2003|p=68}}</ref>
 
== Categories of Vedic texts ==
The term "Vedic texts" is used in two distinct meanings:
#texts composed in [[Vedic Sanskrit]] during the [[Vedic period]] ([[Iron Age India]])
#any text considered as "connected to the Vedas" or a "corollary of the Vedas"<ref>according to [[ISKCON]], [http://hinduism.iskcon.com/tradition/1105.htm Hindu Sacred Texts], "Hindus themselves often use the term to describe anything connected to the Vedas and their corollaries (e.g. Vedic culture)".</ref>
 
===Vedic Sanskrit corpus===
The corpus of [[Vedic Sanskrit]] texts includes:
 
* The Samhita (Sanskrit ''{{IAST|saṃhitā}}'', "collection"), are collections of metric texts ("[[mantra]]s"). There are four "Vedic" Samhitas: the [[Rigveda|Rig-Veda]], [[Samaveda|Sama-Veda]], [[Yajurveda|Yajur-Veda]], and [[Atharvaveda|Atharva-Veda]], most of which are available in several recensions (''{{IAST|śākhā}}''). In some contexts, the term ''Veda'' is used to refer to these Samhitas. This is the oldest layer of Vedic texts, apart from the Rigvedic hymns, which were probably essentially complete by 1200 BC, dating to ca. the 12th to 10th centuries BC. The complete corpus of Vedic mantras as collected in [[Maurice Bloomfield|Bloomfield]]'s ''Vedic Concordance'' (1907) consists of some 89,000 [[pada]]s ([[foot (poetry)|metric feet]]), of which 72,000 occur in the four Samhitas.<ref>37,575 are Rigvedic. Of the remaining, 34,857 appear in the other three Samhitas, and 16,405 are known only from Brahmanas, Upanishads or Sutras)</ref>
* The [[Brahmanas]] are prose texts that discuss, in technical fashion, the solemn sacrificial rituals as well as comment on their meaning and many connected themes. Each of the Brahmanas is associated with one of the Samhitas or its recensions. The Brahmanas may either form separate texts or can be partly integrated into the text of the Samhitas. They may also include the Aranyakas and Upanishads.
*The [[Aranyakas]] , "wilderness texts" or "forest treaties", were composed by people who meditated in the woods as recluses and are the third part of the Vedas. The texts contain discussions and interpretations of dangerous rituals (to be studied outside the settlement) and various sorts of additional materials. It is frequently read in secondary literature.
* some of the older [[Mukhya Upanishads]] ([[Brihadaranyaka Upanishad|{{IAST|Bṛhadāraṇyaka}}]], [[Chandogya Upanishad|Chandogya]], [[Katha Upanishad|{{IAST|Kaṭha}}]]).<ref>{{Harvnb|Michaels|2004|p=51}}.</ref><ref>Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and {{IAST|Upaniṣads}}", in: {{Harvnb|Flood|2003|p=69}}.</ref>
*certain [[Sutra]] literature, i.e. the [[Shrautasutra]]s and the [[Grhyasutra]]s.
 
The [[Shrauta Sutras]], regarded as belonging to the smriti, are late Vedic in language and content, thus forming part of the Vedic Sanskrit corpus.<ref>Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and {{IAST|Upaniṣads}}", in: {{Harvnb|Flood|2003|p=69}}.</ref><ref>For a table of all Vedic texts see Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and {{IAST|Upaniṣads}}", in: {{Harvnb|Flood|2003|p=100–101}}.</ref>
The composition of the Shrauta and Grhya Sutras (ca. 6th century BC) marks the end of the Vedic period , and at the same time the beginning of the flourishing of the "circum-Vedic" scholarship of [[Vedanga]], introducing the early flowering of classical [[Sanskrit literature]] in the [[Mauryan period|Mauryan]] and [[Gupta period|Gupta]] periods.
 
While production of Brahmanas and Aranyakas ceases with the end of the Vedic period, there is a large number of Upanishads composed after the end of the Vedic period. While most of the ten [[mukhya]] Upanishads can be considered to date to the Vedic or Mahajanapada period, most of the 108 Upanishads of the full [[Muktika]] canon date to the Common Era.
 
The [[Brahmanas]], [[Aranyakas]], and [[Upanishads]] often interpret the polytheistic and ritualistic [[Samhitas]] in philosophical and metaphorical ways to explore abstract concepts such as the Absolute ([[Brahman]]), and the soul or the self ([[Atman (Hinduism)|Atman]]), introducing [[Vedanta]] philosophy, one of the major trends of later [[Hinduism]].
 
The Vedic Sanskrit corpus
is the scope of ''[[A Vedic Word Concordance]]'' (''{{IAST|Vaidika-Padānukrama-Koṣa}}'') prepared from 1930 under Vishva Bandhu, and published in five volumes in 1935-1965. Its scope extends to about 400 texts, including the entire Vedic Sanskrit corpus besides some "sub-Vedic" texts.
:Volume I: Samhitas
:Volume II: Brahmanas and Aranyakas
:Volume III: Upanishads
:Volume IV: Vedangas
A revised edition, extending to about 1800 pages, was published in 1973-1976.
 
===Shruti literature===
{{main|Shruti}}
The texts considered "Vedic" in the sense of "corollaries of the Vedas" is less clearly defined, and may include numerous post-Vedic texts such as [[Upanishads]] or [[Sutra literature]].
 
The latter group of texts is called ''[[shruti]]'' (Sanskrit: ''{{IAST|śruti}}''; "the heard"). Since post-Vedic times it has been considered to be revealed wisdom, as distinct from other texts, collectively known as ''[[smriti]]'' (Sanskrit: ''{{IAST|smṛti}}''; "the remembered"), that is texts that are considered to be of human origin. This indigenous system of categorization was adopted by [[Max Müller]] and, while it is subject to some debate, it is still widely used. As Axel Michaels explains:
<blockquote>
These classifications are often not tenable for linguistic and formal reasons: There is not only ''one'' collection at any one time, but rather several handed down in separate Vedic schools; Upanişads ... are sometimes not to be distinguished from {{IAST|Āraṇyakas}}...; {{IAST|Brāhmaṇas}} contain older strata of language attributed to the {{IAST|Saṃhitās}}; there are various dialects and locally prominent traditions of the Vedic schools. Nevertheless, it is advisable to stick to the division adopted by Max Müller because it follows the Indian tradition, conveys the historical sequence fairly accurately, and underlies the current editions, translations, and monographs on Vedic literature."<ref>{{Harvnb|Michaels|2004|p=51}}.</ref>
</blockquote>
 
The [[Upanishads]] are largely philosophical works in dialog form. They discuss questions of nature philosophy and the fate of the soul, and contain some mystic and spiritual interpretations of the Vedas. For long, they have been regarded as their putative end and essence, and are thus known as Vedānta ("the end of the Vedas"). Taken together, they are the basis of the [[Vedanta]] school.
 
Other texts such as the [[Bhagavad Gita]] or the [[Vedanta Sutras]] are considered ''shruti'' or "Vedic" by some [[Hindu denominations]] but not universally within Hinduism. The [[Bhakti movement]], and [[Gaudiya Vaishnavism]] in particular extended the term to include the [[Sanskrit Epics]] and Vaishnavite devotional texts such as the [[Pancaratra]].<ref>{{Citation
| first = S.D.
| last = Goswami
| author-link = Satsvarupa dasa Goswami
| title =Readings in Vedic Literature: The Tradition Speaks for Itself
| publisher =
| date = 1976
| pages = 240 pages
| isbn = 0912776889 }}</ref>
 
== Vedic schools or recensions ==
{{main|Shakha}}
 
Study of the extensive body of Vedic texts has been organized into a number of different schools or branches (Sanskrit ''{{IAST|śākhā}}'', literally "branch" or "limb") each of which specialized in learning certain texts.<ref>{{Harvnb|Flood|1996|p=39}}.</ref> Multiple recensions are known for each of the Vedas, and each Vedic text may have a number of schools associated with it. Elaborate methods for preserving the text were based on memorizing by heart instead of writing. Specific techniques for parsing and reciting the texts were used to assist in the memorization process. (''See also: [[patha]]'')
 
===Memorization===
{{main|Patha}}
Prodigous energy was expended by ancient Indian culture in ensuring that these texts were transmitted from generation to generation with inordinate fidelity.<ref>{{Harv|Staal|1986}}</ref> For example, memorization of the sacred ''[[Veda]]s'' included up to eleven forms of recitation of the same text. The texts were subsequently "proof-read" by comparing the different recited versions. Forms of recitation included the ''{{IAST|jaṭā-pāṭha}}'' (literally "mesh recitation") in which every two adjacent words in the text were first recited in their original order, then repeated in the reverse order, and finally repeated again in the original order.<ref name=filliozat-p139>{{Harv|Filliozat|2004|p=139}}</ref>
 
That these methods have been effective, is testified to by the preservation of the most ancient Indian religious text, the ''[[Rigveda|{{IAST|Ṛgveda}}]]'' ([[circa|ca.]] 1500 BCE), as a single text, without any variant readings.<ref name=filliozat-p139/> Similar methods were used for memorizing mathematical texts, whose transmission remained exclusively oral until the end of the [[Vedic period]] (ca. 500 BCE).
 
==The Four Vedas ==
[[Image:Rigveda MS2097.jpg|thumb|300px|''Rigveda'' ([[padapatha]]) manuscript in [[Devanagari]], early 19th century]]
The canonical division of the Vedas is fourfold (''{{IAST|turīya}}'') viz.,<ref>{{Harvnb|Radhakrishnan|Moore|1957|p=3}}; Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and {{IAST|Upaniṣads}}", in: {{Harvnb|Flood|2003|p=68}}</ref>
#[[Rig-Veda]] (RV)
#[[Yajur-Veda]] (YV, with the main division [[Taittiriya Shakha|TS]] vs. [[Vajasaneyi|VS]])
#[[Sama-Veda]] (SV)
#[[Atharva-Veda]] (AV)
Of these, the first three were the principal original division, also called ''{{IAST|trayī}}'', "the triple ''{{IAST|Vidyā}}''", that is, "the triple sacred science" of reciting hymns (RV), performing sacrifices (YV), and chanting (SV).<ref>{{Harvnb|MacDonell|2004|p=29-39}}</ref><ref>Witzel, M., "[http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~witzel/canon.pdf The Development of the Vedic Canon and its Schools : The Social and Political Milieu]" in {{Harvnb|Witzel|1997|p=257-348}}</ref> This triplicity is so introduced in the [[Brahmana]]s ([[Shatapatha Brahmana|ShB]], [[Aitareya Brahmana|ABr]] and others), but the Rigveda is the older work of the three from which the other two borrow, next to their own independent Yajus, sorcery and speculative mantras.
 
Thus, the Mantras are properly of three forms:
1. ''Ric'', which are verses of praise in metre, and intended for loud recitation; 2. ''Yajus'', which are in prose, and intended for recitation in lower voice at sacrifices; 3. ''Sāman'', which are in metre, and intended for singing at the [[Soma]] ceremonies.
 
The Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda are independent collections of mantras and hymns intended as manuals for the [[Adhvaryu]], [[Udgatr]] and [[Brahman]] priests respectively.
 
The Atharvaveda is the fourth Veda. Its status has occasionally been ambiguous, probably due to its use in sorcery and healing. However, it contains very old materials in early Vedic language. [[Manusmrti]], which often speaks of the three Vedas, calling them ''trayam-brahma-sanātanam'', "the triple eternal Veda". The Atharvaveda like the Rigveda, is a collection of original incantations, and other materials borrowing relatively little from the Rigveda. It has no direct relation to the solemn [[Shrauta]] sacrifices, except for the fact that the mostly silent Brahmán priest observes the procedures and uses Atharvaveda mantras to 'heal' it when mistakes have been made. Its recitation also produces long life, cures diseases, or effects the ruin of enemies.
 
Each of the four Vedas consists of the metrical [[Mantra]] or Samhita and the prose [[Brahmana]] part, giving discussions and directions for the detail of the ceremonies at which the Mantras were to be used and explanations of the legends connected with the Mantras and rituals. Both these portions are termed [[shruti]] (which tradition says to have been heard but not composed or written down by men). Each of the four Vedas seems to have passed to numerous [[Shakha]]s or schools, giving rise to various recensions of the text. They each have an Index or [[Anukramani]], the principal work of this kind being the general Index or ''{{IAST|Sarvānukramaṇī}}''.
 
=== Rigveda ===
{{main|Rigveda}}
 
The [[Rigveda|Rig-Veda]] Samhita is the oldest significant existent Indian text.<ref>For Rig Veda as the "oldest significant extant Indian text" see: {{Harvnb|Avari|2007|p=77}}.</ref> It is a collection of 1,028 [[Vedic Sanskrit]] [[hymns]] and 10,600 verses in all, organized into ten books (Sanskrit: ''mandalas'').<ref>For 1,028 hymns and 10,600 verses and division into ten mandalas, see: {{Harvnb|Avari|2007|p=77}}.</ref> The hymns are dedicated to [[Rigvedic deities]].<ref>For characterization of content and mentions of deities including Agni, Indra, Varuna, Soma, Surya, etc. see: {{Harvnb|Avari|2007|p=77}}.</ref>
 
The books were composed by poets from different priestly groups over a period of some 500 years, which Avari dates as 1400 BCE to 900 BCE, if not earlier<ref>For composition over 500 years dated 1400 BCE to 900 BCE, see: {{Harvnb|Avari|2007|p=77}}.</ref> According to Max Müller, based on internal evidence (philological and linguistic), the Rigveda was composed roughly between 1700–1100 BCE (the early [[Vedic period]]) in the [[Punjab region|Punjab]] ([[Sapta Sindhu]]) region of the [[Indian subcontinent]].<ref>India: What Can It Teach Us: A Course of Lectures Delivered Before the University of Cambridge by F. Max Müller; World Treasures of the Library of Congress Beginnings by Irene U. Chambers, Michael S. Roth.</ref> Michael Witzel believes that the Rig Veda must have been composed more or less in the period 1450-1350 BCE, in the Greater Panjab, before the onset of the Iron Age.<ref>Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and {{IAST|Upaniṣads}}", in: {{Harvnb|Flood|2003|p=68}}.</ref>
 
There are strong linguistic and cultural similarities between the Rigveda and the early Iranian [[Avesta]], deriving from the [[Proto-Indo-Iranian]] times, often associated with the [[Andronovo culture]]; the earliest horse-drawn chariots were found at Andronovo sites in the [[Sintashta-Petrovka]] cultural area near the [[Ural mountains]] and date to ca. 2000 BCE.<ref>{{cite book | last = Drews | first = Robert | title = Early Riders: The beginnings of mounted warfare in Asia and Europe | year = 2004 | publisher = Routledge | location = New York | page = 50}}</ref>
 
=== Yajurveda ===
{{main|Yajurveda}}
The [[Yajurveda|Yajur-Veda]] ("Veda of sacrificial formulas") consists of archaic prose mantras and also in part of verses borrowed and adapted from the Rig-Veda. Its purpose was practical, in that each mantra must accompany an action in sacrifice but, unlike the Sama-Veda, it was compiled to apply to all sacrificial rites, not merely the [[Soma]] offering. There are two major [[recension]]s of this Veda known as the "Black" and "White" Yajur-Veda. The origin and meaning of these designations are not very clear. The White Yajur-Veda contains only the verses and formulas (yajus) necessary for the sacrifice, while their discussion exist in a separate work, the [[Shatapatha]] Brahmana. It differs widely from the Black Yajurveda, which incorporates such discussions in the work itself, often immediately following the verses. Of the Black Yajurveda four major recensions survive (Maitrayani, Katha, Kapisthala-Katha, Taittiriya), all showing by and large the same arrangement, but differing in many other respects, notably in the individual discussion of the rituals but also in matters of phonology, accent, grammatical forms, syntax and choice of words.{{Fact|date=September 2008}}
 
=== Samaveda ===
{{main|Samaveda}}
The [[Samaveda|Sama-Veda]] (Sanskrit '''''{{IAST|sāmaveda}}''''' ) is the "Veda of melodies" or "Knowledge of melodies". The name of this Veda is from the Sanskrit word '''''{{IAST|sāman}}''''' which means a melody applied to metrical hymn or song of praise.<ref>{{Harvnb|Apte|1965|p=981}}.</ref> It consists of 1549 stanzas, taken entirely (except 78) from the Rig-Veda.<ref>{{Harvnb|Michaels|2004|p=51}}.</ref> Like the Rigvedic stanzas in the Yajurveda, the Samans have been changed and adapted for use in singing. Some of the Rig-Veda verses are repeated more than once. Including repetitions, there are a total of 1875 verses numbered in the Sama-Veda recension translated by Griffith.<ref>For 1875 total verses, see numbering given in Ralph T. H. Griffith. Griffith's introduction mentions the recension history for his text. Repetitions may be found by consulting the cross-index in Griffith pp. 491-99.</ref> Two major recensions remain today, the Kauthuma/Ranayaniya and the Jaiminiya.
 
Its purpose was liturgical and practical, to serve as a songbook for the "singer" priests who took part in the liturgy. A priest who sings hymns from the Sama-Veda during a ritual is called an ''{{IAST|udgātṛ}}'', a word derived from the Sanskrit root ''ud-gai'' ("to sing" or "to chant").<ref>{{Harvnb|Apte|1965|p=271}}.</ref> A similar word in English might be "cantor". The styles of chanting are important to the liturgical use of the verses. The hymns were to be sung according to certain fixed melodies; hence the name of the collection.
 
=== Atharvaveda ===
{{main|Atharvaveda}}
The [[Atharvaveda|Artharva-Veda]] is the "Knowledge of the [atharvans] (and Angirasa)". The [[Atharvaveda|Artharva-Veda]] or Atharvangirasa is the text 'belonging to the Atharvan and Angirasa' poets.
Apte defined an ''atharvan'' as a priest who worshipped fire and Soma.<ref>{{Harvnb|Apte|1965|p=37}}.</ref> However, the etymology of Atharvan is unclear, but according to Mayrhofer it is related to Avesta athravan (āθrauuan); he denies any connection with fire priests.<ref>Mayrhofer, [[EWAia]] I.60</ref> Atharvan was an ancient term for a certain [[Rishi]] even in the Rigveda. (The older secondary literature took them as priests who worshipped fire).
 
The {{IAST|Atharva-Veda Saṃhitā}} has 760 hymns, and about 160 of the hymns are in common with the Rig-Veda.<ref>{{Harvnb|Michaels|2004|p=56}}.</ref> Most of the verses are metrical, but some sections are in prose.<ref>{{Harvnb|Michaels|2004|p=56}}.</ref>
 
It was compiled around 900 BCE, although some of its material may go back to the time of the Rig Veda,<ref>{{Harvnb|Flood|1996|p=37}}.</ref> and some parts of the Atharva-Veda are older than the Rig-Veda<ref>{{Harvnb|Michaels|2004|p=56}}.</ref> though not in linguistic form.
 
The Atharvana-Veda is preserved in two recensions, the Paippalāda and Śaunaka.<ref>{{Harvnb|Michaels|2004|p=56}}.</ref> According to Apte it had nine schools (''[[shakha]]s'').<ref>{{Harvnb|Apte|1965|p=37}}.</ref> The Paippalada text, which exists in a Kashmir and an Orissa version, is longer than the Saunaka one; it is only partially printed in its two versions and remains largely untranslated.
 
Unlike the other three Vedas, the Atharvana-Veda has less connection with sacrifice.<ref>{{Harvnb|Flood|1996|p=36}}.</ref><ref>Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and {{IAST|Upaniṣads}}", in: {{Harvnb|Flood|2003|p=76}}.</ref> Its first part consists chiefly of spells and incantations, concerned with protection against demons and disaster, spells for the healing of diseases, for long life and for various desires or aims in life.<ref>{{Harvnb|Radhakrishnan|Moore|1957|p=3}}.</ref><ref>{{Harvnb|Michaels|2004|p=56}}.</ref>
 
The second part of the text contains speculative and philosophical hymns. R. C. Zaehner notes that:
<blockquote>
"The latest of the four Vedas, the Atharva-Veda, is, as we have seen, largely composed of magical texts and charms, but here and there we find cosmological hymns which anticipate the Upanishads, -- hymns to Skambha, the 'Support', who is seen as the first principle which is both the material and efficient cause of the universe, to Prāna, the 'Breath of Life', to Vāc, the 'Word', and so on.<ref>{{Harvnb|Zaehner|1966|p=vii}}.</ref>
</blockquote>
 
In its third section, the Atharvaveda contains Mantras used in marriage and death rituals, as well as those for kingship, female rivals and the Vratya (in Brahmana style prose).
 
Gavin Flood discusses the relatively late acceptance of the Atharva-Veda as follows:
 
<blockquote>
"There were originally only three priests associated with the first three {{IAST|Saṃhitās}}, for the Brahman as overseer of the rites does not appear in the ''{{IAST|Ṛg Veda}}'' and is only incorporated later, thereby showing the acceptance of the ''Atharva Veda'', which had been somewhat distinct from the other {{IAST|Saṃhitās}} and identified with the lower social strata, as being of equal standing with the other texts."<ref>{{Harvnb|Flood|1996|p=42}}.</ref>
</blockquote>
 
==Brahmanas==
{{see|Brahmanas}}
The mystical notions surrounding the concept of the one "Veda" that would flower in [[Vedanta|Vedantic]] philosophy have their roots already in [[Brahmana]] literature, for example in the [[Shatapatha Brahmana]].
The Vedas are identified with [[Brahman]], the universal principle (ŚBM 10.1.1.8, 10.2.4.6). [[Vāc]] "speech" is called the "mother of the Vedas" (ŚBM 6.5.3.4, 10.5.5.1). The knowledge of the Vedas is endless, compared to them, human knowledge is like mere handfuls of dirt ([[Taittiriya Brahmana|TB]] 3.10.11.3-5). The universe itself was originally encapsulated in the three Vedas (ŚBM 10.4.2.22 has [[Prajapati]] reflecting that "truly, all beings are in the triple Veda").
<!--sa aikṣata prajāpatiḥ: trayyāṃ vāva vidyāyāṃ sarvāṇi bhūtāni, hanta, trayom eva
vidyām ātmānam abhisaṃskaravā iti-->
 
==Vedanta==
{{see|Vedanta|Upanishads|Aranyakas}}
While contemporary traditions continued to maintain Vedic ritualism ([[Shrauta]], [[Mimamsa]]), [[Vedanta]] renounced all ritualism and radically re-interpreted the notion of "Veda" in purely philosophical terms.
The association of the three Vedas with the ''bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥ'' mantra is found in the [[Aitareya Aranyaka]]: "''Bhūḥ'' is the Rigveda, ''bhuvaḥ'' is the Yajurveda, ''svaḥ'' is the Samaveda" (1.3.2). The Upanishads reduce the "essence of the Vedas" further, to the syllable [[Aum]] ({{Unicode|ॐ}}). Thus, the [[Katha Upanishad]] has:
:"The goal, which all Vedas declare, which all austerities aim at, and which humans desire when they live a life of continence, I will tell you briefly it is ''Aum''" (1.2.15)<!--
:''{{IAST|sarve vedā yat padam āmananti / tapām̐si sarvāṇi ca yad vadanti / yad icchanto brahmacaryaṃ caranti / tat te padaṃ saṃgraheṇa bravīmy / om ity etat}} //''-->
 
==In post-Vedic literature==
{{see|Parisista}}
=== Vedanga ===
{{main|Vedanga}}
Six technical subjects related to the Vedas are traditionally known as ''{{IAST|vedāṅga}}'' "limbs of the Veda". V. S. Apte defines this group of works as:
<blockquote>
"N. of a certain class of works regarded as auxiliary to the Vedas and designed to aid in the correct pronunciation and interpretation of the text and the right employment of the ''Mantras'' in ceremonials."<ref>{{Harvnb|Apte|1965|p=387}}.</ref>
</blockquote>
 
These subjects are treated in [[Sutra]] literature dating from the end of the Vedic period to [[Mauryan]] times, seeing the transition from late [[Vedic Sanskrit]] to [[Classical Sanskrit]].
 
The six subjects of Vedanga are:
* Phonetics ([[Shiksha|{{IAST|Śikṣā}}]])
* Meter ([[Vedic meter|{{IAST|Chandas}}]])
* Grammar ([[Vyakarana|{{IAST|Vyākaraṇa}}]])
* Etymology ([[Nirukta]])
* Astronomy ([[Jyotisha|{{IAST|Jyotiṣa}}]])
* Ritual ([[Kalpa (Vedanga)|{{IAST|Kalpa}}]])
 
===Supplementary Vedas===
The term '''upaveda''' ("applied knowledge") is used in traditional literature to designate the subjects of certain technical works.<ref>{{Harvnb|Monier-Williams|2006|p=207}}. [http://www.ibiblio.org/sripedia/ebooks/mw/0200/mw__0240.html] Accessed 5 April 2007.</ref><ref>{{Harvnb|Apte|1965|p=293}}.</ref> Lists of what subjects are included in this class differ among sources.
The [[Charanavyuha]] mentions four Upavedas:
 
* Medicine ([[Ayurveda|{{IAST|Āyurveda}}]]), associated with the Rigveda
* Archery ([[Dhanurveda]]), associated with the Yajurveda
* Music and [[classical Indian dance|sacred dance]] ({{IAST|[[Gāndharvaveda]]}}), associated with the Samaveda
* Military science ([[Shastrashastra]]), associated with the Atharvaveda
 
But [[Sushruta]] and [[Bhavaprakasha]] mention Ayurveda as an upaveda of the Atharvaveda. [[Sthapatyaveda]] (architecture), [[Shilpa Shastras]] (arts and crafts) are mentioned as fourth upaveda according to later sources.
 
Some post-Vedic texts, including the [[Mahabharata]], the [[Natyasastra]] and certain [[Purana]]s, refer to themselves as the "[[fifth Veda]]".<ref>{{Harvnb|Sullivan|1994|p=385}}</ref> The earliest reference to such a "fifth Veda" is found in the [[Chandogya Upanishad]]. "[[Dravida Veda]]" is a term for canonical [[Tamil language|Tamil]] [[Bhakti]] texts.{{Fact|date=September 2008}}
 
===Puranas===
A traditional view given in the [[Vishnu Purana]] (likely dating to the [[Gupta period]]<ref>{{Harvnb|Flood|1996|p=111}} dates it to the 4th century CE.</ref>) attributes the current arrangement of four Vedas to the mythical sage [[Vedavyasa]].<ref>Vishnu Purana, translation by Horace Hayman Wilson, 1840, Ch IV, http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/vp/vp078.htm</ref>. Puranic tradition also postulates a single original Veda that, in varying accounts, was divided into three or four parts. According to the [[Vishnu Purana]] (3.2.18, 3.3.4 etc) the original Veda was divided into four parts, and further fragmented into numerous shakhas, by Lord [[Vishnu]] in the form of [[Vyasa]], in the [[Dvapara Yuga]]; the [[Vayu Purana]] (section 60) recounts a similar division by Vyasa, at the urging of [[Brahma]]. The [[Bhagavata Purana]] (12.6.37) traces the origin of the primeval Veda to the syllable [[aum]], and says that it was divided into four at the start of ''Dvapara Yuga'', because men had declined in age, virtue and understanding. In a differing account Bhagavata Purana (9.14.43) attributes the division of the primeval veda (''aum'') into three parts to the monarch [[Pururavas]] at the beginning of [[Treta Yuga]]. The Mahabharata (santiparva 13,088) also mentions the division of the Veda into three in ''Treta Yuga''.<ref>{{harvnb|Muir|1861|pp=20-31}}</ref>
 
==Notes==
{{reflist|3}}
 
==References==
*{{citation |last=Apte |first=Vaman Shivram |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=The Practical Sanskrit Dictionary |year=1965 | edition=4th revised & enlarged |publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |location=Delhi |isbn=81-208-0567-4 }}.
*{{citation |last=Avari |first=Burjor |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=India: The Ancient Past|year=2007 |publisher=Routledge|location=London |isbn= 978-0-415-35616-9}}
*{{citation |last=Flood |first=Gavin |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=An Introduction to Hinduism |year=1996 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |location= |isbn= 0-521-43878-0}}
*{{citation |editor-last=Flood |editor-first=Gavin |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism|year=2003 |publisher=Blackwell|location=Malden, MA|isbn=1-4051-3251-5 }}
*{{citation |last=Holdrege |first=Barbara A. |title=Veda and Torah |year=1995 |publisher= SUNY Press|location= |isbn=0791416399|url= }}
*{{citation |last=MacDonell |first=Arthur Anthony | authorlink = Arthur Anthony Macdonell|title=[[s:A History of Sanskrit Literature|A History of Sanskrit Literature]] |year=2004 |publisher= Kessinger Publishing|location= |isbn=1417906197}}
*{{Citation | last =Michaels | first =Axel | year =2004 | title =Hinduism: Past and Present | publisher =Princeton University Press | isbn =0-691-08953-1}}
* {{Citation | publication-date=2006 | editor-last=Monier-Williams | editor-first=Monier | editor-link=Monier Monier-Williams | title=Monier-Williams Sanskrit Dictionary | publisher=Nataraj Books | isbn=18-81338-58-4}}.
*{{citation |last=Muir |first=John | authorlink=John Muir (indologist)|title=Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and Progress of the Religion and Institutions of India |year=1861 |publisher= Williams and Norgate|url=http://books.google.com/books/pdf/Original_Sanskrit_Texts_on_the_Origin_an.pdf?id=_VCXTBk-PtoC }}
* {{citation |last=Muller |first=Max|authorlink=Max Muller|title=Chips from a German Workshop |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=J8Zo_rtoWAEC|year=1891 |publisher=C. Scribner's sons |location=New York}}.
*{{Citation | editor-last=Radhakrishnan | editor-first=Sarvepalli | editor-link=Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan | editor2-last=Moore | editor2-first=Charles A. | title=A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy | year=1957 | edition=12th Princeton Paperback | publisher=Princeton University Press | isbn=0-691-01958-4}}.
*Smith, Brian K., ''Canonical Authority and Social Classification: Veda and "Varṇa" in Ancient Indian Texts-'', History of Religions, The University of Chicago Press (1992), 103-125.
* {{cite journal |last=Sullivan |first= B. M.|year= 1994 |month= Summer |title=The Religious Authority of the Mahabharata: Vyasa and Brahma in the Hindu Scriptural Tradition |journal=Journal of the American Academy of Religion |volume=62 |issue=1 |pages=377–401 |doi=10.1093/jaarel/LXII.2.377}}
*{{citation |last=Witzel |first=Michael (ed.)| authorlink = Michael Witzel|title=Inside the Texts, Beyond the Texts. New Approaches to the Study of the Vedas |year=1997 |series=Harvard Oriental Series, Opera Minora vol. 2|publisher=Harvard University Press|location = Cambridge}}
* {{citation |last=Zaehner |first=R. C. |authorlink=Robert Charles Zaehner |coauthors= |title=Hindu Scriptures|year=1966 |publisher=Everyman's Library|location=London |isbn= }}
 
==Literature==
;Overviews
*J. Gonda, ''Vedic Literature: {{IAST|Saṃhitās and Brāhmaṇas}}'', A History of Indian literature. Vol. 1, Veda and Upanishads (1975), ISBN 9783447016032.
*J. A. Santucci, ''An Outline of Vedic Literature'' (1976).
*S. Shrava, ''A Comprehensive History of Vedic Literature — Brahmana and Aranyaka Works'', Pranava Prakashan (1977).
 
;Concordances
*M. Bloomfield, ''A Vedic Concordance'' (1907)
*Vishva Bandhu, Bhim Dev, S. Bhaskaran Nair (eds.), ''{{IAST|Vaidika-Padānukrama-Koṣa}}: A Vedic Word-Concordance'', Vishveshvaranand Vedic Research Institute, Hoshiarpur, 1963-1965, revised edition 1973-1976.
 
;Conference proceedings
*Griffiths, Arlo and Houben, Jan E. M. (eds.), ''The Vedas : texts, language & ritual: proceedings of the Third International Vedic Workshop, Leiden 2002'', Groningen Oriental Studies 20, Groningen : Forsten, (2004), ISBN 90-6980-149-3.
 
==See also==
{{commonscat|Vedas}}
*[[Hindu Philosophy]]
*[[Pandit]]
*[[Vedic chant]]
*[[Vedic civilization/EB 1911]]
*[[Shakha]]
 
==External links==
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* [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/index.htm#vedas The Vedas at sacred-texts.com]
* [http://www.comparative-religion.com/hinduism/vedas/ Vedas: Rig, Sama, Yajur, and Artharva]
 
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