ස්‍රැති (සංගීතය)

විකිපීඩියා, නිදහස් විශ්වකෝෂය වෙතින්
වෙත පනින්න: සංචලනය, සොයන්න
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The shruti (Sanskrit "thing heard", "sound"; also written as śruti) is the smallest interval of the tuning system in Indian classical music.

Shruti types[සංස්කරණය]

Canonically there are 22 shrutis in an octave although systems with more or fewer śruti have been proposed.[තහවුරු​ කරන්න] Here they are given in terms of just intonation, although many authors assume schismatic temperament implicitly.

There are infinite ratios, and therefore kinds of shrutis, in Indian music as there is full freedom; yet the classical values described are

  • Chatuh shruti : 9/8
  • Tri shruti : 10/9
  • Dwi shruti : 16/15
  • Single or Mono shruti (pramana shruti): 81/80.

Furthermore, there are Antar-shruti which give distances between two Swaras (notes):

  1. 2:1 is taken as distance from S to S' (or r to r', R to R', g to g', etc.), and was placed on "4th śruti"
  2. 3:2 is taken as distance from S to P (i.e. fro 1st to 5th tone), and was placed on "17th śruti"
  3. 4:3 is taken as distance from S to m, and was placed on "13th śruti"
  4. 5:4 is taken as distance from S to G, and was placed on "9th śruti"
  5. 6:5 is taken as distance from S to g, and was called teevra in old ages as moving Ga towards Re makes Re shuddha.

Shrutis in Hindustani Music[සංස්කරණය]

The table lists the 22 shrutis canonically defined in Hindustani music, defined as intervals from the swara Shadja. Shadja is assumed to be equivalent to the note Aසැකිල්ල:Music. Their width is given as frequency ratio or in cents. A comparison with intervals in Western music (5-limit tuning) is also provided.

Shruti Equivalent interval
in 5-limit tuning
Swara Note
Name Ratio Cents Name Frequency
(Hz)
Name Frequency in 12-TET
(Hz)
Kshobhini 1 0 Unison Shadja 466.1638 Aසැකිල්ල:Music 466.1638
Tivra 256/243 90 Komal Rishabh 491.1026 B 493.8833
Kumdavati 16/15 112 Minor second 497.2414
Manda 10/9 182 Major second 517.9598 C 523.2512
Chandovati 9/8 204 Shuddha Rishabh 524.4343
Dayavanti 32/27 294 Minor third Komal Gandhar 552.4904 Cසැකිල්ල:Music 554.3653
Ranjani 6/5 316 559.3966
Raktika 5/4 386 Major third Shuddha Gandhar 582.7048 D 587.3296
Rudri 81/64 408 589.9886
Krodhi 4/3 498 Perfect fourth Shuddha Madhyam 621.5517 Dසැකිල්ල:Music 622.2540
Vajrika 27/20 520 629.3211
Prasarini 45/32 590 Augmented fourth Tivra Madhyam 655.5428 E 659.2552
Priti 729/512 612 663.7371
Marjani 3/2 702 Perfect fifth Pancham 699.2457 F 698.4565
Kshiti 128/81 792 Komal Dhaivat 736.6539 Fසැකිල්ල:Music 739.9889
Rakta 8/5 814 Minor sixth 745.8621
Sandipini 5/3 884 Major sixth 776.9397 G 783.9909
Alapini 27/16 906 Shudddha Dhaivat 786.6514
Madni 16/9 996 Minor seventh Komal Nishad 828.7356 Gසැකිල්ල:Music 830.6095
Rohini 9/5 1018 839.0948
Ramya 15/8 1088 Major seventh 874.0571 A 880.0001
Ugra 243/128 1110 Shuddha Nishad 884.9828
Kshobhini 2 1200 Octave Shadja 932.3276 Aසැකිල්ල:Music 932.3276

This table does not reflect contemporary Indian point of view on Srutis in Hindustani music[1].

Further reading[සංස්කරණය]

  • Lentz, Donald A. Tones and Intervals of Hindu Classical Music. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 1961.
  • Deva, B Chaitanya The Music of India: A Scientific Study.
  • Rao, Suvarnalata Acoustical Perspective on Raga Rasa Theory.

References[සංස්කරණය]

  1. Datta, A. K., Sengupta, R., Dey, N. and Nag, D. Experimental Analysis of Shrutis from Performances in Hindustani Music. Kolkata: Scientific Research Department ITC Sangeet Research Academy, 2006.


External links[සංස්කරණය]

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