පුස්තකාල හා විඥාපන විද්යාව
පුස්තකාල හා විඥාපන විද්යාව (LIS) (sometimes in plural: library and information sciences) is a merging of the two fields library science and information science. The phrase "library and information science" is associated with schools of library and information science (abbreviated to "SLIS"), which generally developed from professional training programs (not academic disciplines) to university institutions during the second half of the twentieth century. In the last part of 1960s schools of librarianship began to add the term "information science" to their names. The first school to do this was at the University of Pittsburgh in 1964. More schools followed during the 1970s and 1980s and during the 1990s almost all library schools in the USA had added information science to their names. The trend was more for the adoption of information technology rather than the concept of a science. In other words, schools were using Information Technologies as a given practice, rather than using concepts of a science.
A similar development has taken place in large parts of the world. In Denmark, for example, the 'Royal School of Librarianship' in 1997 changed its English name to The Royal School of Library and Information Science. Another indication of this name shift is that Library Science Abstracts in 1969 changed its name to Library and Information Science Abstracts. In spite of this merge are the two original disciplines (library science and information science) still by some considered as separate fields while the main tendency today is to use the terms as synonyms, but with different connotations.
In some parts of the world the development has been somewhat different. In France, for example, information science and communication studies form one interdiscipline. In Tromsö, Norway documentation science is preferred as the name of the field.
In the beginning of the 21st century one tendency is to drop the term "library" and to speak about information departments or I-schools. There has also been an attempt to revive the concept of documentation and speak of Library, information and documentation studies (or science). Another tendency, for example in Sweden, is to merge the fields of Archival science, Library science and Museology to develop an integrated field: Archival, Library and Museum studies.
Relations between library science, information science and LIS [සංස්කරණය]
Difficulties defining LIS [සංස්කරණය]
Poor terminological hygiene [සංස්කරණය]
A multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary or monodisciplinary field? [සංස්කරණය]
A fragmented adhocracy [සංස්කරණය]
Scattering of the literature [සංස්කරණය]
What is the unique concern of library and information science? [සංස්කරණය]
Theories, approaches and "paradigms" in LIS [සංස්කරණය]
Core journals [සංස්කරණය]
Core conferences [සංස්කරණය]
Common subfields [සංස්කරණය]
- a. Knowledge organization
- b. Library studies
- c. Information architecture
- d. Information behavior
- e. Interactive information retrieval
- f. Information systems
- g. Scholarly communication
- h. Digital literacy (cf information literacy)
- i. Bibliometrics or scientometrics
- j. Interaction design and user experience”
This list of subfields of library and information science is thus one view of which subdisciplines are well-established and is close to a kind of official interpretation of what the most important subfields of LIS are.
There are other ways to identify subfields within LIS, for example bibliometric mapping and comparative studies of curricula. Bibliometric maps of LIS have been produced by, among others, Vickery & Vickery (1987, frontispiece), White & McCain (1998), Åström (2002, 2006  An example of a curriculum study is Kajberg & Lørring, 2005. In this publication are the following data reported (p 234): "Degree of overlap of the ten curricular themes with subject areas in the current curricula of responding LIS schools
- Information seeking and Information retrieval 100%
- Library management and promotion 96%
- Knowledge management 86%
- Knowledge organization 82%
- Information literacy and learning 76%
- Library and society in a historical perspective (Library history) 66%
- The Information society: Barriers to the free access to information 64%
- Cultural heritage and digitisation of the cultural heritage (Digital preservation)62%
- The library in the multi-cultural information society: International and intercultural communication 42%
- Mediation of culture in a special European context 26% "
It is a question, however, whether all these subfields really are subfields of LIS or rather fields that belongs to other fields? Most information retrieval research, for example, belongs to computer science; Knowledge management is considered a subfield of management studies. To the degree that these subfields are not based on research in library and information science, but are based on knowledge imported from other disciplines, they cannot be considered parts of LIS understood as a research based field.
Adjacent fields [සංස්කරණය]
Swedish Library Research, 1993, issue 2-3 (cover) displayed the following adjacent disciplines to Library and information science:
- Social science
- Sociology of literature
- Theory of science
Many more could be mentioned, for example:
- Communication studies
- Cultural studies
- Educational studies
- Legal studies
- Sociology of science
- Visual arts
How do we decide which fields are important adjacent fields? We have to make a distinction between which fields have actually been most used and cited in LIS on the one hand and on the other hand which fields are most important from a normative point of view (important fields may have been neglected because nobody in LIS has so far mastered them). In the end is the question of adjacent fields dependent on a theory of LIS: unless we have a some kind of consensus how such a theory might look like, the question of adjacent fields can only be illuminated by historical and bibliometric studies of the relation between LIS and other disciplines.
See also [සංස්කරණය]
- Archival science
- Documentation science
- Education for librarianship
- Glossary of library and information science
- Informatics (academic field)
- Information history
- Information management
- Information systems
- Knowledge management
- Library and information scientist
- Museum informatics
Hjørland, B. (2000). Library and Information Science: Practice, theory, and philosophical basis. Information Processing and Management, 36(3), 501-531.
Järvelin, K. & Vakkari, P. (1993). The Evolution of Library and Information Science 1965-1985: A Content Analysis of Journal Articles. Information Processing & Management, 29(1), 129-144.
Kajberg, L. (1992). Library and Information Science Research in Denmark 1965-1989: A Content Analysis of R&D Publications. IN: Teknologi och kompetens. Proceedings. 8:de Nordiska konferencen för Information och Dokumentation 19-21/5 1992 i Helsingborg. Stockholm: Tekniska Litteratursällskapet, 233-237.
McNicol, S. (2003). LIS: The Interdisciplinary Research Landscape. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 35(1), 23-30.
McClure, C. R. & Hernon, P. (eds.). (1991). Library and Information Science Research: Perspectives and Strategies for Improvement. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex.
Åström, Fredrik (2008). Formalizing a discipline: The institutionalization of library and information science research in the Nordic countries", Journal of Documentation, Vol. 64 Iss: 5, 721 - 737.
- Bates, M.J. and Maack, M.N. (eds.). (2010). Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences. Vol. 1-7. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA. Also available as an electronic source.
- Library and Information Sciences is name used in Dewey Decimal Classification for class 20 from 18th. edition (1971) to 22th edition (2003).
- Galvin, T. J. (1977). Pittsburgh. University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Library and Information Sciences. IN: Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science (Vol. 22). Ed. by A. Kent, H. Lancour & J.E.Daily. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. (pp. 280–291)
- Documentation of the nameshift: http://www.mendeley.com/research/library-information-science-abstracts-first-two-years/
- Saracevic, Tefko (1992). Information science: origin, evolution and relations. In: Conceptions of library and information science. Historical, empirical and theoretical perspectives. Edited by Pertti Vakkari & Blaise Cronin. London: Taylor Graham (pp. 5-27).
- Miksa, Francis L. (1992). Library and information science: two paradigms. In: In: Conceptions of library and information science. Historical, empirical and theoretical perspectives. Edited by Pertti Vakkari & Blaise Cronin. London: Taylor Graham (pp. 229-252).
- Mucchielli, A., (2000), La nouvelle communication : épistémologie des sciences de l’informationcommunication. Paris, Armand Colin, 2000. Collection U. Sciences de la communication
- Rayward, W. B. (Ed.) (2004). Aware and responsible. Papers of the Nordic- International Colloquium on Social and Cultural Awareness and responsibility in Library, Information, and Documentation Studies (SCARLID). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.
- Vickery, Brian & Vickery, Alina (1987). Information science in theory and practice. London: Bowker-Saur.
- White, H. D., & McCain, K. W. (1998). Visualizing a discipline: An author co-citation analysis of information science, 1972-1995. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 49(4), 327-355.
- Åström, Fredrik (2002) Visualizing Library and Information Science concept spaces through keyword and citation based maps and clusters. In: Bruce, Fidel, Ingwersen & Vakkari (Eds.). Emerging frameworks and methods: Proceedings of the fourth international conference on conceptions of Library and Information Science (CoLIS4), pp 185-197. Greenwood Village: Libraries unlimited.
Astromනමැති ආශ්රේයන් සඳහා කිසිදු පෙළක් සපයා නොතිබුණි
උපන්යාස දෝෂය: අනීතික
- Kajberg, Leif & Lørring, Leif (eds.). (2005). European Curriculum Reflections on Library and Information Science Education. Copenhagen: The Royal School of Library and Information Science. http://library.upt.ro/LIS_Bologna.pdf