පුස්තකාලයාධිපති

විකිපීඩියා, නිදහස් විශ්වකෝෂය වෙතින්
වෙත පනින්න: සංචලනය, සොයන්න
The Librarian, a 1556 painting by Giuseppe Arcimboldo

A librarian is an information professional trained in library and information science, which is the organization and management of information services or materials for those with information needs. Typically, librarians work in a public or college library, an elementary or secondary school media center, a library within a business or company, or another information-provision agency like a hospital or law firm. Some librarians are independent entrepreneurs working as information specialists, catalogers, indexers and other professional, specialized capacities. Librarians may be categorized as a public, school, correctional, special, independent or academic librarian.

Outline, requirements and positions[සංස්කරණය]

Traditionally, librarians have been associated with collections of books, as demonstrated by the etymology of the word "librarian" (< Latin liber, 'book'). However, modern librarians deal with information in many formats, including books, magazines, newspapers, audio recordings (both musical and spoken-word), video recordings, maps, manuscripts, photographs and other graphic material, bibliographic databases, web searching, and digital resources. Librarians often provide other information services, including computer provision and training, coordination of public programs, basic literacy education, assistive equipment for people with disabilities, and help with finding and using community resources.

Librarian roles and duties[සංස්කරණය]

Specific duties vary depending on the size and type of library. Olivia Crosby described librarians as "Information experts in the information age".[1] Most librarians spend their time working in one of the following areas of a library:

  • Public service librarians work with the public, frequently at the reference desk of lending libraries. Some specialize in serving adults or children. Children's librarians provide appropriate material for children at all age levels, include pre-readers, conduct specialized programs and work with the children (and often their parents) to help foster interest and competence in the young reader. (In larger libraries, some specialize in teen services, periodicals, or other special collections.)
  • Reference or research librarians help people doing research to find the information they need, through a structured conversation called a reference interview. The help may take the form of research on a specific question, providing direction on the use of databases and other electronic information resources; obtaining specialized materials from other sources; or providing access to and care of delicate or expensive materials. These services are sometimes provided by other library staff that have been given a certain amount of special training; some have criticized this trend.[2]
  • Technical service librarians work "behind the scenes" ordering library materials and database subscriptions, computers and other equipment, and supervise the cataloging and physical processing of new materials.
  • Collections development librarians monitor the selection of books and electronic resources. Large libraries often use approval plans, which involve the librarian for a specific subject creating a profile that allows publishers to send relevant books to the library without any additional vetting. Librarians can then see those books when they arrive and decide if they will become part of the collection or not. All collections librarians also have a certain amount of funding to allow them to purchase books and materials that don't arrive via approval.
  • Archivists can be specialized librarians who deal with archival materials, such as manuscripts, documents and records, though this varies from country to country, and there are other routes to the archival profession.
  • Systems Librarians develop, troubleshoot and maintain library systems, including the library catalog and related systems.
  • Electronic Resources Librarians manage the databases that libraries license from third-party vendors.
  • School Librarians work in school libraries and perform duties as teachers, information technology specialists, and advocates for literacy.
  • A Young Adult or YA librarian serves patrons who are between 12 and 18 years old. Young adults are those patrons that look to library services to give them direction and guidance toward recreation, education, and emancipation. A young adult librarian could work in several different institutions; one might be a school library/media teacher, a member of a public library team, or a librarian in a penal institution. Licensing for library/media teacher includes a Bachelor or Master of Arts in Teaching and additional higher-level course work in library science. YA librarians who work in public libraries usually have a Master's degree in Library and/or Information Science (MLIS), relevant work experience, or a related credential. [3]
  • "Media Specialists" teach students to find and analyze information, purchase books and other resources for the school library, supervise library assistants, and are responsible for all aspects of running the library/media center. Both LMTs Library Media Teachers and YA public librarians order books and other materials that will interest their young adult patrons. They also must help YAs find relevant and authoritative Internet resources. Helping this age group to become life-long learners and readers is a main objective of professionals in this library specialty.
  • Outreach Librarians are charged with providing library and information services for underrepresented groups, such as people with disabilities, low income neighborhoods, home bound adults and seniors, incarcerated and ex-offenders, and homeless and rural communities. In academic libraries, outreach librarians might focus on high school students, transfer students, first-generation college students, and minorities.
  • Instruction Librarians teach information literacy skills in face-to-face classes and/or through the creation of online learning objects. They instruct library users on how to find, evaluate and use information effectively. They are most common in academic libraries.

Experienced librarians may take administrative positions such as library or information center director. Similar to the management of any other organization, they are concerned with the long-term planning of the library, and its relationship with its parent organization (the city or county for a public library, the college/university for an academic library, or the organization served by a special library). In smaller or specialized libraries, librarians typically perform a wide range of the different duties.

Salaries and benefits have improved somewhat in recent years, even in an era of budget tightening and reductions in operating expenses at many libraries. They can vary considerably depending upon the geographic region, the level of funding and support (it is usually better in major academic libraries and government facilities than it is in inner-city school or public libraries), the type of library (a small public or school library versus a large government or academic library), and the position (a beginning librarian versus a department head). Starting salaries at small public libraries can range from $20,000-$25,000; high profile positions like director or department head can approach or exceed $100,000 at major academic and large government libraries and some public libraries. Librarians who are paid faculty salaries at a major university (especially if they have a second academic degree), who have an education degree at a school library, who are in administration at a library, or who are in a government library post tend to have higher incomes, especially with experience and better language and technical skills. Despite this, librarians are still wrongly perceived as low-level pink collar professionals. In reality, the technical competencies and information-seeking skills needed for the job are becoming increasingly important and are relevant to the contemporary economy, and such positions are thus becoming more prominent.

Representative examples of librarian responsibilities:

  • Researching topics of interest for their constituencies.
  • Referring patrons to other community organizations and government offices.
  • Suggesting appropriate books ("readers' advisory") for children of different reading levels, and recommending novels for recreational reading.
  • Facilitating and promoting reading clubs.
  • Developing programs for library users of all ages and backgrounds.
  • Managing access to electronic information resources.
  • Building collections to respond to changing community needs or demands
  • Writing grants to gain funding for expanded program or collections
  • Digitizing collections for online access
  • Answering incoming reference questions via telephone, postal mail, email, fax, and chat
  • Making and enforcing computer appointments on the public access Internet computers.[4]

Workplaces[සංස්කරණය]

Southwest Collections / Special Collections Library at Texas Tech, a university in the United States

Basic categories of workplace settings for librarians are routinely classified around the world as: public, academic, school, and special. Some librarians will start and operate their own business. They often call themselves information brokers, research specialists, knowledge management, competitive intelligence or independent information professionals. Below are the basic differences between the types of libraries.

Public library: These institutions are created through legislation within the jurisdiction they serve. Accordingly, they are given certain benefits, such as taxpayer funding, but must adhere to service standards and meet a wide group of client needs. They are usually overseen by a board of directors or library commission from the community. Mission statements, service and collection policies are the fundamental administrative features of public libraries. Occasionally private lending libraries serve the public in the manner of public libraries. In the United States, public librarians and public libraries are represented by the Public Library Association.[5] Public library staffing is structured in response to community needs. Libraries bridge traditional divisions between technical and public services positions by adopting new technologies such as mobile library services and reconfigure organizations depending on the local situation.[6]

Academic library: is a library that is an integral part of a college, university, or other institution of postsecondary education, administered to meet the information and research needs of its students, faculty, and staff. In the United States, the professional association for academic libraries and librarians is the Association of College and Research Libraries.[7] Depending upon the institution, the library may serve a particular faculty or the entire institution. Many different types, sizes, and collections are found in academic libraries and some academic librarians are specialists in these collections and archives. A university librarian, or chief librarian, is responsible for the library within the college structure, and may also be called the Dean of Libraries. Some post-secondary institutions treat librarians as faculty, and they may be called professor or other academic ranks, which may or may not increase their salary and benefits. Some universities make similar demands of academic librarians for research and professional service as are required of faculty. Academic librarians administer various levels of service and privilege to faculty, students, alumni and the public.

School library media center: Libraries which exclusively serve the needs of a public or private school. The primary purpose is to support the students, teachers, and curriculum of the school or school district. In addition to library administration, certificated teacher-librarians instruct individual students, groups and classes, and faculty in effective research methods, often referred to as information literacy skills. Audio-visual equipment service and/or textbook circulation may also be included in a school librarian's responsibilities. Often, teacher-librarians are qualified teachers who take academic courses for school library certification and/or earn a Master's degree in Library Science.

Special library: News, law, medical, government, nongovernmental organization, prison, corporate, museum or any other type of library owned and operated by an organization are considered as special library. They can be highly specialized, serving a discrete user group with a restricted collection area. In an increasingly global and virtual workplace, many special librarians may not even work in a library at all but instead manage and facilitate the use of electronic collections. Funding for special libraries varies widely. Librarians in some types of special libraries may be required to have additional training, such as a law degree for a librarian in an academic law library or appropriate subject degrees for subject specialties such as chemistry, engineering, etc. Many belong to the Special Libraries Association.[8] There are also more specific associations such as the American Association of Law Libraries,[9] Art Libraries Society of North America,[10] the Medical Library Association,[11] or the Visual Resources Association.[12]

Education[සංස්කරණය]

The US and Canada[සංස්කරණය]

In the United States and Canada, a librarian might have a one or two-year (more common) master's degree in library and information science, library science or information science (called an MLS, MALIS, MSLS, MIS, MSIS, MS-LIS, MISt, MLIS, or MILS) from an accredited university.[1] These degrees are accredited by the American Library Association and can have specializations within fields such as archiving, records management, information architecture, public librarianship, medical librarianship, law librarianship, special librarianship, academic librarianship, or school (K-12) librarianship. School librarians often are required to have a teaching credential, as well as a library science degree. Many, if not most, academic librarians also have a second, subject-based master's degree. This is especially true of four year colleges.

Europe[සංස්කරණය]

In the UK and some other countries, a librarian can have a three- or four-year bachelor's degree in library and information studies or information science; separate master's degrees in librarianship, archive management, and records management are also available. In the United Kingdom, these degrees are accredited by the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals and the Society of Archivists.[13] In Germany and some other countries, the first step for an academic librarian is a PhD in a subject field, followed by additional training in librarianship.

Australia[සංස්කරණය]

In Australia, a professional librarian must meet the requirements set out by the Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA). There are three ways in which these requirements can be met: the individual must obtain an ALIA-recognized bachelor degree in library and information studies, complete a first degree in any discipline followed by an ALIA-recognized postgraduate diploma or masters course, or gain an ALIA-recognized library technician qualifications (undertaken at a Technical and Further Education(TAFE) college/institute followed by an ALIA-recognized bachelor degree in library and information studies.[14] ALIA is responsible for accreditation of library specific qualifications for both librarians and library technicians. Professional Australian teacher-librarians require slightly different qualifications. In addition to having a degree that meets ALIA's accreditation process, teacher librarians must also hold recognized teaching qualifications.[15]

Advanced degrees[සංස්කරණය]

It is also possible to earn a doctorate in library and information science. Graduates with PhDs usually become teaching faculty in schools of library and information science, or sometimes occupy the directorship or deanship of university libraries. Those undertaking research at the doctoral level can pursue a very wide range of interests including information technology, government information policy, social research into information use among particular segments of society, information in organizations and corporate settings, and the history of books and printing.

It is common in academic and other research libraries to require the librarians to obtain Master's degrees in some academic subject, sometimes but not necessarily related to their professional responsibilities; in major research libraries, some of the librarians will hold Ph. D degrees in subject fields.

Other advanced degrees often taken in conjunction with a degree in librarianship are law, management, health administration or public administration.

Library-related positions[සංස්කරණය]

Library associates, library technicians, and library assistants often have college diplomas but usually do not hold library-related degrees. Occasionally they also hold undergraduate or graduate degrees in other disciplines. These workers, sometimes referred to as para-professionals, perform duties such as database management, library cataloging, ready reference, and serials and monograph processing.

Professional organizations and activities[සංස්කරණය]

Presenters and recipients of the New York Times-Carnegie Corporation of New York I Love My Librarian awards, presented in association with the American Library Association

The two largest library associations in the United States are the American Library Association (ALA) and the Special Libraries Association.[8] YALSA The Young Adult Library Services Association serves Young Adult librarians, and is part of the American Library Association. Many U.S. states have their own library association as well. Librarians may also join such organizations as the Association of College and Research Libraries[16] and the Public Library Association[17] and the Art Libraries Society.[18] The Canadian Library Association serves Canada and there are provincial associations as well, such as the Ontario Library Association. In the United Kingdom, the professional body for Librarians is the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals[19] (formerly known as the Library Association). The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA)[20] represents the interests of libraries and librarians internationally. (See also the List of Library Associations.)

Recent issues of concern for U.S. libraries include implementation of the Patriot Act and the Children's Internet Protection Act. Many librarians around the world share American librarians' concern over ethical issues surrounding censorship and privacy. Some librarians join activist organizations like the UK-based Information for Social Change[21] and the North American-based Progressive Librarians Guild.[22] Within the American Library Association (ALA), some also join the Social Responsibilities Round Table.[23] SRRT came into being amid the social ferment of the 1960s and is often critical of the American Library Association for not living up to its professed ideals. Another important activist organization is the Social Responsibilities Special Interest Section[24] of the American Association of Law Libraries (AALL).[25] These activist organizations are viewed as controversial by some librarians, while others view them as a natural extension and outgrowth of their own deeply-held library ethics.

Technology in libraries[සංස්කරණය]

The increasing role of technology in libraries has a significant impact on the changing roles of librarians. New technologies are dramatically increasing the accessibility of information, and librarians are adapting to the evolving needs of users that emerge from the adoption of these new technologies.

The most significant example of how technology has changed the role of librarians in the last 50 years has been the move from traditional card catalogs to online public access catalogs (OPACs).[තහවුරු​ කරන්න] Librarians had to develop software and the MARC standards for cataloguing records electronically. They had to purchase and run the computers necessary to use the software. They had to teach the public how to use the new technologies and move to more virtual working environments.

The same could be said of other technology developments, from electronic databases (including the Internet), to logistical functions such as bar codes (or in the near future RFID). Many librarians provide virtual reference services (via web-based chat, instant messaging, text messaging, and e-mail), work in digitizing initiatives for works in the public domain, teach information literacy and technology classes to their users, and work on the development of information architectures for improving access and search functionality. These examples illustrate some of the ways in which librarians are using technology to fulfill and expand upon their historical roles.

Librarians must continually adapt to new formats for information, such as electronic journals and e-books, which present both challenges and opportunities in providing access and promoting them to library patrons.

Increasing technological advance has presented the possibility of automating some aspects of traditional libraries. In 2004 a group of researchers in ස්පාඤ්ඤය developed the UJI Online Robot. This robot is able to navigate the library, look for the specified book, and upon its discovery, carefully take it from the shelf and deliver it to the user.[තහවුරු​ කරන්න] Because of the robot's extremely limited function, its introduction into libraries poses little risk of the employment of librarians, whose duties are not defined by menial tasks such as the retrieval of books.

Librarians in popular culture[සංස්කරණය]

Stereotypes of librarians in popular culture are frequently negative: librarians are portrayed as puritanical, punitive, unattractive, and introverted if female, or timid, unattractive, and effeminate if male. The librarian is in charge of a library just as a principal is in charge of a school or a pastor is in charge of a church.

Examples of librarians in pop culture include:

  • In the Discworld book series by Terry Pratchett there is a librarian who has been magically turned into an orangutan. In these stories, librarians frequently have supernatural powers related to books and library work, including access to a form of hyperspace known as L-Space.[26]
  • "Weird Al" Yankovic plays Conan the Librarian, in a brief segment of the 1989 film UHF.
  • On the May 24, 2007 episode of the Colbert Report, Colbert interviewed Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales. During the interview, he showed on the screen the statement "Librarians are hiding something" and asked Wales how he would stop or prevent vandalism to Wikipedia based on that statement.
  • Space Marine Librarians are characters from the collectible miniatures game Warhammer 40,000 ; these superhuman fighters come equipped with potent psychic powers, rather than just being deskbound intellects. Wielding force staffs and psychic abilities, they are found on the battlefield battling alongside their non-psychic battle brothers delivering justice to the Emperor's enemies, while at the same time advising the Space Marine Commander.

See also[සංස්කරණය]

References[සංස්කරණය]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Become a Librarian!". Central Jersey Regional Library Cooperative. http://www.becomealibrarian.org. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය 2008-09-01. 
  2. McKinzie, Steve (October 2002). "For Ethical Reference, Pare the Paraprofessionals". American Libraries 33 (9): 42. 
  3. "YALSA". http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/yalsa/profdev/recruitment/recruitment.cfm. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය April 1, 2011. 
  4. "The librarian's Internet survival guide: strategies for the high-tech reference desk", Irene E. McDermott, Barbara E. Quint, p. 1-2, Information Today, ISBN157387129
  5. "Public Library Association". American Library Association. http://www.pla.org/ala/pla/pla.htm. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය 2008-09-01. 
  6. McCook, Kathleen de la Peña (2011). Introduction to Public Librarianship. ISBN 978-1-55570-697-5. 
  7. Reitz, Joan M. (1998). Dictionary for Library and Information Science. Englewood, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited. pp. 4. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Special Libraries Association". http://www.sla.org/. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය 2008-09-01. 
  9. "The American Association of Law Libraries". http://www.aallnet.org. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය 2008-09-01. 
  10. "Art Libraries Society of North America". http://www.arlisna.org. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය 2008-09-01. 
  11. "Medical Library Association". http://www.mlanet.org. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය 2008-09-01. 
  12. "Visual Resources Association - The International Association of Image Media Professionals". http://www.vraweb.org. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය 2008-09-01. 
  13. "Society of Archivists". http://www.archives.org.uk/. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය 2008-09-01. 
  14. "Librarian". Australian Library and Information Association. 2006-08-10. http://www.alia.org.au/education/qualifications/librarian.html. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය 2008-09-01. 
  15. "Teacher-Librarian". Australian Library and Information Association. 2008-06-24. http://www.alia.org.au/education/qualifications/teacher.librarian.html. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය 2008-09-01. 
  16. "ACRL". ACRL. http://www.acrl.org. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය 2010-04-24. 
  17. Ala | Pla[dead link]
  18. "Art Libraries Society of North America". Arlisna.org. http://www.arlisna.org. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය 2010-04-24. 
  19. "The Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals". CILIP. http://www.cilip.org.uk. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය 2010-04-24. 
  20. "The official website of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions". IFLA. http://www.ifla.org/. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය 2010-04-24. 
  21. "Information for Social Change Journal (ISC)". Libr.org. http://www.libr.org/isc. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය 2010-04-24. 
  22. "Progressive Librarians Guild". Libr.org. 2010-03-01. http://www.libr.org/plg. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය 2010-04-24. 
  23. "Srrt - Ala". Libr.org. http://www.libr.org/srrt. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය 2010-04-24. 
  24. "AALL, Social Responsibilities SIS Home Page". Aallnet.org. http://www.aallnet.org/sis/srsis/. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය 2010-04-24. 
  25. "The American Association of Law Libraries". Aallnet.org. 2010-04-06. http://www.aallnet.org/. සම්ප්‍රවේශය කෙරුණු දිනය 2010-04-24. 
  26. What is Lspace?

External links[සංස්කරණය]

"http://si.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=පුස්තකාලයාධිපති&oldid=284583" වෙතින් සම්ප්‍රවේශනය කෙරිණි