බරාක් ඔබාමා "Hope" පෝස්ටරය
බැරක් ඔබාමා "Hope" පෝස්ටරය යනු බැරක් ඔබාමා ගේ පින්තූරයක් යොදා ගනිමින් ශෙපර්ඩ් ෆේරි නම් කලාකරුවා විසින් නිර්මාණය කරන ලද පෝස්ටරයකි. 2008 ඔබාමා ජනාධිපතිවරණ ව්යාපාරය නියෝජනය කළ ප්රබලතම අංගයක් ලෙස මෙම නිර්මාණය සැළකෙයි. තද රතු, ලා දුඹුරු හා (හුණු පැහැ සහ අඳුරු) නිල් යන වර්ණ උපයෝගී කරගෙන ස්ටෙන්සිලයක අධාරයෙන් නිර්මාණය කළ, බැරක් ඔබාමාගේ ප්රතිමූර්තියක් සහිත මෙහි පහළින් "progress", "hope", හෝ "change" යන වචනය (තවත් ප්රතිනිර්මාණයන්හි වෙනත් වචන) යොදා ඇත.
දිනක් තුළ මෙහි සැලසුම නිර්මාණය කෙරුණු අතර පළමුව මුද්රණය කෙරුණේ පෝස්ටරයක් ලෙසිනි. මෙය මුද්රණය කළ විගස ෆේරි විසින් පෝස්ටර 350ක් පමණ අලෙවි කළේය. ආරම්භයේදී තනිව වුවත් ඔබාමාගේ, නිළ ඡන්ද ව්යාපාරයත් සමග 2008 ඡන්ද සමය ඩිජිටල් මෙන්ම වෙනත් මාධ්ය හරහාද එය අධික ලෙස බෙදා හැරුණි. මෙම පින්තුරය ඔබාමාගේ ජනාධිපතිවරණ පණිවිඩයේ විශේෂිත වූ සංඛේතයක් බවට පත් විය. විවිධ වෙනස්කම් සහ අනුකරණයන් සහිතව ලොව පුරා ව්යාප්ත වූ මෙම පින්තුරය පිලිබඳ අධිකාරික බලයක් ඔබාමාගේ ජනාධිපතිවරණ ව්යාපාරය විසින් ලබා ගත්තේය. මෙය ජිම් ෆිට්ස්පැට්රික්ගේ චේ ගුවේරා පෝස්ටරය පින්තුරය මෙන් ඉතා ඉක්මනින් සම්භාවනාවට පාත්ර වූ බවත් ඉදිරි වසරේදී ටී-ෂර්ට්, කෝපි කෝප්ප හා ළමයින්ගේ නිදන කාමර වල බිත්ති අලංකරණයටත් නිසැකවම යොදාගන්නා බවත් ප්රකාශ කිරීමට තරම් ද ගාර්ඩියන් පුවත්පතේ ලෝරා බාර්ටන් පෙළඹවීය.
2009 ජනවාරියේදී ඔබාමාගේ ජනාධිපතිවරණ ජයග්රහණයත් සමග ෆේරි විසින් නිර්මිත මිශ්ර මාධ්යයික, ස්ටෙන්සලීකරණය කරන ලද ඔබාමාගේ ප්රතිමුර්තිය සහිත පින්තූරය ස්මිත්සෝනියන් ආයතනය විසින් එහි ජාතික පිළිරූ ගැලරිය වෙත ලබා ගත්තේය. ෆේරි විසින් මෙම පෝස්ටරය සඳහා පාදක කරගත් ඡායාරූපය පිළිබඳව 2009 ජනවාරි අගදී අනාවරණය විය. එය ඇසෝසියේටඩ් ප්රෙස්හි හිටපු නොබැඳි ඡායාරූප ශිල්පී මැනී ගාර්ෂියා ගන්නා ලද්දකි. In response to claims by the Associated Press for compensation, Fairey sued for a declaratory judgment that his poster was a fair use of the original photograph. The parties settled out of court in January 2011, with details of the settlement remaining confidential.
On February 24, 2012, Fairey pleaded guilty in a New York federal court to destroying and fabricating documents during his legal battle with the Associated Press. Fairey had sued the news service in 2009 after it claimed that the famous poster was based on one of its photos. Fairey claimed that he used a different photograph for the poster. But he admitted that, in fact, he was wrong and tried to hide the error by destroying documents and manufacturing others, which is the source of the one count of criminal contempt to which he pleaded guilty. In September, Fairey was sentenced to two years of probation, 300 hours of community service, and a fine of $25,000.
Concept and design[සංස්කරණය]
Shepard Fairey, who had created earlier political street art critical of government and of George W. Bush, discussed the nascent Obama campaign with publicist Yosi Sergant in late October 2007. Sergant suggested Fairey create some art in support of Obama. Sergant contacted the Obama campaign to seek its permission for Fairey to design an Obama poster, which was granted a few weeks before Super Tuesday. Fairey has said that his decision to create a portrait of Obama stemmed from Fairey's feeling that Obama's "power and sincerity as a speaker would create a positive association with his likeness." Fairey found a photograph of Obama using Google Image Search (eventually revealed to be an April 2006 photo by freelancer Mannie Garcia for The Associated Press) and created the original poster design in a single day. The original image had the word "progress" and featured Fairey's signature obey star—a symbol associated with his Andre the Giant Has a Posse street art campaign—embedded in the Obama campaign's sunrise logo. Due to the Obama campaign’s concerns about the troublesome connotations of the original wording, Fairey changed the slogan printed under Obama’s image from "progress" to "hope."
According to design writer Steven Heller, the poster was inspired by Social Realism and, while widely praised as original and unique, can be seen as part of a long tradition of contemporary artists drawing inspiration from political candidates and producing "posters that break the mold not only in terms of color and style but also in message and tone." Fairey himself has said, "My historical inspiration was the well-known JFK portrait where he is posed in a three-quarters view looking slightly upward and out into the distance. The image of Lincoln on the five- dollar bill has a similar feel."
Distribution during the 2008 campaign[සංස්කරණය]
Fairey began screen-printing posters soon after completing the design and showing it to Yosi Sergant. Initially, he sold 350 and put 350 more up in public. Beginning with that sale and continuing throughout the campaign, Fairey used proceeds from selling the image to produce more of it; after first printing, he made 4,000 more that were distributed at Obama rallies before Super Tuesday. He also put a printable digital version on his website. As Fairey explained in an October 2008 interview, the image quickly went viral, spreading spontaneously through social media and word of mouth.
After the initial 700 posters, the Obama campaign conveyed through Sergant that they wanted to promote the theme of hope, and most of the posters sold by Fairey subsequently had the word "hope" and later "change" instead of "progress"; the obey star was also absent from later versions. By October 2008, Fairey and Sergant claimed to have printed 300,000 posters (with less than 2,000 sold and the rest given away or displayed) and 1,000,000 stickers, as well as clothing and other items with the image sold through Fairey's website, in addition to copies printed by others. According to Fairey and Sergant, proceeds from sales of the image were used to produce more posters and other merchandise in support of the Obama campaign, rather than direct profit for Fairey.
Parodies and imitations[සංස්කරණය]
As the campaign progressed, many parodies and imitations of Fairey's design appeared. For example, one anti-Obama version replaced the word "hope" with "hype", while parody posters featuring opponents Sarah Palin and John McCain had the word "nope". In January 2009 Paste magazine launched a site allowing users to create their own versions of the poster. More than 70,000 images were uploaded to the site in its first two weeks.
Mad magazine parodied the "hope" poster with an "Alfred E. Neuman for President!" poster. Alfred was on the poster, and the word "hope" was replaced with "hopeless". Anti-Gaddafi protesters in Chicago, in solidarity with the 2011 Libyan civil war, have co-opted the image.
Fairey himself was commissioned to create a number of works in the same style. He produced two other versions, based on different photographs, officially on behalf of the Obama campaign, and another to serve as the cover of the Person of the Year issue of Time. He also created a portrait of comedian Stephen Colbert in the same style, which appeared in an issue of Entertainment Weekly honoring Colbert's television show The Colbert Report.
Firas Alkhateeb, the student who designed the controversial Obama "Joker" image, cited Fairey as being his greatest influence. Alkhateeb described the "Joker" image as a corrective to Fairey's glowing portrayal of Obama. Fairey has both criticized and praised the "Joker" poster, stating "The artwork is great in that it gets a point across really quickly", but that "I don't agree with the political content of the poster".
Conservative satire site The People's Cube did designs using words like "Chaos" with an image of Rush Limbaugh ("Operation Chaos"), "Shrugged" with an image of Ayn Rand (as in "Atlas Shrugged") and "Marxism" with an image of Groucho Marx.
The September 2009 issue of The Advocate, America's oldest-continuing LGBT publication, featured a cover image that was similar to Fairey's design. The blue and red coloring was replaced with pink and purple, but instead of "hope", the caption was "nope?". Jon Barrett, the magazine's editor-in-chief, said the cover symbolized frustration among some Democratic members of the LGBT community.
The poster has also been parodied in popular culture. In the Futurama episode "Proposition Infinity," a similar poster of President Richard Nixon can be seen, with the slogan "DESPAIR". In the 2010 movie Megamind, a version of the poster can be seen with Megamind's visage and the caption "NO YOU CAN'T", parodying Obama's campaign slogan "Yes we can". Disney's animated series "Phineas and Ferb" has two episodes, "Nerds of a Feather" and "She's the Mayor", both with Obama's poster parodied with Candace's face. American heavy metal band Five Finger Death Punch has released a version with their mascot and the words "WAR", referring to their then-new album War Is The Answer. In Iron Man 2, Tony Stark receives a similar poster of the Iron Man armor and hangs it in his Malibu garage, much to the displeasure of his assistant and love interest Pepper Potts.
Fairey's adaptation for the occupy movement[සංස්කරණය]
Sympathizing with the occupy movement, in November 2011 Shepard Fairey introduced an imitation of his original "Hope" poster. In the new poster, Obama's face was replaced with the Guy Fawkes mask, and the single word "hope" was replaced by the message "Mister President, we HOPE you're on our side", with the word "HOPE" in large font and the rest of the sentence in small font. The Obama campaign logo on the right was replaced by a similar looking logo with the inscription "We are the 99%".
Acquisition by Smithsonian[සංස්කරණය]
On January 7, 2009, the Smithsonian Institution's National Portrait Gallery announced it had acquired Fairey's hand-finished collage (stencil and acrylic on paper) version of the image (with the word "hope"), which the gallery said would go on display shortly before Obama's inauguration on January 20, 2009. The work was commissioned and later donated by art collectors Heather and Tony Podesta (Tony is the brother of Obama's transition co-chairman John Podesta). It is an unusual acquisition, in that the National Portrait Gallery normally collects official portraits as presidents are leaving office rather than before they take office.
Origin and copyright issues[සංස්කරණය]
|Wikinews has related news: Photo source for Barack Obama presidential campaign "HOPE" poster discovered|
The original source photograph Fairey based the poster on was not publicly known until after Obama had won the election. After a mistaken attribution to Reuters photographer Jim Young for a similar-looking January 2007 photograph, in January 2009 photographer and blogger Tom Gralish discovered that the poster was based on an Associated Press photograph by freelance photographer Mannie Garcia. It was taken at a 2006 media event with Kansas Senator Sam Brownback, where the actor George Clooney was raising awareness of the War in Darfur after a trip to Sudan he had taken with his father.
On February 4, 2009, the Associated Press announced that it determined "that the photograph used in the poster is an AP photo and that its use required permission." In a press release, the AP announced they are in discussions with Fairey's attorney to discuss an amicable solution. Fairey is being represented by Anthony Falzone, executive director of the Fair Use Project at Stanford University. Falzone is quoted in the press release, "We believe fair use protects Shepard's right to do what he did here." Fairey subsequently filed a federal lawsuit against the Associated Press, seeking a declaratory judgment that his use of the AP photograph was protected by the fair use doctrine and so did not infringe their copyright.
On October 16, 2009, Fairey admitted that he had based the poster on the AP photograph and had fabricated and destroyed evidence to hide the fact. Fairey's admission came after one of his employees informed Fairey that he had discovered damning documents on an old hard drive. Realizing that these documents would expose his cover-up attempt, Fairey chose to come clean to his attorney.
Photographer Mannie Garcia contended that he retained copyright to the photo according to his AP contract. He said that he was "so proud of the photograph and that Fairey did what he did artistically with it, and the effect it’s had," but that he did not "condone people taking things, just because they can, off the Internet." Fairey countered that his conduct did not constitute “improper appropriation” because he had not taken any protected expression from Garcia’s original photo. In addition, he claimed his behavior would qualify as a fair use. At trial AP would have to address both arguments.
A judge urged a settlement, stating that AP would win the case. The AP and Shepard Fairey settled out of court in January 2011. In a press release, the AP announced that the AP and Fairey "agreed to work together going forward with the Hope image and share the rights to make the posters and merchandise bearing the Hope image and to collaborate on a series of images that Fairey will create based on AP photographs. The parties have agreed to additional financial terms that will remain confidential."
In a separate criminal action Federal prosecutors have requested prison time and a fine of $3.2 million for Fairey with the government sentencing request stating that “A sentence without any term of imprisonment sends a terrible message to those who might commit the same sort of criminal conduct. Encouraging parties to game the civil litigation system…creates terrible incentives and subverts the truth-finding function of civil litigation.”
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- Mannie Garcia website
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|publisher=(help) The case is Shepard Fairey; Obey Giant Art Inc. v. The Associated Press, No. 09-CV-1123, S.D.N.Y..
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- Itzkoff, Dave (2010-05-29). "Judge Urges Resolution in Use of Obama Photo". New York Times.
- "AP and Shepard Fairey announce agreement in Obama poster case". Associated Press. January 12, 2011.
- Obama - original version from Fairey's website, obeygiant.com
- Fisher III, William W.; Fairey, Shepard; et al. (2012). "Reflections on the Hope Poster Case" (PDF). Harvard Journal of Law & Technology. 25 (2): 243–338. Retrieved 7 December 2012. Explicit use of et al. in:
- Person of the Year Videos: Icon-maker Shepard Fairey - TIME video
- Shepard Fairey Tells Of Inspiration Behind 'HOPE' - October 28, 2008 interview by Farai Chideya on NPR
- Behind Obama's Iconic HOPE Poster by Joshuah Bearman, Huffington Post, November 11, 2008
- Money and the Muse by Ted Hamilton, The Cornell Daily Sun, March 22, 2009
- Artist admits using key AP photo for 'HOPE' poster by NPR